Community noise was measured in the whole area of an inland middle-sized city T (population, 210, 000), situated in the south-middle part of Gunma Prefecture, and variation in its feature by difference in quarter and inhabitants' responses were investigated, with the following results: 1) Noise was largest in the central business quarter, followed by the intermediate residential quarter, and smallest in the peripheral rural quarter. Even in the latter two, noise was as large in the traffic crossing area as in the first. It is, therefore, insignificant to make uniform jurisdictional assessment of noise. 2) As for noise levels along the main roads, it was largest in the suburban zones along' the highways, followed, in the descending order, by the central business street, the street in front of the railway station, and the streets near the girls' high schools. The principal source of noise in these parts was road traffic (especially by heavy trucks). In the central business quarter, commercial broadcasting was also a significant causative factor. 3) Inhabitants' complaints against community noise had intimate relation with the trait of noise specific of the quarter. Especially there was high correlation between percentage of complaints and the upper limit of 90 % range in noise level, suggesting the necessity of reexamination of assessment by the median value of the current environmental standard. In the whole area of the city, the chief source of noise was the road traffic. This point should be taken into consideration for the establishment of the noise control area.
Effects of community noise on school was surveyed in middle-sized city T, situated in the south-central part of Gunma Pref., with the following results : 1) All of fifty schools in this city tend to be found in zones where main traffic roads are crossing, and they are consequently exposed mainly to traffic noise, which is relatively great. It is necessary in planning the future development of the city to give priority to securing adequate school environment. 2) Fifteen schools were chosen form relatively noisy zones, and the noise at a point on the border of school site was mostly greater than the average noise for the communtiy. The median value of noise ranged 60-69 dB for 2 shools, and 70 dB and over for 3 schools. All of these schools face a main road of heavy traffic. 3) Complaint by the high school student against noise from the outward was stronger the nearer the school house was to the road. As the source of noise, the truck and dumpcart were most incriminated, followed by the propaganda car, auto-bicycle and personal car in the descending order. In schools, relatively far apart from the road, the propaganda car was the chief target of complaint. This means the displeasure on?ethe meaninf ul noise'. The countermeasures are needed against these situations.
The sound-proof walls established in two elementary schools of T City were surveied for their soul-insulating effect. Also noise propagation was investigated along the superexpress railways Shinkansen and an automobile express way to seek its effect on the regional environment. The results were as follows : 1) The measured values of some points of traffic noise were compared with the values on the noise decrement curve against distance, which was theoretically obtained by taking, as the sound level of source, the measurement at a point close to the traffic sound source, on the assumption that the traffic noise has a linear sound source. The measurements in the two schools only partly approximated the theoretically obtained values on the decrement curve, but were closely similar to the measured values alongside the Shinkansen and automobile express way. 2) The sound-insulating effects of the sound-proof walls in the two elementary schools were estimated by comparison with the noise measurement at a control site. The walls were found to diminish the railroad noise only by 5-10 dB, and in the school house with windows opened, the noise level was 66 dB at the min., and 84 dB at the Max.. Some kinds of train fairly impulsively emitted noise, which lasted about 30 seconds during the passing of the train. This occurred at about 12 min. intervals on the average, and was consequently assumed to affect learning efficiency. In a school beside a traffic road, which is a cutting road, the sound-proof wall up on the mural side of the road was appreciably effective in arresting sound. 3) The prospective effects of noises of the Shinkansen and automobile express way on the regional environment of T city were estimated from the results of survey on the vicinity of the existing ones. Noise in the residential quarters on both sides of the Shinkansen within the range of 300m from the railroad (exclusive of bustling streets near the station) was estimated at about 70 dB. On both sides of the automobile express way within 100m from it, the noise is estimated to fluctuate by about 10 dB, and within 400m, noise of about 50 dB will be constantly present with a slight variation.
There are following three main reasons why the authors are interested in the subject of the present paper : (1) The voluntary (non-professional) health activities of community organization type, sometimes called“People's Organized Self-Help Activities for Health” in Japanese, which had embarked around 1952, partially influenced by an idea of community organization in the U.S.A., on the fly and mosquito control at the beginning and later on various other health problems, have been becoming less and less active since around 1965, because of the changing health problems as well as the changing socio-economic conditions in Japan such as symbolized by the“community disorganization”owing to industrialization and urbanization. (2) On the other hand, what is called“people's movement”has become active against the environmental pollution and other health problems, and which has contributed to the recent emphasis of“people (or citizen) participation”in various community projects at political and public administrative levels. Many governors and mayors seem to be interested in emphasizing people participation, often for their political purpose, but not necessarily knowing its deep philosophy nor its practical methodologies to ensure participation of as many people as possible in a community, particularly for the betterment of health. (3) Mainly because of changing health problems and medical, technical advancement, a new idea about community health or community medicine has developed in the past several years. Based upon chiefly the findings from a series of studies on research in community organization carried out jointly by the authors and other social scientists, as well as areview of literature on the community health/medicine and on the people participation, discussions were made in the present paper. The main points of the conclusions, which are only to present one type of the tools for planning for health to obtain participation of as many people (actually families) as possible in a community, are as follows : (The word"community"here is used in terms of the local autonomy body such as city.) 1. Community organization as defined by the findings from the research (that is, characterized by problem solving as its direct aim: people participation in community activities, particularly in planning: co-operation among people: utilization of social resources: and coordination among programmes and agencies) will become more and more important in Japan. 2. The neighbourhood organization or a similar type of organization, consisting of house holds or families (and not individuals as such) in a local (smaller) community, will play a major role and will be an important basis for future community organization in Japan. 3. The people's direct or indirect participation in planning community health programmes in a local community and also in larger communities will play a very important role in promoting community health on a democratic basis in Japan. 4. Through above-mentioned social machinery the betterment of community health will be attained together with the efforts from tax supported, governmental agencies as well as professional organizations such as local medical association.
