Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 55 , Issue 3
Showing 1-38 articles out of 38 articles from the selected issue
  • Toshiaki MATSUZAWA, Mamoru NOMURA, Takashi UNNO
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 351-362
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We analyzed historical control data of clinical pathology testings provided by sixty-seven member companies of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association covering study populations of approximately 7, 000 rats/sex, 5, 000 dogs/sex, and 700 monkeys/sex. This paper assesses the relationship between conditions of sample collection, methods of measurement, etc. and potential factors contributing to variations in reference data, based on weighted means and standard deviations there of derived from data for rats, dogs and monkeys for those parameters measured using methods most common to the participating facilities. Parameters included erythrocyte count (RBC), hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), reticulocyte count (Rt), platelet count, total leukocyte count (WBC), differential leukocyte count (%WBC), coagulation time (activated partial thromboplastin time: ARTT, prothrombin time: PT), and serum/plasma levels of GOT, GPT, ALP, LDH, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine, sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), inorganic phosphorus (Ip), and CPK. Analyses of the data revealed species differences in RBC, Ht, Rt, platelet count, WBC, %WBC, ALP, LDH, glucose, cholesterol, TG, total protein, UN, creatinine, Ca, Ip, and CPK. There were strain differences in rats in platelet count, WBC, GOT, ALP, UN, creatinine, and CPK. Sex differences were noted for Hb, Ht, WBC, ALP, glucose, cholesterol, TG, total protein, A/G ratio, UN, and Ip. Age differences were observed with RBC, Hb, Ht, Rt, %WBC, GOT, GPT, ALP, LDH, cholesterol, TG, total protein, Ip, and Ip, and CPK, ARTT, PT, ALP, glucose, TG, and UN were found to be subject to the influence of fasting/feeding. In rats, Ht, WBC, CPK and K showed differences by the site of bleeding. Observed values for LDH and CPK varied with specimen type, plasma or serum; serum assay values showed greater variation than plasma values.
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  • Hong-Kean OOI, Frantisek TENORA, Kazuhiro ITOH, Masao KAMIYA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 363-366
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Whipworms from the macaque and baboon were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. They were identified as Trichuris trichiura, though a slight variation was observed in the length of spicule as compared with the whipworms collected from man. Moreover, a row of small knob-like structures was observed at the base of the pericloacal papillae of T. trichiura from the monkey by scanning electron microscopy. T. trichiura from non-human primates and man has been reported to be morphologically indistinguishable from T. suis. However, this study showed that males of T. trichiura from both the monkey and man can be differentiated from T. suis from the pig on the basis of the presence of a pair of pericloacal papillae and a cluster of small papillae near the caudal end in the former, which is totally absent in the latter.
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  • Ryoetsu IMAI, Zen-yo TANAKAMARU
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 367-370
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To investigate age-related changes in visual function in rats, male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at 30 months of age were examined electrophysiologically and histopathologically. The selection rate for the dark area in a T-shaped test box was 80% in aged rats, and the ability of light-dark discrimination was definitely depressed. Electroretinogram (ERG) was non-recordable in 25 out of the 28 eye balls examined, and amplitudes of the ERG a- and b-waves were markedly depressed in the remaining three eye balls. Histopathologic examination of the retina revealed marked atrophy of photoreceptor cells on the outer nuclear and photoreceptor layers; the change was less extensive in the retina of eye balls in which ERG was recordable. Immunohistochemically, increased reactivity to anti-glial fibrillary acid protein serum was observed in the retina of the aged animals. These results evidenced that the number of photoreceptor cells is decreased in aged F344 rats, resulting in the reduced reactivity to light and the depressed light-dark discrimination.
