Under the assumption that the photoperiodic stimulus travels with uniform velocity not only in petiole and stem, but also in acropetal and basipetal direction, the average rate of transmission was found to be 2.6-3.8mm. per hour.
1. If the seeds and growing points of the seedlings of theA. crispa and the A. punctata are treated with each solution of high concentration of streptomycin, aureomycin, chloromycetin and terramycin, knobs are formed on various growing points of the plants and then the growth of the plant stop as in the case of heat treatment, but in theA. japonica which is closely affined to them and non-leaf-nodular plant, knobs are never formed either by antibiotics or by heat treatment. 2. Knobs are formed in proportion to the degree of concentration of the solution and the duration of treating time, and in the same method of treatment knob-forming ratio of theA. crispa are generally higher than that of theA. punctata and the size of the knobs of the former plant is larger. 3. The knobs are formed of epidermis, cortex and central cylinder, and no meristem and leaf-nodule-bacteria are recognized in any part of them by microscope, and the structures of them are almost as same as those formed by the treatment of heat. 4. It is probable that the formation of the knobs is due to a substance, secreted by the leaf-nodule-bacteria, which cluster on the growing point and die by the treatment of antibiotic or of heat, and that this knob-forming substance may also acts on the formation of leaf nodules to some extent.
1. The internodial cell ofChara orNitella which was freed from adjacent cells was cultured in vitro for a long time in the following media with 0.8% agar: tap water, dilute Knop's solution (1/20 of the original conc.), and dilute IAA-K solution (10mg/500cc of distilled water). The cell thus cultured showed not merely its growth but morphogenesis. 2. The morphogenetic polarity concerning the formations of both shoot and rhizoid was ascertained. This morphogenetic polarity was reversed by changing the light condition. 3. The cell fragment, which was artificially formed from the internodial cell by the operation of strangulation, was also cultured in a similar manner. Even such a tied off fragment of the internodial cell showed a clear morphogenetic polarity. 4. In the culture solutions so far used, IAA-K solution was the most favorable for the growth and morphogenesis of the cell cultured in vitro. Knop's solution was next to IAA-K solution and tap water was the least favorable for the culture medium. 5. The rate of protoplasmic rotation in the cell cultured in vitro was nearly constant in general but it was clearly promoted during a definite period before shooting.
Um die Geschlechtschromosomen genau zu erkennen, habe ich in dieser Abhandlung 6 diözische Madotheca-Arten, nämlich M. densifolia, M. tosana, M. Perrottetiana, M. ulophylla, M. setigera und M. japonica, untersucht. Bei dieser 6 Arten konnte ich zum ersten Male die Strukturelle-Geschlechts-chromosomen entdecken. Die Chromosomenformeln dieser Pflanzen sind die folgenden; _??_ _??_ M. densifolia 7+X 7+Y M. tosana 7+X 7+Y M. Perrottetiana 7+X 7+Y M. ulophylla 7+X 7+Y M. setigera 7+X 7+Y M. Japonica 7+X 7+Y
1. The effects of DPN-addition on the oxidation and anaerobic fermentation of glucose were compared between bakers' yeast and brewery yeast. 2. Bakers' yeast respires and ferments glucose more intensively than brewery yeast. Stronger accelaration of both respiration and fermentation by DPN addition was observed in the case of bakers' yeast compared with brewery yeast. 3. Smaller respiratory and fermentative activity of brewery yeast seem to be ascribed to low contents of enzyme proteins in the yeast cells. 4. The intensity of alcoholic dehydrogenase is greater in brewery yeast cells than in bakers' yeast cells. DPN- deficiency is also greater in brewery yeast.