Thailand is a developing nation dependent on agriculture. Due to lack of modern public health practices, she suffers from the consequences of foodborne illnesses. The number of foodborne infection cases has nearly doubled in the past 10 years. Salmonella and Campylobacter pose the greatest risk of bacterial contaminants, mostly from pigs and chickens, and this paper will review livestock production systems and foodborne diseases from cases stemming from these sources. Due to the complexity of the livestock production systems, collection of data to date has been sporadic, but it is clear that controls are needed in slaughterhouse processing methods, and more communication between agencies and surrounding regions is paramount for proper surveillance to have any significant effect.
GM1 gangliosidosis is one of the inherited metabolic lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurological symptoms caused by β-galactosidase deficiency and consequent accumulation of GM1 ganglioside in neuronal cells. Shiba dogs affected with GM1 gangliosidosis have been found to suffer from corneal opacity. In our morphological analysis, keratocyte enlargement was induced by abnormal intracellular accumulation of neutral carbohydrates, resulting in the loss of normal arrangement of collagen fibrils in the opaque cornea was found to be associated with the disorder. We therefore conclude that corneal opacity in this Shiba dog with GM1 gangliosidosis may be caused by neutral carbohydrate accumulation in lysosomes, swelling and dysfunction of keratocytes, and subsequent irregular arrangement of collagen fibrils in the corneal proper substance.
This study examined the temporal expression of cathepsin D protein and its cellular localization in the spinal cords of rats after a clip compression injury to determine the involvement of cathepsin D in spinal cord injury (SCI). Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in the ~31-kDa active form of cathepsin D on days 4 and 7 after the SCI, while the level of the ~44-kDa inactive form remained relatively unchanged. Immunohistochemistry revealed cathepsin D with constitutive localization in most neurons and some gliocytes in the normal spinal cord to be intensely immuno-detected primarily in CD68-positive activated macrophages/microglia in the SCI lesions. Overall, these findings suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the phagocytosis and lysosomal activation of macrophages/microglia during the central nervous system inflammation caused by trauma.
Astrocytes perform neuron-supportive tasks, repair and scarring process in the central nervous system. In this study, we observed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocytes, immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper (CA1-3 region) of adult (2-3 years of age) and aged (10-12 years of age) dogs. In the adult group, GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes were distributed in all layers of the dentate gyrus and CA1-3 region, except in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1-3 region. In the aged group, GFAP immunoreactivity decreased markedly in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. However, GFAP immunoreactivity in the CA1-3 region increased in all layers, and the cytoplasm of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes was hypertrophied. GFAP protein levels in the aged dentate gyrus decreased; however, GFAP levels in the CA1-3 region increased. These results suggest that the morphology of astrocytes and GFAP protein levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region are changed, respectively, with age.
The secondary lymphoid tissues appear in sheep ileum after involution of ileal Peyer's patch (PP). However, the existence of the secondary lymphoid tissues before involution of ileal PP has not yet been studied. We examined morphological characteristics of the full length of calf ileal PP using gross and microscopic anatomical techniques. Most areas of ileal PP consisted of densely packed lymphatic follicles contained very few follicular T-cell and associated with only scant interfollicular areas. However, the proximal end of ileal PP consisted of widely dispersed lymphatic follicles contained many follicular T-cell and associated with large interfollicular areas. The histological architectures of the proximal end of ileal PP strongly resembled those of the secondary lymphoid tissue in calf.
Ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) loci of Russian Mus musculus musculus and of Japanese Mus musuculus molossinus were mapped by double color FISH. The total number of rDNA loci was varied from 5 to 12, although the loci on chromosomes 12, 15, 16, 18, and 19 were common to all mice examined. Instead, polymorphisms of the rDNA loci were found on chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 17. The novel rDNA loci of M. m. musculus were found in Nov/TUA strain on chromosomes 8 and 17. These observations, together with those of previous reports, suggest that the rDNA loci of Mus musculus species are in the evolutionary process of further translocation to other chromosomes.
In this study, we investigated changes in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil somatosensory cortex after ischemia/reperfusion. GAD67 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in layers III and V of the somatosensory cortex 12 hr after ischemia/reperfusion. Thereafter, GAD67 immunoreactivity was decreased with time after ischemia/reperfusion. GAD67 immunoreactivity in the somatosensory cortex 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion was similar to that in the sham-operated group. In addition, GAD67 protein levels were also significantly increased 12 hr after transient forebrain ischemia. These results suggest that the transient increase of GAD67 immunoreactivity in layers III and V may be associated with responses to transient ischemia-induced neuronal damage.