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  • Tomo INOMATA, Seiya INOUE, Hiroshi SUGAWARA, Hirofumi KAJIHARA, Tatsur ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 371-378
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct was first observed in the vicinity of the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct in 30-day-old swine fetuses of both sexes at the level close to the gonad. The paramesonephric duct extended caudally in parallel with the mesonephric duct on day 35 of gestation. By day 40 the paramesonephric duct reached the urogenital sinus. At this stage, the paramesonephric duct began to degenerate in the male, while it continued to develop in the female. This suggests that an anti-Mullerian duct hormone (AMH) is produced before day 40 of gestation. By day 45 of gestation, the mesonephric duct began to decrease in diameter and was accompanied with the involution of the mesonephros in both sexes. By day 60, the male and female mesonephric ducts reduced in their diameter by 70%. Thereafter, the female mesonephric ducts disappeared, while the male ducts developed again. The sex difference was first observed on day 35 in the differentiation of the external genitalia when a small circular urogenital orifice and the anogenital raphe appeared at the sites caudal to the genital tubercle in the male. Such structures were not present in the female. These results suggest that the fetal pig testis is activated to secrete androgen before day 35 of gestation.
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  • Tatsuya TAKIZAWA, Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Masako YAMAMOTO, Mitsuyuki SHIRA ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 379-381
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This work was conducted to know whether thyroxine (T4) when injected into fetal rats would induce a constriction of the ductus arteriosus (DA). In Experiment 1, fetal rats on day 20 of gestation were given a subcutaneous injection of 1 or 10μg T4 through the maternal uterine wall, and were autopsied 3 or 6 hr later. Similarly, in Experiment 2, the mother rats were given an injection of hydrocortisone (10mg/kg) just after fetal T4 injections. In either series of experiments, uninjected littermates served as controls. According to the whole-body freezing and shaving method, the DA was exposed and calibrated under a dissecting microscope. In Experiment 1, the DAs of the T4-injected fetuses, 3 hr later, were significantly smaller in caliber than those of their controls, but recovered 6 hr later. In Experiment 2 with fetal T4 injection followed by maternal hydrocortisone injection, the DAs of the T4-injected fetuses were further smaller in caliber than those of their controls which were clearly shrunken as compared with those of controls in Experiment 1. These results indicate that T4 exerts a constrictive effect on the DA, an effect which is strengthened in the presence of hydorocortisone.
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  • Takeshi KOJIMA, Shuji TSUDA, Yasuhiko SHIRASU
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 383-385
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Fenthion and diazinon, P=S type organothiophosphates which are precursors of cholinesterase inhibitors, cause remarkable atropine-insensitive hypotension in rats when administered intravenously in lethal doses. We investigated their effects on isolated rat aorta and atria to reveal the site of action. Fenthion and diazinon inhibited both types of contractions induced by high K+ solution and norepinephrine in aortic preparations from which the endothelium was removed. IC50 values (under [Ca2+]=1.5mM) were 2×10-5 M and 7×10-5 M, respectively. However, the atrial preparations were relatively resistant, since fenthion showed no effect up to 10-3 M and diazinon at 10-4 M exhibited a slight inhibition which was antagonized by atropine. The hypotensive effect of fenthion or diazinon was therefore attributable to the direct inhibiting action on the arterial muscle tone, which may be independent of the activation of muscarinic receptors. The results suggested that fenthion and diazinon affect the movement and/or utilization of calcium in the aortic muscle cells, since an increase in the calcium concentration in the bathing solution antagonized their inhibitory effect.
