A statistical genetic analysis was conducted in order to evaluate to what extent the clustering of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and obesity are influenced by genetic or environmental factors. The subjects were adult 117 monozygotic (MZ) and 20 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs of the graduates of attached senior high school to the Tokyo university, who answered a mailed questionnaire that covered cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. The frequencies of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes in this study was ascertained from subjects' self-report of a physician diagnosis and/or the use of medications. The body mass index calculated from self-reports of height and maximum weight was used as a measure of obesity. Covariance structure analysis was performed using program packages PRELIS2 and LISREL8. The results demonstrated that (1) Probandwise concordance rates in MZ are higher than those of DZ, especially when the risk factors increase. (2) Univariate genetic analysis showed that the clustering of risk factors are influenced by the age of subjects (22%), additive genetic factors (46%), and specific environmental factors (32%). It is concluded that not only environmental factors, but genetic factors should be considered in the proper management of the clustering of the cardiovascular risk factors. Much attention should be paid to the family history of risk clustering.
Obesity is regarded as one of the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases. The obesity level is usually evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI does not necessarily represent exact amount of fat in the body. Use of body fat percentage may be desirable to determine the obesity level, but it is virtually impossible to define the degree of obesity unless criteria of an "ideal" body fat percentage are established. Because obesity, as well as physical activity, is closely related to hemodynamics, the reaction of the hemodynamics to exercise load was investigated for 25 young Japanese female subjects according to body fat percentage. Body fat percentage was classified into the following four groups: "thin, ""ideal, ""borderline" and "obese", and systolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes in response to exercise load were analyzed by these four groups. From the analyses on the changes in the measurement waves, six and four patterns were ascertained for the systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, respectively. Majority of the subjects in the two categories, "ideal" and "borderline, "showed similar characteristics, with the designated type "a" for the systolic blood pressure (which showed a single-stage symmetrical left-right rise), and type "A" for the pulse rate (indicating a two-stage rise). As a future topic, we would like to report on what data can be obtained concerning the blood circulatory system based on classification of systolic blood pressure and pulse rate wave patterns. Because significant or mildly significant differences were recognized in the rates of change and overall degree of change in both systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, these were subjected to analysis. The rates of change and overall degree of change in systolic blood pressure became progressively greater from "thin" to "borderline" groupings, but then conversely in the "obese" grouping became smaller . Because both the rates of change and overall degree of change among those in the "borderline" grouping were greater than those in the other three groupings, it may be possible that those in this "borderline" grouping would have the lowest rate of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Further, the rates of change and overall degree of change in pulse rate, while relatively small from the "thin" grouping to the "ideal" grouping, became slightly greater in the "borderline" grouping and then reverted to smaller in the "obese" grouping. Because no significant differences were observed in the rates of change and overall degree of change in pulse rate between the "ideal" grouping and "borderline" grouping, no necessity was seen in segmenting these two groupings based on body fat percentage. In the "ideal" and "borderline" groupings, the pulse rate is considered to increase at moderate rates up to maximum cardiac output, which is believed to indicate the effective vital reaction to exercise load.
We analyzed the consumed foods in an era of early Showa (1936-1937), based on a "diary of farmer's diet of Kikaijima", an island near Amamioshima, written by Kaichiro Koshirae for one year. For analysis a computer with BASIC language was used. One different food in a diet was counted one food. There were 888 diets, in which 154 foods were described. The average number of foods described in a diet was 4.3 2.0, and the most number of foods consumed in a diet were 20. Miso was most consumed with a frequency of 588, consisting of 66.5% of all the diets, to which rice, sweet potatoes, rice porridge, etc. followed. Also a cycad-starch gluel was consumed frequently. The intake frequency of the individual fishes and vegetables was low. The foods with only one frequency were 47. When foods were classified into 18 groups according to the standard tables of food composition in Japan, cereals had 797 frequencies, and the followings were pulses (736), potatoes and starches (385), seasonings and spices (326), vegetables (243), fishes (243), and meats (190). Fruits had only one frequency, and milks, none. A variety of vegetables, fishes, sweets, meats and cereals were counted 33, 31, and 13, respectively. Nuts and seeds, fungi, eggs, and fats and oils were few in its varieties. According to the ABC analysis of the foods, 9foods occupied 50% of all the frequencies, and 22 foods, 75%. The consumed foods were not so many compared to those of present days, reflecting the food habit at that time.