Monoamine transporters have roles to regulate the monoamine concentrations in synaptic clefts in the central nervous system and are the targets of antidepressants and psychostimulants. They include transporters for norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin, which are encoded by the SLC6A2, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 genes, respectivily. We sequenced the full lengths of the coding regions of these genes for dogs and identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC6A2 and four in SLC6A3. One SLC6A3 SNP was non-synonymous and caused an amino acid substitution from threonine to serine. The genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms differed significantly among five breeds with different behavioral traits, suggesting that novel SLC6A2 and SLC6A3 SNPs would provide additional useful information for behavioral genetic studies in dogs.
Bovine bacterial respiratory diseases have been one of the most serious problems due to their high mortality and economic loss in calves. The vaccinations of bovine bacterial respiratory vaccines have been complex because of no multivalent vaccine. In this study, novel multivalent bovine bacterial respiratory vaccine (BRV) was developed and tested for its safety and efficacy. BRV was composed of two immunogens and five bacterins. These were leukotoxoid and bacterin of Mannheimia haemolytica type A, outer membrane protein and bacterin of Pasteurella multocida type A, and bacterins of Haemophilus somnus, Mycoplasma bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. ELISA antibody titers to five bacterial antigens in vaccinated guinea pigs increased, compared with those in unvaccinated ones. BRV was safe for calves and pregnant cattle in this study. In calves challenged with M. haemolytica and P. multocida, the average daily weight gain and antibody titers of vaccinated calves increased, and respiratory symptoms (P<0.05) and treatment frequency (P<0.01) of vaccinated calves significantly decreased, compared with those of unvaccinated calves. Interestingly, the antibody titers of M. haemolytica leukotoxoid and Mycoplasma bovis were closely related with the reduction of respiratory symptoms. BRV would be an ecomonical measure for the protection against bovine bacterial respiratory diseases.
In this study, percentages of CCR4+ cells in peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes were examined with flow cytometry in 46 healthy beagles between 3 months and 7 years of age. The percentage of CCR4+ cells varied from 9.9% to 33.5%. The mean percentage was significantly lower in the group with ages of less than 1 year than those with ages equal to or more than 1 year (p<0.05), suggesting that maturation might increase the CCR4+ T-lymphocyte subset. No influence of aging on the percentages was detected among the groups with ages equal to or more than 1 year. The findings are useful for establishing a reference value for the percentage of peripheral CCR4+CD4+ lymphocytes in dogs.
The microvasculature of the eyes of 5 rabbits was investigated using scanning electron microscopy on corrosion casts. The study revealed that the pars plana vessels draining blood from the iris and ciliary body coursed directly into the anterior vortex venous system constituting the scleral venous plexus (the venous circle of Hovius). The episcleral vasculature was found to possess a specialized morphology, with channels draining the aqueous humor. The capillaries of the third palpebral, bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva formed a single-layered capillary network approximately parallel to the epithelium and formed a well-developed venous plexus in the stroma. The retina was found to be merangiotic, meaning that vessels were present only in a small part of the retina, extending in a horizontal direction to form bands on either side of the optic disc. Channels representing the aqueous veins that drained blood mixed with aqueous humor were found to derive directly from the suprachoroidal space and communicate with the scleral venous plexus via the anterior vortex veins. The functional significance of the microvasculature of the iris, cilia, retina and choroid is discussed in this report as well. The elaborate microvasculature of the conjunctiva may be a prerequisite for the exchange of nutrients and gasses between the cornea and the vessels across the conjunctival epithelium when the eyelids are shut during sleep, and possibly for the dynamics of eye drop delivery. The scleral venous plexus in rabbits may be analogous to the scleral venous sinus (Schlemm's canal) in rats, primates and humans.
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) induced viral fulminant hepatitis in adult rabbits. We investigated the damage of renal function and electrolyte balance in experimentally infected rabbit by measuring the related serum parameters to elucidate the pathogenesis of RHDV as an index for medical treatment. Nineteen New Zealand White rabbits, ten females and nine males, were each intramuscularly inoculated with 0.5 ml 50% rabbit lethal dose (RLD50) rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Blood samples were collected at 0 hr post inoculation (HPI) and every 6 hr from 18 HPI repeatedly through 66 HPI. After virus inoculation, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CREA) and sodium (Na+) were elevated to a highly significant level (p<0.0001), whereas serum potassium (K+) was moderately elevated to a significant level (p<0.05). Hypoglycemia developed highly significantly (p<0.0001). Serum chloride ion (Cl-) was the only parameter which did not change significantly (p=0.077). No significant sexual difference was observed among these parameters. Renal insufficiency progressed from 36 hr, as indicated by the increases in BUN and CREA; significant changes in electrolytes resulting in the increased osmolality of extracellular fluid that induced flow disturbance which consequently destroy the homeostasis in cells. Therefore, the later impairments in renal function and electrolyte balance might be an important threat for rabbits which might have survived from acute fulminant hepatitis in RHD.
Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species.
The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis.
Twenty ferrets with histopathologically diagnosed lymphoma were classified cytomorphologically and immunohistochemically. According to site of origin, multicentric, gastrointestinal, mediastinal and cutaneous lymphomas accounted for 8 (40%), 9 (45%), 2 (10%) and 1 case (5%), respectively. According to the National Cancer Institute Working Formulation (NCI-WF), low-, high- and intermediate-grade lymphomas accounted for 4 (20%), 4 (20%) and 12 cases (60%), respectively. The 4 low-grade lymphomas showed no mitotic figures, whereas all 4 high-grade lymphomas exhibited ≥ 3 mitotic figures (median,6). Higher grade thus appears to be associated with a higher number of mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical examination of 18 specimens, excluding 2 insufficient specimens, showed that 16 (88.9%) and 2 (11.1%) lymphomas were of T-cell origin and B-cell origin, respectively. According to the combination of the NCI-WF and immunophenotypes, all 4 low-grade lymphomas (2 multicentric, 1 gastrointestinal, and 1 cutaneous lymphoma) were classified as diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of T-cell origin. Of the 12 intermediate-grade lymphomas (6 multicentric, 4 gastrointestinal, and 2 mediastinal lymphomas), 11 were classified as diffuse mixed-cell lymphoma, and 1 as diffuse large cell lymphoma. Of these 11 lymphomas, 2 (both multicentric) were of B-cell origin, 7 (3 multicentric, 3 gastrointestinal, 1 mediastinal) were of T-cell origin, and 2 (1 multicentric, 1 mediastinal) were of unknown cell origin. The remaining 1 lymphoma (gastrointestinal) was of T-cell origin. All 4 high-grade lymphomas (gastrointestinal) were classified as diffuse immunoblastic lymphoma of T-cell origin.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells, and expected to restore cardiac function for patients with coronary artery diseases as a consequence of progression of atherosclerosis. Safety issues related to the administration of G-CSF to these patients, however, are still under study. The animal model for atherosclerosis was produced by feeding miniature swine a high-cholesterol diet for 3 months. G-CSF (5 or 10 μg/kg/day) was given to the animal model by daily subcutaneous injections for 10 days and 20 main arteries were evaluated pathologically. In addition, the general toxicological effects were studied on clinical signs, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry and pathology. In the G-CSF-treated groups, a variety of changes related to the major pharmacological activity of G-CSF including an increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts were observed. In many arteries, atherosclerotic lesions similar to Type I-V of the proposed classification by the American Heart Association were observed. No effects of the G-CSF treatment were seen on the histopathological findings, incidence, severity or distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, no infiltration of neutrophils to the lesions was observed. These findings suggest that the administration of G-CSF causes neither exacerbation or modification of atherosclerotic lesions nor adverse changes despite that a sufficient increase in WBC counts could be achieved in the peripheral blood.
We investigated the relationship between cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels in synovial fluid (SF), serum and urine and the development of osteochondral damage and osteophyte (OP) formation following intraarticular fractures of the carpus in racehorses in order to assess the clinical usefulness of COMP as a diagnostic biomarker of developmental osteoarthritis (OA). Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb clones 2A11 and 3C8) raised against equine COMP were shown to be capable of detecting the molecule in serum and urine as well as SF. Fifty-one samples were obtained from 26 OP-positive (OP(+)) and 25 OP-negative (OP(-)) racehorses with carpal bone fracture, in whom OP was ascertained arthroscopically and radiographically. The COMP measurements obtained using the two mAbs were highly correlated with each other in SF, serum, or urine. Horses with OP(+) showed a significantly higher [urinary COMP (μg)]/[urinary creatinine (mg)] ratio (4.94 ± 5.10 and 1.46 ± 1.19, using mAbs 2A11 and 3C8, respectively) than OP(-) horses (2.80 ± 1.72 and 0.93 ± 0.49, respectively). The relationship between serum and urine COMP levels and the period from injury to surgery were extrapolated using a polynomial expression. Measurement of COMP, especially in urine, has potential as a predictive marker of advanced OA following carpal bone fractures in racehorses.
Brain perfusion computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed in a mongrel dog and a golden retriever that were diagnosed with third ventricular tumor and olfactory bulb tumor, respectively, by contrast-enhanced CT. The tumors were pathologically diagnosed as ependymoma and meningioma, respectively. Perfusion CT results revealed that the ependymoma in this study had a lower blood flow, higher blood volume, and greater transit time of blood than the adjacent brain tissue. Further, the meningioma in this study had a higher blood flow, higher blood volume, and greater transit time of blood than the adjacent brain tissue. Perfusion CT can potentially be used for the grading of brain tumors and narrowing differential diagnosis, provided the perfusion CT data of animals are accumulated.
