In order to obtain more information on the development of bovine and ovine fetal mammary glands, a series of mammary glands from fetuses of different ages were analyzed. A total of 16 bovine fetuses with curved crown rump lengths ranging from 12 cm (80 days) to 75 cm (240 days) and 15 ovine fetuses ranging from 55 days to 131 days were examined. We used hematoxylin and eosin stain and Oil-Red-O stain to analyze the developmental and morphogenetic processes of mammary glands. In addition, we used immunohistochemical staining to determine the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) during luminal epithelial differentiation, α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA) for myoepithelial differentiation, Ki-67 for cell proliferation, and estrogen receptor α (ERα). Our analyzes showed: (a) The primary mammary duct begin to proliferate in a lengthwise within the teat at 90 days in bovine fetuses and 63 days in ovine fetus; (b) luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells appeared from 90 days in bovine fetuses and 63 days in ovine fetus; (c) proliferation of epithelial cells appeared to coincide with the development of the primary and secondary ducts; and (d) ERα was not found in the fetal mammary gland, but adipocytes showed the presence of ERα. Overall, these results indicate that the sequence of events in the prenatal development of the mammary gland of sheep is similar to that of cattle.
The host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was immunohistochemically investigated in rat respiratory tract under healthy conditions. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NC) and a small number of goblet cells (GC) were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2. A few acinar cells and almost all epithelial cells of intercalated ducts were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances in the nasal glands. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, few NC and GC were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In the laryngeal and tracheal glands, a few acinar cells and most ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In extra-pulmonary bronchus, small numbers of NC and GC were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2, whereas few NC and no GC were immunopositive in the intra-pulmonary bronchus. No secretory source of either bactericidal substance was located in the bronchioles. In the alveolus, many glandular epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were immunopositive for lysozyme but immunonegative for sPLA2. Moreover, lysozyme and sPLA2 were detected in the mucus layer and in the periciliary layer from the nose to the extra-pulmonary bronchus. These findings suggest that secretory sources of lysozyme and sPLA2 are distributed in almost all the respiratory tract. Their secretory products are probably transported to the pharynx and contribute to form the first line of defense against inhaled bacteria throughout the respiratory tract.
By using a complex of DNA, polyethylenimine and chondroitin sulfate, the in vivo transfection of early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) gene into tumor cells was found to cause significant suppression of the tumor growth. In order to apply the method in clinical cancer treatment in dogs and cats, mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects were investigated in a tumor-bearing mouse model. The transfection efficiency was only about 10%, but the transfection of ESAT-6 DNA nevertheless induced systemic immune responses against ESAT-6. By triple injection of ESAT-6 DNA at three day intervals, the tumor was significantly reduced and almost disappeared by 5 days after the start of treatment, and did not increase for more than 15 days after the final treatment. In the immunohistochemistry, a larger number of dendritic cells (DCs)/macrophages expressing ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 and CD3+ T cells was observed in tumors treated with ESAT-6 DNA, and their population further increased significantly by day 5. Moreover, the amount of tumor necrosis factor, which is an apoptosis-inducing factor produced mainly by DCs/macrophages, was greater in the ESAT-6 DNA treated tumors than in controls, and increased with repeat of the treatment. These results indicate that in vivo transfection of ESAT-6 DNA into tumor cells elicits significant inhibition of tumor growth by inducing potent activity of innate immunity mediated by DCs/macrophages, which may be followed by adaptive immunity against tumor associated antigens, elicited by the costimulation with ESAT-6 antigen.
