民族衛生
Online ISSN : 1882-868X
Print ISSN : 0368-9395
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46 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
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  • 山本 幹夫
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 1
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 辻田 純三, 伊藤 清臣, 黛 誠, 田中 信雄, 堀 清記, 小石 秀夫
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 2-11
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     パプアニューギニア高地人の成人男子18名,日本人成人男子20名の身体計測およびパプアニューギニア現地での戸外および家屋内の環境温度の測定を行なって次の結果を得た。1)パプアニューギニア人の身長および体重の平均値は夫々,158.4cm,61.3kgで日本人の夫々の平均値,171.6cm,68.2kgより有意に小さかった。しかし,パプアニューギニア人のRohrer's indexおよびBrugsch's indexの平均値は逆に日本人の平均値より大きかった。2)パプアニューギニア人の胸囲,腹囲,上腕囲,大腿囲,下腿囲の平均値は,日本人の平均値よりやや小さいかその差はわずかであった。パプアニューギニア人の前腕囲の平均値は日本人の平均値より大きかった。パプアニューギニア人の上肢長の平均値は日本人の平均値よりわずかに小さかったが,手の長さ,下肢長,足の長さはパプアニューギニア人の方が日本人より長く,パプアニューギニア人の四肢長と身長との比は日本人の値より有意差をもって大きかった。3)パプアニューギニア人の皮下脂肪厚は日本人のそれより有意に薄かった。又,皮下脂肪厚より算出された体脂肪含有率は日本人のそれより有意に少なかった。4)パプアニューギニア人の足の形は,日本人と比べて足長に比し足巾が長く,足底面積が広く,親指と小指が長軸に対して扇形に開いており,山道の歩行に適応して変化していた。5)パプアニューギニア人のBushhouseは日本製木造家屋,スチール製建物に比べて日中の室内温が低く,環境温度の観点よりみると秀れた家である。6)パプアニューギニア人の身体的特徴は,彼等が日常生活において毎日山歩きの激運動を行なっていること,摂取カロリー量が少ないこと,および熱帯高山気候の影響によって形成されたものと思われる。
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  • 三浦 悌二, 緒方 隆幸, 志村 正子
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 12-21
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The monthly distribution of births before 1900 in the normal Japanese population was investigated by collecting the birth dates of 43, 108 individuals, mostly adults, from various sources. The birth dates of 6, 919 adults born between 1901 and 1905 were also shown to make possible a comparison with the data in the vital statistics which have been published annually since 1899 by the Japanese Government. Major sources of these data were: 1) 34, 115 adult survivors registered in a) registration books of residents in ward offices in Tokyo and Osaka, b) lists of inmates at nursing homes for the aged in Tokyo, Osaka and Kyushu, and c) lists of members of local societies, the Diet and an alumni-association; 2) 6, 988 death certificates of adults in a) the general population in Tokyo between 1965 and 1975 and b) a nationwide employees' association, and 3) 2, 005 birth records in a) old parishoners' census registration books, known as "Ninbetsu-Cho, " for the years between 1755 and 1867 and b) old diaries, documents and descriptions. In the latter half of the 19th century, the seasonal distribution of birth had an early spring peak between January and March and a trough between May and July, similar to the typical distribution of births in the 20th century. From the late 18th to early 19th centuries, a spring peak was not so evident. Instead, a fall peak was rather prominent inmost samples. Similarly, from the 9th to the early 18th centuries, a fall peak pattern was also seen in small samples. The seasonal distribution of births in the latter half of the 19th century in Tokyo, Osaka and Kyushu can be used as distributions of normal control populations for studies on the relationship between birth season and morbidity of some particular diseases.
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  • 守山 正樹, 柏崎 浩, 鈴木 継美
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 22-32
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Japan, the decline in the age at menarche after the Second World War has been repeatedly reported, but the observed period in the reports has not been long enough to evaluate the secular trend of it. More than a hundred reports of age at menarche of Japanese have been published from the year of 1886. More than half of these populations in the reports consisted of students or young workers, some of whom had not attained menarche at the survey, and the menarcheal ages were represented by the arithmetric mean for the menarche attained girls. Thus, ages at menarche of these reports have biases toward younger menarcheal ages which depend on the proportion of non-menstruating girls. The authors aimed to correct these biased menarcheal ages on the assumption that (1) menarcheal ages of a population distributes normally when all of the girls are menstruating; (2) when some girls are not menstruating, the distribution is censored sample of normal distribution. After eliminating these biases of historical sources, the trend of the menarcheal age in Japan (from the late 19th century to the present) was analysed.
