The author are of the opinion that, for the human two-footed upright walking, the bending (grasping) reflex movement of the sole must be developed. Considering the fact that the formation of the big-toe angle appears in the process of getting skilled in the bending (grasping) reflex movement, the author collected the sole replicas from 1, 546 schoolchildren, and observed them continuously; the author studied the relation of the said movement to the bodily growth and the big-toe angle and obtained the following results. 1) The formation of the big-toe angle is related to the bending (grasping) reflex movement of the big-toe and the second toe, and is accelerated by the development of the movement in the childhood up to the 4th grade in primary school (11 years of age). 2) The appearance of the big-toe angle is influenced by the height and weight of a child, but the relation was not so clear in the male. 3) The Rohrer's index is stable in the 3rd and the 4th grades in primary school both in the male and the female, and during the period the formation of the big-toe angle differs by sex. 4) Among the factors contributing to the formation of the big-toe angle, the body weight is the largest; the big-toe angle will appear when the body weight is beyond the weight-supporting capacity of the sole: that is, the increase of the weight-loading in the unit sole area (1 cm2) causes the formation of the big-toe angle. From the above results, it is pointed out that the big-toe angle closely relates to the increase of the body weight. In the female, the relation is especially clear and the formation of the angle increases the weight-loading capacity of the sole; in the male the foot is strengthened by the increase of the physical strength, and thus the relation is not so clear.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors relating to hypertension and the management of hypertension in juvenile populations. A cardiovascular health survey was conducted among 12, 000 university students in Saitama Prefecture. This report is based on the findings of the survey. The results are as follows: 1. The distribution curves for this population, for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, are similar to the Gauss distribution curve. The distribution curves for the seniors, for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, shift to the left, as compared with the curves of the freshmen. 2. Using data obtained in the follow-up survey, the blood pressure of incoming freshmen was correlated with blood pressure in the senior year. Of the students who were in the hypertensive group as freshmen, 35% were still categorized as hypertensive in their senior year. This statistic suggests the possibility that high blood pressure may be fixed from an early stage. 3. ECG findings for 18 year old university students were interpreted, and the frequency distributions were compared with those of junior and senior high school students, and adult populations, as established by the Minnesota code criteria. ECG findings for our population were intermediate in value. 4. According to the mean and standard deviation of the SBP and the DBP, the subjects were classified into 4 groups for examination of distinguishing characteristics. The groups are the hypertensive group (2 SD or more above the mean); borderline hypertensive group (between 1 and 2 SD above the mean); normotensive group (within mean plus or minus 1 SD); hypotensive group (more than 1 SD below the mean). i. In terms of body weight, the Body Mass Index of the hypertensive group is high when compared to the other groups. ii. There is a high frequency of hypertension in the family histories of the hypertensive group. iii. We discovered in ECG diagnosis that the hypertensive group and the borderline hypertensive group showed 1-high voltage and ST-T change more often than the normotensive and the hypotensive groups. 5. In the third year follow up study, we compared the group which maintained high blood pressure with the group which maintained a normotensive status. We found a high frequency of hypertension in the family histories of the hypertensive group. The students in this hypertensive group tended to be overweight both as freshmen, and, at the time of the follow up study, as juniors. This hypertensive group also showed 1-high voltage and ST-T change readings more often.