pH-Sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified (pH-sensitive) liposomes co-loaded with tumor model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and adjuvant, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) were fabricated and administered subcutaneously into mice. The ability of pH-sensitive liposomes containing OVA and α-GalCer to stimulate cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo was compared with OVA-encapsulating pH-sensitive liposomes as well as with OVA alone. After immunization, significant OVA-specific antibodies were detected in the serum. When sera were analyzed for isotype distribution, antigen-specific IgG1 antibody responses were noted in mice immunized with OVA alone, whereas immunization with OVA-containing pH-sensitive liposomes and with pH-sensitive liposomes containing OVA and α-GalCer resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2b antibody responses. Moreover, more substantial production of IFN-γ and IL-4 was demonstrated in spleen cells from mice immunized with pH-sensitive liposomes having OVA and α-GalCer than OVA-containing pH-sensitive liposomes in vitro. Spleen cells from the immunized mice showed strong cytotoxic activity against E.G7-OVA tumor cells. In addition, prophylactic vaccination efficacy against tumor formation was evaluated. In all mice immunized with pH-sensitive liposomes having OVA and α-GalCer, immunization provided substantial protection from tumor formation. The therapeutic efficacy of pH-sensitive liposomes containing OVA and α-GalCer against already established E.G7-OVA tumors was also investigated. Tumor growth was reduced significantly in all mice treated with pH-sensitive liposomes having OVA and α-GalCer. The provided evidence on the advantage of antigen and α-GalCer co-encapsulation into pH-sensitive liposomes should be considered in the design of future cancer vaccines for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), also known as betanodavirus, has been recently implicated in mass mortalities of cultured marine fish. An effective vaccine is urgently needed to protect fish against this virus. However, parenteral immunization methods are very stressful. Individual immunization for thousands of fish is very labor intensive and expensive. Therefore, we expressed NNV coat protein in tobacco chloroplasts and used it as an oral vaccine to induce immunities in fish followed by challenges with NNV. Our results revealed that mice (IgG and IgA) and fish (IgM) immunized with the oral vaccine developed significantly higher antibody titers against the NNV coat protein. Fish were partially protected against viral challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrated that a plant-based vaccine could effectively induce immune response and protect groupers against NNV. The present method could be used to develop oral fish vaccine in the future.
A 4-week-old female Holstein Friesian calf presented with hindlimb paresis. Neurologic examination of spinal reflexes revealed depressed or absent reflexes of the hindlimbs. Menace responses on both sides disappeared on examination of cranial nerves. The calf was finally diagnosed with Neospora caninum infection by pathological findings including nonsuppurative inflammation associated with cysts in the cerebrum and spinal cord. High levels of antibody against recombinant surface antigen 1 of N. caninum (NcSAG1) were detected by ELISA from both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. This result suggests that detection of antibodies against N. caninum by NcSAG1-ELISA in serum and CSF could be useful for the clinical diagnosis of neosporosis in calves with acquired neurological signs.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E. coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2 × 109 CFU E. coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2 × 109 CFU E. coli LMG194) and K88 group (2 × 109 CFU E. coli K88). The result showed that E. coli infection significantly increased diarrhea rates; changed DAO activity in plasma and colon; damaged colonic mucosal morphology including crypt depth, number of globet cells, density of lymphocytes and lamina propria cell density; substantially reduced antioxidant capacity by altering activities of GSH-Px, SOD, and TNOS and productions of MDA and H2O2; obviously decreased AQP3, AQP4 and KCNJ13 protein expression levels; substantially altered the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusively, STa group had the biggest effect on these indices in four treatment groups. These results suggested that the recombinant strain expressed STa can induce piglets diarrhea and colonic morphological and funtional damage by altering expression of proteins connect to transportation function and genes associated with intestinal injury and inflammatory cytokines.
Currently, given the concerns regarding animal welfare, it is required that anesthesia or analgesia be used during surgery in experimental animals. Therefore, it is important to understand how anesthesia affects the health conditions of experimental animals. In this study, rat blood biochemistry and hematological changes were examined following administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents—medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol (MMB). One of three MMB dose combinations was subcutaneously administered to rats. After 1 hr, rats were treated with atipamezole, to reverse the anesthetic effects. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr post-MMB treatment. We also recorded body weight and food intake at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr post-MMB administration. Following MMB administration, transient increases were observed in glucose (GLUC) levels, hematocrit (HCT) values and hemoglobin (HGB) levels, whereas transient decreases were observed in total protein (TP) content and white blood cell (WBC) counts. Most of these parameters returned to control values 24 hr following MMB administration. Additionally, body weight and food intake decreased in MMB-treated rats. In conclusion, intermediate and high doses of MMB changed some blood biochemistry and hematological parameters, body weight and food intake. In contrast, low-dose MMB did not cause these effects. Therefore, depending on the experimental design, MMB may influence the results of studies that use laboratory animals. Consequently, anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be chosen based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects.