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  • 佐藤 重幸
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 33-42
    公開日: 2011/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    From a seroepidemiological point of view a survey was conducted on the effect of influenza vaccine over a representative epidemic period of influenza of type A and B extending from August, 1968, when Hongkong type A appeared, and March, 1979. The results obtained are summarized as follows.1. The rate of infection in each epidemic was 30.6% for the A/Kumamoto /1/72 strain, 46.1% for the B/Kanagawa/3/76 strain, and 46.4% for the A/Tokyo/1/77 strain. It was only 8.7% in the second epidemic of the A/USSR/92/77 strain.2. The rate of infection was analyzed by HI antibody titer before the epidemic. As a result, it was 8% or less, showing no marked fluctuation, in every epidemic, so long as the patients possessed antibody titers of 1:641:128 or more against the epidemic strain.3. When the patients were examined for the production of antibody higher than 1:128 in titer against the initial vaccine strain, only about 20% of them exhibited such production as this against Hongkong type A and USSR type A.4. On the other hand, only about 710% of the patients exhibited such production as this against type B.5. Patients of the population exposed to the first epidemic of the A/USSR/92/77 strain were inoculated with vaccine containing virus of this strain. Then they were involved in the second epidemic of this strain. As a result, they presented such a low rate of infection as 8.7%.6. Examination was carried out on medical workers in offices and plants where epidemics of Hongkong type A and USSR type A had confirmed. None of them were found infected when they were examined for HI antibody against Hongkong type A after inoculation with vaccine and for retained antibody against USSR type A. In conclusion, it can be expected that influenza vaccine will have an effect when the strain used for the vaccine is identical with that which has caused the respective epidemic. The existing method of inoculation with vaccine cannot be anticipated to be effective when an antigenic shift strain or antigenic drift strain showing a large variation appear in future. It can be well expected, however, from the present studies that influenza vaccine will display an effect in those cases by increasing the number of inoculation or by raising the amount of virus contained in the vaccine.
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  • 鏡森 定信, 岡田  晃, 飯淵 康雄
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 43-51
    公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    According to high mortality and specific risk factors following main diseases have been chosen for principal-factor solution in Japan, and England and Wales; cerebrovascular disease, ischemic hear disease, stomach cancer, cancers of trachea, bronchus and lung, accidents, poisonings and violence, and suicide. The factor analysis has been carried out using SMRs by occupation. The results are as follows; 1) In Japan first factors weighed are 0.97 for stomach cancer, 0.95 for cerebrovascular disease, 0.82 for accidents, poisonings and violence, and suicide, 0.75 for ischemic heart disease, and 0.57 for cancers of trachea, bronchus and lung. Among second factors weighed in Japan, -0.70 for suicide, and 0.69 for cancers of trachea, bronchus and lung are dominant. 67.9% of communality is attributed to the first factors, and 18.0% to the second factors. 2) In England and Wales, first factors weighed are 0.96 for stomach cancer, 0.94 for cerebrovascular disease, 0.88 for cancers of trachea, bronchus and lung, 0.87 for accidents, poisonings and violence, 0.76 for ischemic heart disease, and 0.19 for suicide. Among second factors weighed in England and Wales, 0.93 for suicide is dominant. 70.1% of communality is attributed to the first factors, and 18.4% to the second factors. 3) The disease having the bigger correlation coefficient between SMRs and stillbirth fates by occupation shows the bigger first factor weighed in both countries.
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  • 松本 信雄, 飯島 純夫, 上田 敏
    46 巻 (1980) 1 号 p. 52-59
    公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     平均余命,訂正死亡率,乳児死亡率および主要死因別訂正死亡率を基準変量とし,(1)エネルギー消費量(2)総医療費(3)第3次産業就業人口比(4)動蛋比(5)大学生数(6)医帥数(7)ベッド数(8)老令化指数(9)合計特殊出生率を予測変量として,昭和25年~51年の経年変化について重相関分析を行なった。 昭和25年~51年を通して各基準変量・予測変量の間には,合計特殊出生率のみをのぞいて他のいずれの変量間でも相互に高い相関係数がえられた。しかし,わが国の経済発展段階に注目して,昭和25~39年の前期と昭和40~51年の後期に分け同様に分析をすると,脳血管疾患,悪性新生物,不慮の事故および自殺による死亡率を基準変量とした場合には各予測変量との相関係数が前期の正の高値から後期の負の高値へといちじるしい転換がみられ同時に予測変量の重みベクトルも明らかな変化がみられた。すなわち,予測変量の対応関係の方向ならびに構造効果に変化が起ったといえる。 平均余命を基準変量とした場合には,予測変量の構造ベクトル(≒相関係数)には変化はみられず,重みベクトルのみに明らかな減少がみられた。また訂正死亡率,乳児死亡率および伝染病死亡率を基準変量とした場合には,前期・後期の間で予測変量の構造ベクトルならびに重みベクトルに明らかな変化はみとめられなかった。なお,合計特殊出生率は心疾患と自殺の死亡率を基準変量にした場合を除いて,いずれの場合も前期で高い相関係数が得られ社会経済指標との関連性がうかがわれたが,後期の昭和40年以降になると,すべての基準変量に対して低い相関係数を示すにとどまっている。以上の結果は,健康指標と社会経済指標との対応関係が前期と後期で変化したことを意味し,とくに健康投資という観点から考えるとその効率が変化したということができる。この意味から量から質への転換を含めて保健福祉システムの強化が指摘される。
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