In diesem Aufsatz untersuche ich Hegels Begriff der Objektivität über Kunstwerk in
den Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Kunst. Hegel kritisiert, dass in modernen
Kunstwerken die Objektivität verloren wird, und nennt diese Neigung den „Humor“.
Aber er behauptet zugleich, dass einige Kunstwerke zwar humoristische sind, aber sie
die Objektivität wiedererlangen. Jüngere Studien versuchten diese Objektivität nur
auf Eigenschaft des Goethes Divan zu begründen, denn dieses Kunstwerk ist einzige
Beispiel des „objektiven Humor“ in den Vorlesungen über die Philosophie. Hegel
bestimmt aber diese Objektivität als die Gemeinsamkeit in seiner anderen Abhandlung.
Der Begriff der Objektivität soll also entwickelt werden.
Diese Objektivität wird durch die Phantasie des Künstlers aufgrund der substanziellen
Empfindung dargestellt, und durch die Phantasie des Lesers oder Hörers eingenommen.
Diese These wird durch die Bestimmungen der Empfindung und der Phantasie in der
Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften ergänzt. Aus meinem Aufsatz
können drei Erfolge erzeugt werden. Erstens, in dieser Bestimmung der Objektivität
kehrt Hegel nach seine Hauptbestimmung der Kunst überhaupt zurück. Zweitens, sein
Konzept der Phantasie hat Ähnlichkeit mit Schellings Konzept der Einbildungskraft.
Drittens, seine Theorie erfordert, dass Zuschauer sich selbst in Kunstwerk finden. Es
wird aber durch nicht klar Verstanden sondern unentschiedene Weise erreicht.
Britain has a unique art education history, which is very different from that of the
Continent. Major European nations established their art academies as state-funded
schools focusing on fine art. In contrast, the British Parliament authorized the formal
establishment of the Government School of Design (renamed as the National Art
Training School in 1863, now the Royal College of Art) in 1837. It aimed to uplift the
artistic quality of manufactures and to provide “design” education for British workers.
The school elaborated the pioneering educational system, called the “South Kensington
system”, in the latter half of the 19 th century.
However, the school had been considered ill-managed and failed among Victorians.
Also, former studies have negatively evaluated the school which did not envisage
creativity for students. Casting a light on the autonomy of design as a new genre,
this article shows the new clue to reconsider the problems, by focusing on the
transformation made on the word “design”. The author examines how the school
differentiated its education from the Royal Academy. Finally, this paper re-examines
the significance of design education in the Government School of Design through the
criticisms by Christopher Dresser (1834-1904) who improved the instructional method.
This paper examines the description in the first volume of John Ruskin’s Modern
Painters of the process of the enjoyment of art, and clarifies how Ruskin illustrated
that we see nature both internally and externally. Earlier studies regarded this book
as a defense of J. M. W. Turner, and posited that it described Turner as a landscape
painter who was faithful to nature, balancing romanticism and realism. However, Ruskin
describes a process for the enjoyment of landscape art without explicitly naming Turner
by using the word “idea.” I focus on this point and try to find new significance in the
first volume of his Modern Painters.
The present study aims to clarify that Buddhism influences the aesthetic thoughts of
KAWAI Kanjiro (1890-1966) in the post-war era, focusing on his word: “Work in which
work does its work”.
He got the idea of this motto in September 1948, thereafter it appeared in his collected
essays “Hi-no-Chikai” [The Oath of Fire] published in November 1953. Looking closely at
his diaries and notes, this paper investigates how it developed from his original thoughts
on artistic creation. It became clear that the doctrine of Ippen (1239-1289) brought this
motto to its completion.
Kanjiro got the first suggestion from YANAGI Soetsu (1889-1961). His lecture “Mingei
We Propose” (May 1948) quotes Ippen’s teaching: It is Nembutsu which does Nembutsu
(i.e. Pray does its pray). According to Ippen, oneness of the prayer and the Amitabha
Buddha is established in the moment of pray. Kanjiro took Ippen’s idea of the unity
and expanded a concept of self-organizing function of artistic creation (work), where
the artist or craftsman thoroughly merges in and beauty, as Kanjiro puts it, emerges
from. Taking this into account, further this paper takes the concept ‘salvation’ into
consideration and sees the similarity between Kanjiro and Ippen.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the meaning of “suddenness (Plötzlichkeit)”
proposed by K. H. Bohrer (1932-). First, I try to clarify the meaning of “suddenness” by
elucidating the historical range of art that this notion can be applied to, the elements
that consist of this idea, and the scope of its genealogy. Second, I examine the
relationship between suddenness and fascist ideology, because Bohrer points out that
one of the important sources of the concept is decisionism (Dezisionismus), the pre-
fascistic thought. Yet, Bohrer tries to distinguish suddenness from such a pre-fascistic
idea. “Suddenness” can be explained as an alternative to “appearance” or “semblance”
(Schein), conveying a quality that has been understood as beauty. Nevertheless, he
insists that suddenness is so momentary and subjective that it should be deprived of any
metaphysical implication that appearance and semblance originally had, such as truth
and Utopia. Bohrer says that art based on suddenness should be autonomous and can
have no relations with any social and political context, for such context can never be
possible without historical and continual time. Therefore, Bohrer’s strategy is to defend
aestheticism by suggesting the rigid aestheticism based on suddenness.