Serum and DNA from blood samples collected from Vietnamese yellow cattle (n=101) and cattle imported from Thailand (n=54) at a Vietnamese slaughter house were screened for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR. The positive rates determined by ELISA (B. bovis and B. bigemina) or PCR (B. bigemina) in the Vietnamese cattle were significantly higher than those found in Thai cattle. Some PCR-positive Vietnamese animals were ELISA-negative, whereas all PCR-positive Thai cattle were ELISA-positive, suggesting that the animals were infected in Thailand. Importing Babesia-infected cattle may lead to the introduction of new parasite strains, possibly compromising the development of anti-Babesia immune control strategies in Vietnam.
Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors in dogs. Its high metastatic and growth rates are usually associated with poor prognosis. Neoplastic cells of HSA can show various levels of cellular atypia in the same mass and may consist of various populations at different differentiated stages. Up to present, however, there is no report analyzing their differentiation states by comparing cellular atypia with differentiation-related protein expressions. To evaluate whether cellular atypia can be used as a differentiation marker in HSA, we analyzed correlation between cellular atypia and intensities of CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) staining in HSA cases. We also compared cellular atypia and expression levels of CD31 and vWF in each growth patterns. Our results show that cellular atypia was negatively correlated to CD31 and vWF expression levels but no significant correlation was found between growth patterns and cellular atypia or CD31 and vWF expression levels. Our study suggests that cellular atypia is useful for identifying differentiation levels in HSA cases. This study also provides useful information to determine differentiation levels of cell populations within HSA based only on morphological analysis, which will aid further HSA research such as identifying undifferentiation markers of endothelial cells or finding undifferentiated cell population in tissue sections.
An 18-year-old female black leopard (Panthera pardus) showed renal failure, leukocytosis and presence of subcutaneous masses in the lower abdominal region and right shoulder; she eventually died. Histopathological observations included a mammary gland carcinoma with comedo, solid and tubulopapillary patterns in subcutaneous tissue, and highly proliferated tumor cells in systemic organs. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The mammary gland tumor was diagnosed as intermediate-grade adenocarcinoma, based on a previously reported histological grading system of feline mammary carcinomas. Chronic interstitial nephritis was estimated to have been ongoing for 5 years, whilst acute necrotic pancreatitis in relation to tumor metastasis could have been the cause of death.
Angiotensin II (100 nM) induced bi-phasic increases in cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) through the activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Pharmacological examinations using 10 µM verapamil, 30 µM La3+, and 1 µM thapsigargin indicated that the first phase of the [Ca2+]i-increase was mediated by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Ca2+ influx independently of voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (VDC). In contrast, the second phase of [Ca2+]i-increase was mediated by Ca2+ influx through VDC. Although both [Ca2+]i and myosin light chain (MLC)-phosphorylation at the first phase was apparently exceeded the threshold for contraction as estimated by high K+-induced responses, there was no appreciable contraction, indicating the dissociation between MLC phosphorylation and force during this phase. In contrast, the second phase of [Ca2+]i was associated with the increases in both MLC phosphorylation and force. These results suggest that angiotensin II is a unique agonist which dissociates MLC-phosphorylation from muscle force during the Ca2+ releases from SR.
Pectenotoxin-2 (PCTX-2) is one of the polyether macrolide toxins isolated from scallops involved in diarrheic shellfish poisoning via actin depolymerization. In the present study, we examined the bioactive mechanism of PCTX-2 in smooth muscle cells and clarify mode of action of the PCTX-2-induced actin depolymerization using purified skeletal actin. PCTX-2 (300 nM-3 µM) non-selectively inhibited vascular smooth muscle contractions elicited by high K+ or phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. However, elevated cytosolic Ca2+ and myosin light chain phosphorylation stimulated by high K+ were only slightly inhibited by PCTX-2. By monitoring the fluorescent intensity of pyrenyl-actin, PCTX-2 was found to inhibit both the velocity and degree of actin polymerization. The critical concentration of G-actin was linearly increased in accordance with the concentration of PCTX-2, indicating sequestration of G-actin with 1 to 1 ratio. The kinetics of F-actin depolymerization by dilution assay indicated that PCTX-2 does not sever F-actin. Transmission electron microscopic and confocal microscopic observations demonstrated that PCTX-2 selectively depolymerized filamentous actin without affecting tublin. In conclusion, PCTX-2 is a potent natural actin depolymerizer which sequesters G-actin without severing F-actin.