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  • Sei MATSUMURA, Takuo ISHIDA, Tsukimi WASHIZU, Isamu TOMODA, Satoshi NA ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 387-394
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Five specific pathogen free cats were inoculated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated in Japan to observe changes toward development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-like disease. All inoculated cats had lymphadenopathy and mild respiratory disease shortly after inoculation. Following the initial acute phase lasting for more than 40 weeks, the clinical signs gradually diminished in three animals, and the asymptomatic carrier (AC) stage was observed at 45 (1 cat) and 70 (2 cats) weeks postinoculation (p.i.). Two of the three cats developed respiratory signs and diarrhea at 105 or 106 weeks p.i. One cat died at 121 weeks p.i. with severe wasting, with necropsy findings consistent with AIDS-related complex (ARC). The others were surviving at 150 weeks p.i. with mild clinical signs or asymptomatic. Another group of two cats developed more severe illness without the AC phase. One died at 48 weeks p.i. with the ARC illness. The other cat developed marked emaciation with dearrhea at 75 weeks p.i., and died at 100 weeks p.i. with a histologic diagnosis suggestive of terminal immunodeficiency. Hstologically, the lymph nodes showed serial changes toward the terminal illness, from follicular hyperplasia at the acute phase to the lymphoid depletion at the ARC and AIDS-like terminal stages. The FIV antigen was demonstrated in the lymph nodes. The virus was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all the inoculated animals. These data demonstrated possible etiologic association of FIV with development of AIDS-like disorders in the cat.
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  • Tsutomu SEKIZAKI, Hiroya ITO, Tamae ASAWA, Isao NONOMURA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 395-400
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The gene encoding type 1 fimbriae of chicken pathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O78 (designated Fpul1) was cloned and the genetic region encoding fimbrial subunit was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that the Fpul1 was a novel variation among E. coli type 1 fimbriae and showed an extensive homology to previously reported Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 fimbriae. The E. coli K-12 strains carrying the Fpul1 genes did not show the acid-induced autoagglutination, suggesting that the Fpul1 was genetically distinct from the acid-induced autoagglutination.
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  • Masato KOBAYASHI, Kazue SUZUKI, Shigeyoshi NAGASAWA, Yoshihiro MIMAKI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 401-407
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Toxic substances in Narthecium asiaticum Maxim. were isolated and purified, monitoring the oral toxicity in guinea pigs. The crude extract prepared from the methanolic extract of the plant contained 2 major saponins (C8 and C9), and 7 corresponding saponins (C1-7) on TLC. The crude extract was fractionated by a conventional method for saponin preparation. The 1-butanol fraction was rich in C8 and C9, and showed oral toxicity. C8 and C9 were isolated by fractional precipitation and silica gel column chromatography. On the basis of C-13 and H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data, and acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of C9, C9 was comfirmed to be a mixture of two furostanol saponins (C9a, C9b); a branched trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and arabinose, was linked at 3β-C, and glucose at 26-C of sarsasapogenin and smilagenin. C8 was considered to be a furostanol saponin containing xylose instead of arabinose in the structure of C9. Oral administration of C8 and C9 caused diarrhea, proteinuria, hematuria and death in guinea pigs.
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  • Takeo MINAMI, Toshifumi WATANABE, Makoto MUTO, Yoshito WAKAO, Tatsuo S ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 409-414
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Serial combinations of immunosuppressive drugs (mizoribine: Mi, azathioprine: Az, and prednisolone: Pr) were administered for renal heterotopic allotransplantation in 50 mixed-breed dogs and 4 beagle dogs. The dogs were randomly divided in 5 groups depending upon immunosuppressive protocols. All immunosuppressive protocols were started at 5 days prior to transplantation and discontinued on the eighth day after transplantation. The mean survival time for the allograft recipients in the group receiving Az and Pr [Az (2.5) & Pr group; Az dosage, 2.5 mg/kg once a day with Pr] was 16.2±2.4 days and in the group receiving Az, Mi, and Pr (Mi & Az & Pr group; Mi dosage, 5.0 mg/kg once a day with Az and Pr), it was 14.0±2.6 days. These results were significantly longer than the control group (mean survival time, 8.7±2.4 days; P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in survival time between these two groups. Groups with combinations of Az and Pr had significant elevations of hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP) during the 7 days of immunosuppressive treatment after kidney transplantation. The Mi & Az & Pr group had lower elevations of hepatic enzymes than groups with combinations of Az and Pr. The combination immunosuppression of Mi, Az, and Pr with pre-treatment for canine kidney transplantation revealed relatively fewer side-effects for the liver and longer survival-time.
