The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that influence the regional difference in the number of nursing staff (nurses and assistant nurses). We analyzed the following data: the data of number of nurses, assistant nurses, midwives, public health nurses, doctors, sickbeds, population density, rate of persons over 65 ages (aged persons), of each prefecture in 1930, 1960, 1990 and 1996, and the demand and supply of nursing staff in 1991.Okinawa prefecture was excluded from the analysis because some data were incomplete. The conclusions are as follows.1. In 1930 and 1960 when the supply of the nursing staff was insufficient, the nursing staff tends to work in the big city bloc to meet demand for the necessary minimum. In 1990 and 1996 when the supply of the nursing staff became adequate, many nursing staff moved to the areas where the rate of aged persons was high.2. In all four period analyzed, the number of sickbeds of the hospitals was a more significant factor to decide the regional difference than the number of doctors.3. The rate of assistant nurses in nursing staff positively correlated with the rate of the aged persons. In areas where many hospitals did advanced medical treatment and medical education, the rate of assistant nurses in nursing staff was low.4. It was thought that the nurses tend to decide the place to work based on the birthplace and the economical aspects of living.
In recent years, it has been reported that many persons with a history of poliomyelitis developed secondary worsening referred to as ?gpost-polio syndrome (PPS)". We conducted a crosssectiona survey to evaluate the actual condition of postpolio individuals in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the quality of social participation of post-polio persons and the relationship between social participation and other factors, especially secondary worsening. A selfreport inventory was delivered to 1, 385 postpolio persons at 13 healthcare organizations and one self-help group. They were asked to provide information regarding social participation, secondary worsening, symptoms, Activities of Daily Living (ADL). To evaluate social participation we used six categories defined as "survival roles" in the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH-1). The categories were orientation, physical independence, mobility, occupation, social integration and economic selfsufficiency. Six hundred sixty-two of 1, 385 individuals responded (response rate; 47.8%). We found that a high percentage of subjects experienced the difficulties in five categories of social participation, not including orientation. Particularly in the category of occupation, appropriately 80% of the responders experienced the difficulties. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that ADL, years from onset, and secondary worsening all affected social participation.
Filipinos in Nagano Prefecture were examined to clarify their living and health condition in 1998 through the Catholic network system since their living and health conditions, were unclear, although most of them worked with relation to the Olympic games. Fifty-five men and sixtyfive women participated in this study. Health status was examined by questionnaires. Subjective symptoms such as tachycardia, stiff shoulder, frequency of urination, headache and dropping something from hands were found to be markedly higher in women than in men. Mental health status was examined by self-rating depression scale. The score was 50.8 in men and 47.6 in women, with these values higher than those of Japanese. No simple relationship was shown between this score and staying duration or income. When a general linear model procedure was performed as a multivariate analysis, a significant relationship was shown between this score and income, while other variables such as age, living with family and staying duration were not associated with this score. It is suggested in the present study that staying in Japan with lower income is the major cause inducing mental stress for Filipino. Further studies will certainly be needed to clarify the other factors of their mental stress and a counseling system should be established sooner to reduce their mental stress.
It has been pointed out that desired family size and contraceptive prevalence are most important in considering proximate determinants of fertility. The former was much reported from many surveys, but the later was little reported. This study attempted to estimate the parameter in relation to contraceptive prevalence in Bangladesh, using the simulation model developed in the previous study. The parameters in the model were estimated from abridged life table and DHS (Demographic and Health Survey) in 1993. The parameter settings estimated form the empiricaldata were divided into two groups by the area of residence, i.e. rural and urban. Results showed that the simulation model developed in the previous study closely matched observed data in Bangladesh in rural and urban area. From the results of comparing the simulation-generated data with empirical data, it was shown that the model could estimate the unknown rate of contraception practice when married couple reached the desired family size.