The mechanism of imidazole-induced contraction on the bovine tracheal smooth muscle was investigated. Imidazole induced muscle contraction in a concentration-dependent manner on bovine, porcine and guinea-pig tracheas, but not in rat or mouse. In bovine tracheas, imidazole was cumulatively applied and induced muscle tension and increasesd intracellular Ca2+ level in a concentration -dependent manner. Imidazole, even at 300 µM, the concentration at which maximum contractile response occurs, did not significantly increase in cAMP content relative to control. Atropine inhibited imidazole-induced contraction at a concentration- dependent manner and pretreatment of hemicholinium-3 almost abolished imidazole-induced contraction. Conversely, pretreatment of tripelennamine, indomethacin or tetrodotoxin did not affect imidazole-induced contraction. Acetylcholine or eserine induced contraction in bovine, porcine, guinea pig, rat and mice trachea in a concentration-dependent manner. However, there was little difference in the rank order of maximum contraction of these agents. Imidazole-induced contraction was greater in bovine trachea compared to the other species tested. Further, cAMP did not appear to play a role in imidazole-induced contraction, suggesting other mechanisms, such as the release of endogenous acetylcholine.
The growth of offspring is affected not only by the protein in maternal milk but also by the free amino acids (FAAs) contained in it. L-Serine (L-Ser) is known as an important FAA for the development of the central nervous system and behavioral activity. However, it is not clear whether L-Ser is transported into the pool of FAAs contained in milk and thereby affects the growth of offspring. Using mice, the current study investigated the effects of dietary L-Ser during pregnancy and lactation on milk and plasma FAA composition, as well as on growth, behavior, and plasma FAAs of offspring. Dietary L-Ser did not significantly affect the maternal, anxiety-like, or cognitive behaviors of either the dam or the offspring. The FAA composition notably differed between plasma and milk in dams. In milk, dietary L-Ser increased free L-Ser levels, while glutamic acid, L-alanine, D-alanine and taurine levels were decreased. The body weight of the offspring was lowered by dietary L-Ser. The concentrations of plasma FAAs in 13-day-old offspring (fed only milk) were not altered, but 20-day-old offspring (fed both milk and parental diet) showed higher plasma L-Ser and D-Ser concentrations as a result of the dietary L-Ser treatment. In conclusion, the present study found that dietary L-Ser transported easily from maternal plasma to milk and that dietary L-Ser treatment could change the FAA composition of milk, but that an enhanced level of L-Ser in milk did not enhance the plasma L-Ser level in the offspring.
The aim of this study was to determine the blood ionized calcium (Ca) levels and acute-phase blood glucose kinetics in goats with mastitis induced by an intramammary challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Five goats were subjected to intramammary challenge of either LPS (10 µg) or saline (control). Some clinical manifestations (rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal motility, physical activity, and dehydration) were observed, and blood was collected for the measurement of several parameters [ionized and total Ca levels, blood glucose level, pH, and white blood count (WBC)] at 0 (just before challenge), 1–4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hr post-challenge in both the LPS and control phases. Milk was collected at 0 (just before challenge), 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr post-challenge to measure the somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity. In the LPS phase, increased rectal temperature, significantly decreased ionized Ca and total Ca levels and WBCs were observed compared with those at 0 hr, although there were no differences in all parameters between phases. LPS infusion significantly increased SCCs in milk and NAGase activity. The present results demonstrated that, during the acute phase of mastitis induced by intramammary challenge by LPS at a concentration sufficient to cause general symptoms in goats, a decreased blood ionized Ca level occurs, but not hypoglycemia.
Antrodia camphorata and Panax ginseng are well-known medicinal plants in Taiwan folk and traditional Chinese medicine, which have been reported for multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence that a fixed combination formula of these two plant extracts is effective for the exercise improvement or anti-fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of the mix formulation of these two herbal medicines (AG formulation) on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n=10 per group) were orally administered AG formulation for 4 weeks at 0.984, 2.952 and 5.904 g/kg/day, which were designated the Vehicle, AG-1X, AG-3X and AG-6X groups, respectively. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK) after a swimming exercise. The exhaustive swimming time of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was significantly longer than that of the Vehicle group, and the forelimb grip strength of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was also significantly higher than that of the Vehicle group. AG supplementation also produced decreases in serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK activity after the swimming test, as well as increases in glucose. Therefore, the AG complex could be a potential formulation with an anti-fatigue pharmacological effect.