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  • Takuya IKEDA, Megumi MINAMI, Yoichi KUREBAYASHI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 415-420
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Species- and organ-specificity of a rat liver cell antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) from a hybridoma clone RM-1 was investigated immunohistologically and immunoelectronmicroscopically. In rats, the MoAb reacted specifically with liver cell membrane, but not with other organs tested, including the brain, thymus, heart, lung, stomach, spleen, kidney, small and large intestines, testis and muscle. Furthermore, it was found that liver from the human, monkey, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, dog, cat, cattle and chicken showed no specific reaction with this MoAb. The results indicated that the antigen was organ- and species-specific and designated as rat liver cell-specific membranous antigen (RLSA). RLSA was expressed scarcely along cell junctions of immature hepatocytes at the 19th day of pregnancy. This increased gradually, and was expressed along all surface membranes after birth.
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  • Tomoko TAJIMA, Takeshi HIRONAO, Taketsugu KAJIKAWA, Hitoshi KAWAMURA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 421-424
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) was developed using the OF-1 strain of PCMV as an antigen. Results of the ELISA were compared to those of indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and serum neutralization (SN) tests. ELISA and IFA test were found to be extremely sensitive more than SN test. All of 11 tested sera were highly reactive in both ELISA and IFA test, but 6 of them were antibody-negative in the SN test. The retrospective survery of 436 fattening pig sera collected in Japan in 1981 showed that 433 (99.4%) of them were highly antibody-positive in ELISA.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 425-429
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The right lung of the masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) consists of the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes. The left lung has no cranial and accessory lobes and has a bilobed middle and caudal lobes. On either side, there are four bronchiole systems, i.e. dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial. The right cranial lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the dorsal bronchiole system. However, this bronchiole arises from the right lateral side of the trachea, the so-called tracheal bronchus (bronchiole). The right middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system, and the right accessory lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the dorsal, lateral and ventral bronchiole systems and a bronchiole of the medial bronchiole system constitute the right caudal lobe. In the left lung, the left middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. This bronchiole divides into two branches, each of which forms a lobule. The remaining bronchioles constitute the left caudal lobe as in the right lung. The branches of pulmonary arteries mostly run along the dorsal or lateral side of bronchioles. The pulmonary veins run the ventral or medial side of bronchioles and between the bronchioles.
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  • Keiji SAHARA, Shukuro TSUTSUI, Youzo NAITO, Koh FUJIKURA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 431-434
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The efficacy and clinical safety of chlormadinone acetate (CAP) in preventing estrus were assessed in bitches on condition that CAP was subcutaneously implanted in silastic silicon rubber. To evaluate the long-term efficacy of implantation, 19 bitches were divided into 4 groups given doses of 2.5, 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. Although estrus was observed within 13 months after implantation in all of the bitches given CAP in the 2.5 mg/kg dose, and in 13 to 15 months in 3 of the 5 bitches given the 5 mg/kg dose, it was prevented for at least 24 months in all of the bitches given doses of 10 mg/kg or more. Plasma progesterone levels remained low throughout the period of estrus prevention, indicating a close correlation with the effect of CAP. The mean body weight of the bitches in groups receiving higher doses increased slightly over the course of the experiment. Except this, no clinical, hematology or biochemistry abnormalities were found in any of the treated bitches. Another 6 bitches were given 10 to 30 mg/kg of CAP, but the implants were removed to observe the recurrence of estrus and to measure the amount of CAP in the removed implant. Estrus recurred after removal even in the bitch given 30 mg/kg. The concentrations of CAP in the plasma and the amounts of CAP remaining in the implants demonstrated the sustained release of CAP from the implants. The concentrations of CAP in the individual bitches indicated that the lowest concentration effective in preventing estrus is 0.7 ng/ml. Subcutaneous implantation of CAP thus proved to be safe and effective in preventing estrus in bitches for prolonged periods.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 435-438
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The lungs of five horses were examined. At present, in veterinary anatomy, the horse lung is divided into the cranial and caudal lobes by the cardiac notch on either side. In addition to these lobes, in the right lung, the accessory lobe is present. However, from the viewpoint of the bronchial ramifications, the horse lung can be divided into the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes bilaterally. The horse lung has four bronchiole systems on either side, dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial. The cranial lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the dorsal bronchiole system. The middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. The accessory lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the dorsal, lateral and ventral bronchiole systems and all bronchioles of the medial bronchiole system constitute the caudal lobe. These features were compared with those of the lungs of other domestic animals.