Among many authors discussed by Jacques Rancière, Stéphane Mallarmé is one of
the most important poets and has been intermittently revisited since the publication
of Mallarmé (1996). This monograph is intensely focused on the relationship between
Mallarmé’s works and politics (particularly dealing with a thought of “community”).
The relationship between art and politics is consistently addressed in Rancière’s other
writings but has become complicated since he reinterpreted the history of Western
aesthetics around 2000. However, previous studies on Rancière’s interpretation of
Mallarmé fail to acknowledge such complexity because they focus exclusively on
Mallarmé and his contemporary writings.
Therefore, this paper investigates The Future of the Image (2003) and Aisthesis
(2011), as well as Mallarmé, to trace changes in Mallarmé’s status. Through this
investigation, this paper reveals new politicization in Rancière’s writings on Mallarmé.
This paper is organized as follows: firstly, confirming that Mallarmé is the poet
that observes ordinary events of everyday life, and secondly, this paper clarifies a
discrepancy between the figure of Mallarmé depicted in Mallarmé and Rancière’s
concept of the “aesthetic regime of art.” Finally, this paper demonstrates that Rancière
provides new insights on Mallarmé in his writings since the year 2000.
The copy of Lan ting xu by Zhao Mengfu is included in Lan ting shi san ba. Lan ting
xu is a masterpiece by Wan Xizhi, who is a calligrapher referred to as 書聖 (“a great
calligrapher”). This calligraphy work was widely disseminated after the Tang dynasty.
Most studies on Lan ting shi san ba have discussed the connections between Zhao
Mengfu and Wan Xizhi from the contents of the text. In addition, the style of calligraphy
has been emphasized.
The purpose of this report is to examine the characteristics of molding in the
calligraphy work of Zhao Mengfu. Furthermore, this study aims to reconsider Zhao
Mengfu’s position in Chinese calligraphy history.
Result of the molding analysis suggests that Zhao Mengfu understood the calligraphy
work of Wan Xizhi as a mix between the calligraphy style of the Tang dynasty and
that of the Song dynasty. Therefore, Zhao Mengfu can be seen as a calligrapher who
generated a new image of Wan Xizhi’s calligraphy during the Yuan dynasty.
Agnolo Gaddi (active 1369-98) was one of the Giotteschi painters in Trecento Florence
whose masterpiece, the Legend of the True Cross fresco cycle, adorns the Franciscan
Basilica di Santa Croce’s Cappella Maggiore in Florence. In this article, I analyze the
recently restored frescoes to revisit the Trecento expression of light and color. The
works of Agnolo, although he has not much discussed, are characterized by a gentle
and pale expression of color—through the cangiante mode of painting—that gives a
sense of unity and harmony to the entire cycle. In particular, I examine the effect of
cangiante and the use of gold and tin metal foil on the murals. Taking into account the
light source, i.e., daylight from the chapel windows, I discuss the fresco cycle’s overall
color and decorative characteristics. As it is written in Bonaventure’s doctrine of light,
it would be possible to conclude that the expression of beautiful light is to praise God.
Agnolo’s frescos depict a world of God filled with light. In that sense, it can be said that
these frescos are a supreme decoration befitting a house of God.
This paper focuses on the iconography of Filippino Lippi’s altarwall painting for
Carafa’s chapel in the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which was dedicated to the
Virgin Annunciation and Saint Thomas Aquinas.
Filippino painted the conclusion of the chapel’s thematic program onto the altarwall,
which combines the Annunciation with the Assumption through a highly illusionistic
representation. This composition is rare as the cycle of the Virgin’s life; therefore, I tried
to explain not only why these two themes were selected, but also Carafa’s intention to
contrive his chapel.