Skeletal muscle has an ability to regenerate in response to injury due to the presence of satellite cells. Injury in skeletal muscle causes infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 macrophages) to remove necrotic myofibers, followed by their differentiation into anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2 macrophages) to terminate the inflammation. Since both M1 and M2 macrophages play important roles, coordinated regulation of their kinetics is important to complete muscle regeneration successfully. Progranulin (PGRN) is a pluripotent growth factor, having a protective role against the inflamed tissue. In the central nervous system, PGRN regulates inflammation by inhibiting the activation of microglia. Here we used muscle injury model of PGRN-knockout (PGRN-KO) mice to elucidate whether it has a role in the kinetics of macrophages during muscle regeneration. We found the prolonged persistence of macrophages at the late phase of regeneration in PGRN-KO mice, and these macrophages were suggested to be M2 macrophages since this was accompanied with an increased CD206 expression. We also observed muscle hypertrophy in PGRN-KO mice at the late stage of muscle regeneration. Since M2 macrophages are known to have a role in maturation of myofibers, this muscle hypertrophy may be due to the presence of increased number of M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that PGRN plays a role in the regulation of kinetics of macrophages for the systemic progress of muscle regeneration.
Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis (OURePTM) is a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film which generates electric potential in response to light and stimulates nearby neurons. This study aims to test surgical feasibility for subretinal film implantation and to examine functional durability of films in subretinal space. Dye-coupled films were implanted subretinally by vitrectomy in the right eye of normal white rabbits: 8 rabbits for 1 month and 8 rabbits for 6 months. The implanted films were removed by vitrectomy in 4 of these 8 rabbits in 1-month or 6-month implantation group. The films were also implanted in 4 rhodopsin-transgenic retinal dystrophic rabbits. Visual evoked potential was measured before film implantation as well as 1 or 6 months after film implantation, or 1 month after film removal. The films were successfully implanted in subretinal space of retinal detachment induced by subretinal fluid injection with a 38G polyimide tip. The retina was reattached by fluid-air exchange in vitreous cavity, retinal laser coagulation, and silicone oil injection. The ratios of P2 amplitudes of visual evoked potential in the implanted right eye over control left eye did not show significant changes between pre-implantation and post-implantation or post-removal (paired t-test). In Kelvin probe measurements, 4 pieces each of removed films which were implanted for 1 or 6 months showed proportional increase of surface electric potential in response to increasing light intensity. The film implantation was safe and implanted films were capable of responding to light.
Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil infusion on oral tissue blood flow including submandibular gland tissue blood flow (SBF) and internal carotid artery blood flow (ICBF) in rabbits during sevoflurane anesthesia. Twelve male Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil was infused at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/kg/min. Measurements included circulatory variables, common and external carotid artery blood flow (CCBF, ECBF), ICBF, tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), tongue muscle tissue blood flow (TBF) and SBF. Vascular resistances for each tissue, including the tongue mucosa, masseter muscle, mandibular bone marrow, tongue muscle and submandibular gland, were calculated by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the respective tissue blood flow. Remifentanil infusion decreased oral tissue blood flow and circulatory variables. CCBF, ECBF and ICBF did not change. The calculated vascular resistance in each oral tissue, except for the tongue mucosa, increased in an infusion-rate-dependent manner. These results showed that remifentanil infusion reduced TMBF, MBF, BBF, TBF and SBF in an infusion-rate-dependent manner without affecting ICBF under sevoflurane anesthesia.
The anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of xylazine-alfaxalone combination were evaluated in calves. Six calves (age: 6–9 months old; weight: 114–310 kg) were anesthetized with intravenous alfaxalone 15 min after administration of intramuscular saline (0.5 ml/100 kg) or xylazine (0.1 mg/kg; 0.5 ml/100 kg of a 2% xylazine solution). Anesthesia induction was smooth and orotracheal intubation was achieved in all calves. The calves anesthetized with xylazine-alfaxalone required a smaller induction dose of alfaxalone (1.23 ± 0.17 mg/kg, P=0.010) and accepted endotracheal intubation for a significantly longer period (16.8 ± 7.2 min, P=0.022) than the calves anesthetized with alfaxalone alone (2.28 ± 0.65 mg/kg 7.3 ± 1.6 min). At 5 min after induction, tachycardia (heart rate: 166 ± 47 beats/min of heart rate), hypertension (mean arterial blood pressure: 147 ± 81 mmHg) and hypoxemia (partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen [PaO2]: 43 ± 10 mmHg) were observed in the calves anesthetized with alfaxalone alone, whereas hypoxemia (PaO2: 47 ± 7 mmHg) and mild hypercapnia (partial pressure of arterial blood carbon dioxide: 54 ± 5 mmHg) were observed in the calves anesthetized with xylazine-alfaxalone. Premedication with xylazine provided a sparing effect on the induction dose of alfaxalone and a prolongation of anesthetic effect. Oxygen supplementation should be considered to prevent hypoxemia during anesthesia.
A seven-month-old female domestic shorthaired cat was presented for buphthalmos in the right eye and corneal cloudiness in the left eye. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed for both eyes and enucleation was done for the right nonvisual eye. Congenital glaucoma caused by anterior segment dysgenesis was confirmed for the right eye. In the left eye, slit-lamp examination revealed focal corneal edema with several iris strands from iris collarette to the affected posterior corneal surfaces. Circular posterior corneal defect was suggested to be the cause of edema. Goniodysgenesis, additionally, was identified. Taken together, the diagnosis of Peters’ anomaly which is a subtype of anterior segment dysgenesis was suggested in the left eye.
This study was aimed at demonstrating associations between peripheral biochemical parameters, endometrial leukocyte esterase (LE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and bacterial detection with the degree of endometrial inflammation, and determining the best time postpartum for diagnosing endometritis to predict subsequent fertility in dairy cows. Plasma albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol (T-cho), NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were analyzed in 43 Holstein cows at 3, 5 and 7 weeks postpartum (W3, W5 and W7). Endometrial samples were collected at W3, W5 and W7 to examine LE and MPO activities, bacterial detection rates, and PMN% profiles. The 43 cows were divided into healthy (HE), subclinical endometritis (SE), and clinical endometritis (CE) groups, classified differently at W3, W5 and W7 based on the definitions of SE and CE for each of the three weeks pp. LE level had an association with PMN% in all weeks pp (P<0.05). Albumin and BUN levels had weak negative associations with endometrial PMN% at W3. Pathogenic bacterial detection rates were higher in the cows with endometritis at W3 and W5. Conception rate at first artificial insemination tended to be lower (P=0.057) in the cows diagnosed with endometritis at W3 than in the healthy cows. In conclusion, associations were found between endometrial LE and endometritis, but not for MPO and endometritis. Diagnosing endometritis in W3 may be the best moment to predict subsequent fertility.
BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B nineteen kilodalton interacting protein-3), a member of the BCL2 family, is activated under hypoxic conditions and induces apoptosis or mitochondrial autophagy for adapting cells to hypoxia. The physiological roles of BNIP3 in the mammalian ovary are still unclear. In order to understand the role of BNIP3 in the bovine ovary, we examined its mRNA and protein expressions of BNIP3 in follicular granulosa cells and corpus luteum (CL). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in granulosa cells from large follicles (>10 mm) at the follicular stage were much higher than those in small follicles (2–8 mm). BNIP3 mRNA and protein expressions in the CL peaked at the early luteal stage. In bovine granulosa cells cultured for 6 hr under hypoxia (3% O2) and normoxia (20% O2), BNIP3 mRNA expression was higher under hypoxia. These results of the present study suggest that BNIP3 has some roles in luteal formation in the bovine ovary, and that the highly expressed BNIP3 in the granulosa cells from large follicles at the follicular stage is related to the roles of BNIP3 in the luteal formation.
