The author examines China's urban developments such as housing developments for the purpose of understanding land use changes and their driving forces in urban areas of China. Economic growth and the increase of the urban population in China have influenced urban development, especially in terms of housing; urban developed areas have rapidly increased in the latter half of the 1990s. Private real estate development enterprises have had an important role in such urban development. Such enterprises are functioning actively in metropolises such as Beijing and Shanghai, which are economically advanced areas, and in provinces along the coast. Residential developments promote the land-use change in the built-up area and also promote the spatial expansion of the built-up area in Changchun City.
This study examines the migration experiences of Tongan students and households in Fiji based on two separate surveys. The major findings obtained are summarized as follows. The student survey results elucidate that the decision to migrate for a university education was made on an individual basis, while the role of family and friends in disseminating information about the institution was conspicuous. The destination choice for university was influenced by the availability of scholarships for studying in Fiji. While a majority of students expect to return to Tonga to resume or find employment after completion of their studies, some also anticipated pursuing future graduate studies. The household survey findings confirm the important role of the nuclear family in decisionmaking and reasons for migration while employers funded the migration expenses for most of the individuals. Their highest university degrees were acquired since the 1990s mainly from Fiji and Australian universities. A considerable portion of them are involved in such skilled occupations as education and administrative jobs at major institutions of the South Pacific region, mainly due to their higher educational attainment and work experience prior to migration to Fiji. As a result, they tended to have higher incomes.
The purpose of this study is to inspect Locational strategies of Japanese department stores based on a geographical point of view. The study areas are the Tokyo, Keihanshin, and Nagoya metropolitan areas. Recently, many department stores have gone into bankruptcy. Restructuring of new locational strategy is a matter of great urgency. In this paper, I analyze department store's existent locational strategies based on the store's locational development, and the relationship between store's locations and characteristics. Then, I consider the strategic change in the post-property-crisis. Before the rapid economy growth era (the early 1960s), department stores were located only in downtown centers. Their merchandising was specialized only in high-quality shopping goods and they obtained high status as culture and amusement facilities. During the 1960s-1990s, department store's locational strategies could be summarized as sub-urbanization and diversification. In 2000, there were 176 stores in the three metropolitan areas. These stores could be classified into three types based on qualitative aspects; stores specialized in shopping goods, stores relatively specialized in convenience goods, and SC (Shopping Center) type stores. These stores' locations could be defined clearly by day time/night time population ratio and the distance from metropolitan centers. However, recent recession has forced restructuring on retailers. Consequently, unprofitable stores are likely to decline rapidly. 34 stores have been closed during 2000-2004. Many of them are SC and convenience goods specialized stores located in suburban areas. Department stores tend to be integrated into the stores located in downtown centers and characterized by high-quality shopping goods and services.
The long-term variations of rice production in Bangladesh are examined in the latter half of the 20th century and the impact of recent severe floods is discussed. Unprecedented severe floods, which submerged nearly two thirds of the country, occurred recently in Bangladesh in 1988 and 1998, and the effects of these severe floods to rice cropping are revealed. In these severe flood years, the rainy season crop aman drastically declined in production due to the decrease of the cultivated area and yield. On the other hand, the dry season crop boro, which is planted after the flood withdrawal, increased its production much higher than that of the previous year, mainly because of utilization of the residual flood water. In terms of total annual rice production, it turns out that severe floods have even a positive effect on rice production in Bangladesh. Furthermore, rice production after these severe flood years is higher than that of the previous years, suggesting that severe floods may act as a trigger for increasing rice production level through the change of the hydrological environment and farmers' reaction to it.
Soil CO2 concentration and microclimatic parameters were measured at a primary forest and grassland in dry season (August to September 2003) and rainy season (March 2004) in central Amazonia in order to investigate the effects of infiltration of rainfall and evaporation of soil water upon the changes in soil CO2. The CO2 temporarily increased with infiltration, and decreased after soil water descended downward. Then, the increase and decrease moved to deeper soil. This phenomenon was found at both a primary forest and a grassland in the rainy season, and was found in the dry season as well at primary forest. At the grassland in dry season, the soil moisture change was positive during daytime, while the CO2 concentration change was negative. During nighttime, in contrast, the soil moisture change was negative and the concentration change was positive. It was estimated that the fluctuation of radiation between day and night reversed the relative position of soil water and CO2 in the soil. In the rainy season, there was not a large difference in the surface soil concentration (10-30cm: 20, 000-25, 000ppm) between the sites, while in dry season the concentration at the grassland was quite low (2, 500-2, 600ppm). From these findings, it was estimated that the soil CO2 was emitted or the root respiration was quitted due to the withering of herbs on the grassland in the dry season. In either case, it is thought that the decrease in soil CO2 was brought about by the exposure of naked land due to the disappearance of forest canopy.