Observation was made on the change of the standardized death rates of hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases in Kochi Prefecture over a period of 14 years. As a result, the standardized death rate of hypertensive diseases showed a tendency to decrease with the years, although it increased in 1963, 1964, 1970, and 1971. That of cerebrovascular diseases showed a sudden increase in 1965-66 and remained at the increased level for the rest of the observation period. The rate was higher in the rural district consisting of towns and villages than in the urban district consisting of cities in all the years of this period. The average annual death for the 14 years' observation period was generally high in each city, town, or village where the standardized death rate of hypertensive diseases showed a considerably wide range of fluctuation. It was generally low in each city, town, or village where this rate showed a considerably narrow range of fluctuation. In general, the death rate of hypertensive disease was low in each city, town, or village where that of cerebrovascular diseases was high. The reversed relation was found in many cities, towns, and villages. When the death rates of both groups of diseases were examined for the change with the years, a reverse correlation was noticed in the death rate between both groups in a large number of cities, towns, and villages. When the death rates of both groups of diseases were compared between the urban and the rural districts of the prefecture, there was also a reverse correlation in the change with the years between them in each district.
Tochigi Prefecture stands third in the number of farming households which have each the cultivated acreage of over 2 hectares, and stands twelfth both in cultivated acreage and in the number of farmers engaged in farmifig over 150 days a year. Under the influence of economic growth, regular farmers have remarkably decreased in recent years, and farming villages have been depopulated in this prefecture, too, as in other prefectures. At present, two farming villages, one mountain village and one mining town are alienated, and each of them has its own history of alienation. In all the alienated towns and villages, the birth rate is low, while the mortality is generally high. Biologically, therefore, those alienated areas have necessarily decreased in population, and moreover, emigration for work from necessity in this social economy has accelerated their depopulation. This prefecture ranks first in Japan in the production of strawberries, dried gourd shavings, hemp and mulberry saplings. In all the towns of Ujiie, Minaminasu, Haga and Ichikai along the Yamizo Mountain Range, the mortality from cerebral apoplexy and that from cancer are both high, and the corrected mortality is high, too. The infant death rate and perinatal death rate of this prefecture are higher than the national average. The infant death rate of all the alienated towns and villages except Ashio Town is rather high, and the subordinated population index (population of 0-14 years+that of over 65 years/population of 15-64 years×100)is high, too. The corrected motality is generally low from the southeast to the northwest along the Tobu Railway. The rate of longevity(population of over 70 years/whole population×100)is high in the northwest and low from the southest to the northwest. The aging index(population of over 65 years/population of 0-14 years×100)is high in the east. The aged population index(population of over 65 years/population of 15-64 years×100)is high in the east and low in the west, which resembles the distribution of the aging index.
The authors assased the serum samples from 536 men and 617 women selected out of the examinees in the mass surveys made in four rural districts for serum protein fractions by electrophoresis using the cellulose acetate membrane (Separax) as a supporting medium. With the subjects with the total serum protein (T. P.) in the range of 6.5≤T. P.≤8.0 g/dl by refraction analysis as normal group (consisting of 488 men and 557 women), the determined values of the serum protein fractions of this group were analyzed by the two sexes, age groups and districts ; and the following were found; Out of the serum protein fractions, there was a difference in the concentration of albumin fraction and also in that of γ-globulin fraction between the two sexes. The concentration of each fraction altered in various ways with ageing and also altered differently with each sex ; generally speaking, however, the albumin fraction tended to decrease, and the γ-globulin fraction tended to increase with ageing. There was no apparent difference in the concentration of any fractions between the districts. When M±2SD was calculated in terms of the concentration ratios (%) of serum protein fractions from the mean and standard deviation of the normal group, the albumin fraction was rated 57.35 -70.87, the α1-globulin, 2.27 - 4.91, the α2-globulin, 6.42 - 11.78, the β-globulin, 5.78 - 10. 18, the γ-globulin, 9.54 - 20.85, and the A/G ratio, 1.29 - 2.33 in the men, and the albumin fraction was rated 55.41 - 69.29, the αl-globulin, 2.32 - 4.92, the α2-globulin, 6.26 -11.38, the β-globulin, 5.69 - 10.61, the γ-globulin, 11.53 - 22.49, and the A/G ratio, 1.18 - 2.18 in the women ; therefore, we propose these ranges of fraction concentrations as their normal ranges.