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  • Noboru ITOH, Hiroyuki OKADA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 439-442
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of chloramphenicol (CP) were evaluated in budgerigars. Following intramuscular administration of CP at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight, serum peak concentrations of 35.3 and 90.7μg/ml, respectively, were obtained 0.25 hr following injection, and these values declined with a terminal half-life of 2.5 and 2.7 hr, respectively. Based on these results, an intramuscular dosage regimen of 100 mg/kg of CP 3 times a day or of 200 mg/kg twice daily was recommended as effective against many of the common bacterial infections in budgerigars. Red blood cell count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, total plasma protein, serum AST, ALT, LDH and CK values were determined after intramuscular injection of either CP or physiological saline 2 or 3 times a day for 5 days. The birds were weighed before and after treatment. Tissue samples from various organs were examined histologically. The most prominent adverse effect was muscular damage at the injection site. A dosage regimen of 200 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days was considered to be safe.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 443-447
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The bronchial tree, lobular division and blood vessels of the lungs were examined in three Japanese deer (Cervus nippon). The dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial bronchiole systems arose from the dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial sides of both bronchi, respectively. Furthermore, one bronchiole arose from the right side of the trachea, namely the tracheal bronchus (bronchiole). This bronchiole formed the right cranial lobe. The right middle lobe was formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. The right accessory lobe was formed by the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the four bronchiole systems constituted the right caudal lobe. In the left lung, the cranial and accessory lobes were absent. The left middle lobe was formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. This bronchiole was well developed and formed a bilobed middle lobe. The remaining bronchioles constituted the left caudal lobe. The right lung consisted of the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes. The left lung consisted of the middle and caudal lobes. The branches of the pulmonary arteries ran mostly along the dorsal or lateral side of the bronchioles. The pulmonary veins ran the ventral or medial side of the bronchiole, and between the bronchioles.
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  • Kazuo AKIYAMA, Shunji SUGII, Yoshikazu HIROTA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 449-452
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effects of recombinant bovine interferon α1 (rBoIFNα1) on the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were examined in 60 young male cattle. Each group of clinically healthy 30 male cattle was injected intramuscularly with either rBoIFNα1 (5mg/head) or physiological saline 5 times in 6 months. They were examined daily for the clinical symptoms of respiratory distress. The clinical signs of respiratory distress in rBoIFNα1-treated cattle were significantly less severe than those of the placebo group. The incidence rate, relapse rate and mean sick days of respiratory disease in the rBoIFNα1-treated group were 23%, 14% and 4.43 days, respectively, whereas those in the placebo group were 80%, 46% and 6.42 days, respectively. Furthermore, the mean increase of body weights in rBoIFNα1-treated group and placebo group were 1.365 kg/day and 1.340 kg/day, respectively. These results suggest that rBoIFNα1 has a potentially preventive effect on the incidence of BRD.
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  • Teruaki KOKUBU, Takuo TAKAHASHI, Keizo TAKAMURA, Hiromi YASUDA, Kazuhi ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 453-454
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Three virus strains were isolated in DK cell cultures inoculated with fecal specimens of dogs manifesting diarrhea. The isolates were identified as reoviruses on the basis of their biological and physico- chemical properities. They possessed reovirus type 3 antigenic specificity revealed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutrarization tests with the reovirus prototype strains. It was suspected that the isolates were participated in this diarrheic cases.