Industrialization, economic and population growth rates in Ghana have increased the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment through which humans and animals are exposed. Cattle is reported to be exposed to high levels of PAHs through feed and inhalation. Once exposed, PAHs are metabolized and excreted in urine, feces or bile. In a previous study, cattle in Ghana was reported to excrete high levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) due to high exposure to the parent compound, pyrene. 1-OHPyr is further metabolized to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sex and site differences in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites using cattle urine collected from rural and urban sites of the Ashanti region, Ghana. From the results, geometric mean concentration adjusted by specific gravity indicated that 1-OHPyreneGlucuronide (PyG) was the most abundant conjugate followed by PyrenediolSulfate (M3). The sum of conjugated pyrene metabolites and sum of both conjugated and deconjugated pyrene metabolites correlated significantly with PyG, PydiolSulfate (M2) and PydiolSulfate (M3). The study revealed no significant difference in urinary excretion of conjugated pyrene metabolites between rural and urban sites. This indicated that similar to urban sites, cattle in rural sites were exposed to high levels of pyrene. There was no significant difference in urinary concentrations of conjugated pyrene metabolites between sexes.
Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine. These European viruses have the amino acid substitution A144V or I179V of the hemagglutinin. In horses that had previously received a primary course and bi-annual boosters with the old vaccine booster, immunization with the updated vaccine increased the VN antibody levels against the European Fc2 viruses as well as Y10. There were no significant differences in the VN titers against Y10 and the Fc2 viruses with A144V or I179V substitution in horses that had received a primary course of the updated vaccine. However, a mixed primary course where the first dose was the old vaccine and the second dose was the updated vaccine, reduced VN titers against the European viruses compared to that against Y10. In summary, the new vaccine affords horses protective level of VN titers against the Fc2 viruses carrying A144V or I179V substitution, but our results suggest that the combination of the old and new vaccines for primary immunization would not be optimum.
VP22 is a major tegument protein of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). In the present study, we examined functions of VP22 in EHV-1 replication by viral protein expression analyses in cells infected with the VP22-deficient virus. The expressions of several viral proteins in the cells infected with the VP22-deficient virus were lower than those in the cells infected with the parent virus. One of the weakly expressed proteins was identified as ICP4, which is a major regulatory protein encoded by an immediate early gene of EHV-1. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of ICP4 was the same in cells infected with the parent and VP22-deficient viruses. Hence, VP22 appears to promote synthesis of ICP4 post-transcriptionally.
The European Community’s (EC) Key, which is also called Bendixen’s Key, is a well-established bovine leukemia virus (BLV) diagnostic method that classifies cattle according to the absolute lymphocyte count and age. The EC Key was originally designed for dairy cattle and is not necessarily suitable for Japanese Black (JB) beef cattle. This study revealed the lymphocyte counts in the BLV-free and -infected JB cattle were significantly lower than those in the Holstein cattle. Therefore, applying the EC Key to JB cattle could result in a large number of undetected BLV-infected cattle. Our proposed hematological key, which was designed for JB cattle, improves the detection of BLV-infected cattle by approximately 20%. We believe that this study could help promote BLV control.
We previously reported that the tadpole of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) is a useful model for the field surveillance of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) distribution. In the present study, we compared Bd detection rates in swab-scraped and resected mouthpart samples, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting detection rates for swab-scraped and resected specimens were 67 and 65%, respectively, with no significant difference. Furthermore, we performed a histopathological examination for Bd distribution in the mouthparts; we found that Bd infection occurred in the tip and basement of the jaw sheaths and tooth rows. We recommend using swab-scraped samples for Bd detection. Moreover, careful attention should be paid to scraping the tip and basement of the jaw sheaths and the entire oral cavity to reduce the rates of false-negative results on nested PCR of the mouthparts of bullfrog tadpoles.
In January 2016, a 20-year-old female oriental small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) from Night Safari in Singapore was euthanized and diagnosed with a thyroid gland carcinoma. Postmortem examination and histology also revealed metastasis to the regional lymph nodes and severe visceral pentastomiasis. Grossly, the lymph nodes were infested, and encapsulation was observed on the visceral serosal surface. Histopathologically, the lymph nodes were encysted by a thick fibrous connective capsule with minimal inflammatory response. Pentastomiasis has been previously reported in the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) in Malaysia. This report is the first case of severe visceral pentastomiasis in an oriental small-clawed otter with functional thyroid carcinoma.