This paper demonstrates the relation between the heat island intensity and city size indices/urban canopy characteristics. This is accomplished by analyzing the data at 6 settlements on the Nagano basin, Japan, whose population ranges from 3, 300 to 360, 000. The results show that heat island intensities on fine nights and cloudy nights, ΔTu-r are related to the logarithm of the settlement population P, which has one of the highest correlations to the heat island intensity in a city size index such as city area, DID (Densely Inhabitant District) area, DID population and so on. The gradient of regression between ΔTu-r and P is larger on fine nights than on cloudy nights, and is larger on nights with weak wind than on nights with strong wind. The correlation of population with maximum heat island intensity is remarkably high for Japanese settlements.
Observational evidence is presented to show an atmosphere-ocean coupled system in the maturing process of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and the western Pacific monsoon (WPM). The ASM and WPM are characterized by four abrupt seasonal changes that exhibit phase-locking features in the annual cycle. They correspond to the first transition of the ASM (mid May); the Indian monsoon onset (early June); the mature phase of ITCZ (mid June) to the east of Philippines and convection jump around 150°E (late July). The appearance of a warm pool, in excess of 29.0°C, is one of the key elements in understanding the sub-seasonal evolution of the ASM and WPM. Over the Indian Ocean, the seasonal increase of sea surface temperature (SST) follows the solar insolation and reduced evaporative cooling as well. In contrast, increase of SST over the subtropical western Pacific (SWP) lags behind those in the Indian Ocean by about one month. The heat flux analysis at the ocean surface in the SWP reveals that the delayed warming is attributed to reduced evaporative cooling, in relation to the weakening of the tropical easterlies, which is concurrent with the eastward expansion (_??_150°E) of the monsoon westerlies. These processes are also valid for interannual fluctuation; namely, the intensified ASM can induce warm SST anomalies over the SWP. Thus, these physical interpretations suggest further increase of the WPM predictability.
In Cotahuasi and Puica, southern Peru, contrasting landforms of wide plateaus with glacigenic U-shaped valleys (4, 800-5, 000 m ASL) and deep canyons (1, 500-2, 800 m deep from plateaus) are developed. In this area, camelid (alpaca and llama) pastoralism and agriculture have been conducted on the plateaus and in the canyons, respectively, since at least Inca times. This paper describes meso- to micro-scale landforms comprising the plateaus and canyons, and discusses the factors controlling pastoral-agricultural land use of these specific landforms. On the plateaus, flood plains, fluvial terraces, alluvial fans, taluses, and landslide bodies, which are concentrated in the U-shaped valleys, are significant for alpaca pastoralism. These landforms provide relatively gentle slopes, and are covered by wet meadows for livestock if adequate water is supplied by channels or springs. In the canyons, landslide bodies, taluses, alluvial fans, and fluvial terraces are important for agriculture. These landforms also produce gentle places, and are used even if irrigation or channels are absent. The regional/local climate would be the primary factor for the vertical separation between pastoralism and agriculture. Additionally, the physiographical setting, in particular the slope angle, is potentially important for the pastoral-agricultural land use of meso-to micro-scale landforms.
The recession rate of Poudre Falls in the Colorado Front Range is examined using an equation by Hayakawa and Matsukura (Earth Surf. Process. Landf., 28, 2003). In spite of stable tectonics and a cold, semi-arid climate in the region, the estimated recession rate of 0.09 m/y for 12, 000 y indicates rapid erosion of the waterfall. This indicates that the waterfall recession is a primary response of fluvial erosion after deglaciation, creating a narrow gorge below the waterfall. Further data collection will be necessary to assess the waterfall recession rates in such glaciated regions.
To examine running distance of debris flows occurring on the talus slopes, rainfall experiments were carried out. The quantity Vt is defined as the reciprocal of the threshold value of Lc/ Lt, at which debris flows just reach the bottom of the talus slope, where Lc is the horizontal length of the cliff and Lt is the horizontal length of the talus slope. The value of Vt is also a measure of the possibility of sedimentary outflow from the talus slope by debris flow. The value of Vt shows strong correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of talus sediment (K) and the rainfall intensity (Ir). The outflow of debris from the talus slope can be predicted using the values of Lc, Lt, K, and Ir.