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  • Yuuji HAYAKAWA, Hirofumi KOMAE, Hisayoshi IDE, Hisami NAKAGAWA, Yukio ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 455-456
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    An acute death occurred in a racehorse with pneumonia after long-distance transportation in December, 1990. Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus were isolated from the lung at high rate. Specific antigens of these bacteria were also demonstrated immunohistologically in the pneumonic lesion. These findings indicated that the disease is equine transport pneumonia caused by a mixed infection of the three bacterial species. This is the first report on the isolation of P. caballi and S. suis from a racehorse in Japan.
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  • Toshiaki MASEGI, Katsuya SATO, Masashi KAWADA, Tokuma YANAI, Katsumoto ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 457-459
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Arteriolosclerotic changes were found in 202 out of 203 randomly collected heart specimens of broiler chickens. These chickens were reared in a poultry farm and killed at a poultry meat processing plant at 60 days of age with healthy appearance. Cellular intimal thickening due to a proliferation of smooth muscle cells of small arteries or arterioles were found mostly in the innermost layer of the left ventricle. Severity of the thickening varied from slight to severe. In 2 cases, myocardial necrotic changes were found in the proximity of severely affected small arteries and arterioles.
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  • Yasuhiro KON, Daiji ENDOH, Akiyoshi FUKAMIZU, Kazuo MURAKAMI, Yoshihar ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 461-463
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Hybridohistochemistry was applied for the detection of renin mRNA in the mouse kidney with a digoxigenin-labeled probe, synthesized as the sense and antisense RNAs from Ren-1 cDNA in the presence of digoxigenin-dUTP. Renin mRNA was detected in the juxtaglomerular cells located in the vicinity of the glomerular vascular poles of the kidney using the digoxigenin-labeled antisense RNA as a probe. Using the sense RNA as a probe, no signal was detected anywhere. In neighboring serial sections, the same cells reacted immunohistochemically to rabbit anti-mouse submandibular gland renin serum as in hybridohistochemistry. As we used the probe labeled with digoxigenin as a non-radioisotopic marker, there was no need for special handling other than that in immunohistochemistry. It was concluded that the simple procedure given in the present study is useful for the detection of mRNA.
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  • Kazutoshi FUKUNAGA, Mutsuo NINOMIYA, Yukio OOHARA, Kazuyuki KUSUNOSE, ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 465-467
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma found in a 6-year-old Anglo-Arabian stallion was investigated histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The animal showed a large mediastinal mass and generalized lymph node involvement. The neoplastic cells were in various differentiation stages of small lymphocyte, centrocyte, centroblast, immunoblast and plasma cell. Some neoplastic cells showed positive cytoplasmic reactivity for mu and lambda chains. There were well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi complexes in plasmacytoid cells, and slightly developed RER or a few long strands of RER in medium-sized to large lymphoid cells. These findings suggest that this neoplasm is of B-cell origin.
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  • Masami MOCHIZUKI, Seiya UCHIZONO
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 469-470
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Pathogenicity of feline reovirus serotype 2 isolates, Nos. 114 and 140 strains recovered from the feces of cats with diarrhea, was experimentally determined. Kittens orally inoculated with No. 114 strain did not show any clinical signs. Fecal consistency of kittens inoculated with No. 140 strain became rather diarrheic on the 3rd and 4th days after inoculation, but any other clinical abnormalities were not observed. Virus was excreted for the first five to six days after inoculation. Seroconversion was observed in the sera of all the inoculated kittens. Virus excretion and seroconversion were also noted in all contact control kittens. These results may indicate that feline reovirus serotype 2 is mildly pathogenic in cats.