Accordingly, this study begins with the supposition that this altarwall exhibits
the Mariology of Thomas. As for the basis of my opinion, Carafa was one of the
Cardinal Protectors of the Dominicans, moreover, his unusual dedicated service to the
Dominicans may have stemmed from his personal devotion to Thomas. Following the
above, I try to interpret the iconography of this altarwall in the context of the Mariology
of Thomas, referring to his chief work, the Summa Theologica. Finally, I suggest that
Filippino’s pictorial style may refer to an aspect of Carafa’s religious milieu and that the
theological program of the chapel draws upon an intention to show off his place.
This paper discusses how the painting style of Agnolo Bronzino (1503-72), the
sixteenth century Florentine artist, relates to the art and art theory of contemporary
Northern Italy, through an analysis of the Portrait of Cosimo I in Armour (1543,
Gallerie degli Uffizi). Since Bronzino’s style has primarily been analyzed in relation to
the work of Michelangelo, his most skilled contemporary, earlier interpretations have
tended to obscure Bronzino’s individual characteristics, including his characteristic
use of colours in lifelike representations of clothing and accessories. Although rarely
acknowledged in modern research, this trait was already remarked upon by the
Venetian painter and art writer Paolo Pino, who considered Bronzino one of the best
colourists of his day. I argue that Bronzino developed his style, which also characterises
the Portrait, not in slavish imitation of Michelangelo, but in conscious response to
the North Italian painterly tradition, where colour was very important. This argument
is supported through an examination of the two different debates of the so-called
Paragone, and related works of art of the sixteenth century: in Florence, participants
(including Bronzino) argued that the superiority of painting and sculpture derived from
disegno, whereas in Northern Italy colorito, was considered to be superior to disegno.
This paper analyses John William Waterhouse’s female flower pickers in his
works; ‘Gather Ye Rosebuds While Ye May’ (1909), Narcissus (1913) and Flora
(c. 1914). Comparing Waterhouse’s works and the myth of Persephone clarifies
that some descriptions remind the myth of Persephone in his works. For instance,
some narcissuses, which were picked by Persephone immediately before she was
abducted to the underworld by Hades, are drawn in some of Waterhouse’s works. Thus,
Waterhouse’s female flower pickers overlap with the image of Persephone. Additionally,
in the late 19th century Britain, a new idea of ‘Dark’ Greece was advocated. This view
of Greece contains anxiety and grief as opposed to Winckelmann’s immaculate and
idealised view of Greece. Persephone symbolises fertility and death, and she embodies
the idea of ‘Dark’ Greece. Waterhouse knew this idea through Greek Studies by Walter
Pater and The Golden Bough by James Frazer. In Waterhouse’s works, an ominous of
rape, tension, anxiety and chaos are suggested by representing the scene just before the
rape of Persephone, and his works resonant with the ‘Dark’ Greece. Thus, Waterhouse’s
images of female flower pickers link with the myth of Persephone and evoke the ‘Dark’
Richard Hamilton is a significant figure in Pop Art. After his iconic project in ‘This is
Tomorrow’ Exhibition in 1956, he launched a number of Pop Art works and comments.
In the early 1970s, LUX Corporation, a Japanese manufacturer of Hi-Fi amplifiers,
approached Hamilton with its proposal to design a ‘Pop’ sculptural form of amplifiers
for the 50th anniversary of its founding in 1925. On his own way to Japan in 1974 to
consult with LUX Corporation on that proposal, he realised his interests lay less in
three-dimensional objects than in the representation of form on a two-dimensional
surface. In the end Hamilton created a two-dimensional art work and named it Lux
50—functioning prototype. Throughout this process, we can see Hamilton’s evolving
attitude towards design and his approach toward his art work. This paper will analyse
the records and documents of both LUX Corporation and Hamilton, and discuss
areas where Hamilton’s art and design overlap. By examining the creative process of
Hamilton’s work, we will see how Hamilton made a prototype ‘function’ in his two-
This paper treats the relationship of text and music discussed in Johann Mattheson’s
article “Der melodische Vorhof”, which is compiled in the 2nd volume of Critica
Musica, especially focusing on the concept of “sensus rhetoricus”.
In this article, Mattheson criticizes the argument of Heinrich Bokemeyer about the
relationship of text and music. While he claims that the text is a component of music
and composers must compose music correspond to the text, Mattheson divides their
connexion and proposes the liberty of music from the text.
As an example of such musical liberty, we read the statement about the musical
repetitions. While Bokemeyer lists some conditions for repetition, Mattheson’s
requirement is basically only one, namely the fulfillment of the “sensus rhetoricus”.
Though it is a meaning mainly constituted by the organization of subject and predicate,
Mattheson requires to take the situation or context which are implied in the text into
consideration. In this paper, the author reveals that this concept has two functions,
namely to relate the text with music progressively and on the other hand to support
traditional technique of repetition. This concept grants composers liberty to repeat, at
the same time, warns against its abuses.