This paper aims to depict the commodification of rural spaces in a form that embodies the values and lifestyles of an entire region. Based on our field survey, we have a better understanding of the form and characteristics of rural commodification in the Kootenay Region of British Columbia, Canada. The demand for locally grown, fresh, high-quality, safe, and reliable vegetables, fruits, livestock products, etc., has led to the development of organic farming in this region. In other words, the commodification of rural spaces by way of adding value to agricultural products via organic farming and responding to local needs is a unique feature of this region. The Kootenay Co-op, farmers’ markets, and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs have played important roles in this development. In this region, which has a small population and a small agricultural market, it is difficult to import food products from outside due to high transportation costs. This, in turn, has encouraged the growth of safe and reliable food production for the local market. An important factor in the development of organic farming here is the pacifism and environment-oriented cultural traditions represented by the Doukhobors, Quakers, opponents of the Vietnam War, and the influx of retired people and tourists, which led to the development of a free, friendly, healthy, and sustainable community in the region.
This paper details the pastoralism practised in the Karakul area, northeast Tajikistan. The families in Karakul graze their livestock in jailoo (summer pastureland) far away from the Karakul village and move their livestock to kyshtoo (winter pastureland) around the village. In addition to jailoo and kyshtoo, they also use two other kinds of pasture: küzd.. (spring pasture) and bäärlöö (autumn pasture). The pastoralism in the study area is characterised by the dominance of vertical migration, and low water availability due to the topographical conditions.
Researchers at Oregon State University have estimated a 37% chance of a magnitude 8+ earthquake occurring along the Pacific Northwest’s Cascadia Subduction Zone in the next 50 years. Despite the high probability of a large earthquake and tsunami severely affecting major west coast cities such as Seattle, Portland, and Vancouver, previous studies have concluded that residents in the area are insufficiently prepared. To that end, it is imperative that local residents increase their level of disaster preparedness. This research aims to determine the level of earthquake awareness and preparation among Portland Metropolitan Area residents, as well as analyze the factors that may have a significant influence on said levels. Over the course of 30 days, a 15-question questionnaire was distributed randomly to Portland Metropolitan Area residents through hard copies and digital copies. Follow-up email interviews were carried out for respondents and state government offices. Statistical cross-sectional analysis was conducted for each factor category compared to earthquake preparation. Among 101 respondents, the ratio of those who have made preparations versus those who have not was approximately half and half. Data analysis revealed minute differences between the majority of the factor categories with respect to the proportions of have and ‘have not’ made preparations, suggesting an insignificant influence on earthquake awareness and preparation. Alternatively, a ‘sense of urgency’ and the ‘reasons for no preparation’ may have a stronger influence over whether or not residents choose to prepare. Among the reasons why respondents have not prepared, the ‘lack of concern’ for the issue was most prevalent. Research results imply that information on disaster mitigation may not be circulating or reaching residents in the most effective manner. The results from this study may be considered to tailor future efforts to increase earthquake awareness and preparation among PMA residents.