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  • Masato KUWABARA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 471-473
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Induction of tumor necrosis factor in sera (TNS) as a multidisciplinary cancer therapy by the administration of a combination of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Meth-A sarcoma-bearing mice was attempted. In addition to the above TNS induction therapy (TNS therapy) per se, the potential on the above parameters by employing a multidisciplinaly cancer therapy (immunothermotherapy), in which TNS therapy was coupled with regional hyperthermia treatment, was investigated. This immunothermotherapy enhanced the antitumor effects produced by the above TNS therapy.
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  • Takehito MORITA, Yuko MURAKI, Tsuyoshi AWAKURA, Akinori SHIMADA, Takas ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 475-477
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Pathologic study of the ear was performed on 179 young swine, ranging in age from 1 day to 18.6 weeks. Histologically, eustachitis was the most common and its inflammatory reaction appeared to precede otitis. Immunohistochemically, Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) antigens were detected on the luminal surface of the auditory epithelia in 19 of 179 cases (10.6%). All the cases, positive for Mhr antigens, were associated with an acute eustachitis. Ultrastructural examination of two piglets confirmed these immunohistochemical data. The present results indicate that Mhr may be a primary cause of acute eustachitis in young swine.
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  • Hidenori IKENAGA, Yohichi MIZUTA, Kenichiro ONO, Tohru SAWAZAKI, Naoyo ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 479-480
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The placental and plasma cystine aminopeptidase (CAP) in pregnant animals was examined on stability after the treatment with L-methionine, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and heat. Inhibitory effects of these treatments on enzyme activities were different among CAPs from the animal species, however, significant correlation in those effects between placental and plasma CAPs was observed. These results suggested that plasma CAP might reflect placental CAP and seemed to be available for estimating maternal gestational conditions.
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  • Norio KATOH, Toru MIYAMOTO
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 481-483
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Protein kinase C activity was evaluated and its endogenous substrate proteins were explored in isolated cow liver parenchymal cells. Protein kinase C activity was detected in both cytosolic and total particulate fractions of the cells. At least four proteins in cytosolic and seven proteins in total particulate fractions were found to be substrates for protein kinase C. These results suggested that protein kinase C-catalyzed protein phosphorylation was involved in the regulation of functions of cow liver parenchymal cells.
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  • Tadashi TANIMOTO, Yuji OHTSUKI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 485-486
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A heterotopic splenic tissue (HST) was observed in the diaphragmatic face of the right hepatic lobe of a 6-month-old, female mixed bred swine. Macroscopically, HST was a solitary, well-demarcated intrahepatic nodule, 1×0.5×0.5 cm in size. Other organs including original spleen showed no macropathological abnormalitics. Histological findings of HST were essentially similar to those of the original spleen, receiving feeding blood vessels from hepatic portal vein. To our knowledge, the present case is the first report of HST in the liver not only of domestic animals but also of man.
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  • Kozo ADACHI, Tomoko WATANABE, Shin-ichi YAMANE, Susumu MAKIMURA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 487-490
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To eliminate the influence of anti-dog erythrocyte membrane antibodies in Babesia gibsoni-infected dogs on the immunological investigations of parasites, an attempt was made to purify B. gibsoni piroplasms from infected erythrocytes by N2 cavitation and centrifugation in a Percoll discontinuous density gradient. Although electron microscopic examination revealed that the concentrated piroplasms visible as a band at the interface between 30% and 40% Percoll solutions were contaminated with a small amount of erythrocyte membrane debris, little contamination was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblots. Hence, the isolated parasites may be usable for immunological examinations of parasites.
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  • Takahisa YAMADA, Daniel MORAREJO, Takashi AGUI, Kozo MATSUMOTO
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 491-492
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is an inbred strain of mutant rat which has been proposed to be an animal model for human Wilson's disease. In the present study, 28 genetic marker proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis in sublines of LEC inbred strain held separately by four facilities. As expected, the 27 markers were homozygous and identical in all of examined animals. We further found a novel variant of esterase-2 (ES-2) showing an intermediate mobility between profiles of ES-2A and ES-2C types.
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  • Shingo OTONARI, Masaaki NAKAI, Ryoji YAMAGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi HAGIO, Tets ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 493-495
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Five cases of cranial duplications in calves were morphologically reported. Each calf had a single body with duplicated heads that showed various degrees of fusion. The medial sides of individual heads were asymmetrically supplied by the branches of hemilateral common carotid or lingual artery. No marked differences in the development of the duplicated head in any of the calves were observed. Cleft palates were observed in all heads. The development and general structures of the organs in the head and neck regions appeared to depend on the degree of duplication of the cranial nerves.
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  • Minoru SAKAGUCHI, Ryohei NISHIMURA, Nobuo SASAKI, Toshikazu ISHIGURO, ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 497-499
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Cardiopulmonary effects of a combination of medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in atropinized pigs. This combination unchanged the cardiac output and significantly lowered the oxygen consumption compared with base-line values. Although some statistically significant changes were recorded, both medetomidine and butorphanol did not have a marked effect on the cardiopulmonary parameters in atropinized pigs. It was indicated that the administration of the combination of medetomidine and butorphanol is relatively safe in atropinized pigs.
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  • Eiji UCHIDA, Norio KATOH, Kiyoshi TAKAHASHI
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 501-502
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to assess the association of cow serum haptoglobin with fatty liver, haptoglobin concentrations were evaluated by single radial immunodiffusion in sera from cows after administration of ethionine (an analogue of methionine). Haptoglobin concentrations were found to be increased in the sera of the ethionine-administered cows. This result suggests that the induction of haptoglobin is associated in the pathogenesis of fatty liver.
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  • Kozo ADACHI, Chika UENO, Susumu MAKIMURA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 503-505
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin and anti-parasite antibody level in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni. The dogs with subclinical B. gibsoni infection exhibited suppressed lymphocyte blastogenesis. Prominent depression of lymphocyte blastogenesis and anti-parasite antibody production was observed in dogs suffering from relapses of clinical B. gibsoni infection.
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  • Tatsuo OHYA, Kiyoshi TOMINAGA, Muneo NAKAZAWA
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 507-509
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Cytolethal distending toxin (CLDT) production by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus isolated from calves was examined using CHO cells. Twenty-five of the 26 strains tested were positive for CLDT with titer of ranging 1:8 to 1:2, 048. CLDT positive strains were divided into low and high cytotoxin titer groups. Isolates from diarrhea cases tended to produce a significant ambunt of CLDT compared with isolates from liver. CLDT produced by C. fetus showed no effect on Y-1 cells and was heat-labile and trypsin-sensitive.
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  • Yoshihiko SATO, Markus SCHNEEBELI, Kiyoshi MATSUKAWA, Henry CHIMANA, H ...
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 511-513
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Zambia, a dairy farm keeping about 600 cows and self-contained calves had applied S. Dublin and S. Typhimurium bacterins to pregnant cows and calves in combination with all-in all-out pen system for rearing calves. Only relatively small scale outbreaks of S. Dublin infection occurred repeatedly in these years from 1989 to 1991 among fattening calves on the farm. The results obtained from the epizootiological study suggest that the preventive measures including the vaccination with Salmonella bacterins gave insufficient protection against S. Dublin infection to the calves, but they might have prevented large scale outbreak of the disease. This is the first report of the epizootiological study on outbreak of bovine S. Dublin infection on farm in Zambia.
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  • Markus SCHNEEBELI, Shingo INOUE, Hiroo MADARAME
    1993 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 515-517
    Published: June 15, 1993
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hydranencephaly without arthrogryposis was observed in three newborn Holstein-Friesian calves, born during one week in a 400-cow dairy herd in Zambia. The affected calves were blind and exhibited nystagmus and depressed behavior. Akabane virus infection was suspected based on the pathological findings and etiological data, however, we could not determine the exact causative agent.
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