Maxillary bone epithelial cyst is rare in dogs. A 5-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer developed a swelling below the nasal canthus of left eye. Plain radiograph demonstrated a 1.5 cm diameter of radiolucent lesion on the maxillary bone anteroventral to the eye, and contrast dacryocystorhinography confirmed an obstructed nasolarcrimal duct. The swelling showed poor response to antibiotic treatment but responded well to oral prednisolone. Exploratory surgery revealed a cyst-like structure filled with brown serous fluid. Histopathological examination of the removed cyst revealed a double cuboidal epithelial cyst. The dog recovered rapidly after surgery, and the swelling had not recurred for a 36-month follow-up. It is the first case of periorbital bone epithelial cyst reported in an adult miniature schnauzer.
Utility of plasma circulating mRNA as a molecular marker to detect hepatic injury was evaluated. Total RNA was isolated from plasma of the rat liver fibrosis models at various time points, and plasma circulating mRNAs of major liver-derived genes, albumin and haptoglobin, were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Sensitivity and kinetics of plasma circulating mRNA were compared with those of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. We have found that the measurement of plasma circulating mRNA is more sensitive than plasma ALT activity, and enables early detection of hepatic injury. The plasma circulating mRNA will serve as a novel and highly sensitive molecular marker for hepatic injury.
In August 2007, an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among vaccinated racehorses with Japanese commercial equine influenza vaccine at Kanazawa Racecourse in Ishikawa prefecture in Japan. Apparent symptoms were pyrexia (38.2-41.0°C) and nasal discharge with or without coughing, although approximately half of the infected horses were subclinical. All horses had been shot with a vaccine that contained two inactivated H3N8 influenza virus strains [A/equine/La Plata/93 (La Plata/93) of American lineage and A/equine/Avesta/93 (Avesta/93) of European lineage] and an H7N7 strain (A/equine/Newmarket/1/77). Influenza virus, A/equine/Kanazawa/1/2007 (H3N8) (Kanazawa/07), was isolated from one of the nasal swab samples of diseased horses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Kanazawa/07 was classified into the American sublineage Florida. In addition, four amino acid substitutions were found in the antigenic sites B and E in the HA1 subunit protein of Kanazawa/07 in comparison with that of La Plata/93. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test using 16 serum samples from recovering horses revealed that 1.4- to 8-fold difference in titers between Kanazawa/07 and either of the vaccine strains. The present findings suggest that Japanese commercial inactivated vaccine contributed to reducing the morbidity rate and manifestation of the clinical signs of horses infected with Kanazawa/07 that may be antigenically different from the vaccine strains.
We detected transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) antibodies in pig farms in Tochigi prefecture, although the farms had no past record of TGEV vaccination or TGE. Among the farms, Farm A showed a high antibody incidence. We could not confirm if either TGEV or porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) induced the antibodies, since conventional tests failed to discriminate PRCV from TGEV. Therefore, we conducted virological and serological examinations of this farm for 4 years to establish the etiology - TGEV or PRCV. Although no TGEV was detected, PRCVs were isolated from the nasal samples of pigs. Using a commercial ELISA kit, it was found that the antibodies detected in pigs of all the raising stages and sows were raised against PRCV but not TGEV. The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the isolates showed that they were closely related to each other, and formed a separate cluster apart from the U.S.A. and European strains. In Cesarean-derived, colostrums-deprived piglets inoculated with a PRCV isolate, no clinical signs were seen, and the viruses were mainly isolated from the nasal samples. Moreover, viral genes were detected from the nasal sample of the contact pig. The result suggested that PRCV infection was located in the nasal cavity of pigs, and horizontal transmission easily occurs. From these results, PRCVs with different origins from the exotic PRCVs might be prevalent in pig farms in Japan.
A total of 804 goat sera were collected from 144 goat farms in five regions of South Korea during a period between 2005 and 2006 and screened for the antibodies of viral pathogens in ruminants. The individual seropositive rates for each virus were 13.7% (110/804) for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), 9.5% (76/804) for bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI-3V), 5.5% (44/804) for Akabane virus (AKAV), 13.3% (107/804) for Aino virus (AINV), 2.0% (16/804) for Chuzan virus (CHUV) and 1.0% (8/804) for bovine coronavirus (BCoV). Compared with other areas, Chungcheong Province showed higher seropositive rates of 13.6% for PI-3V, 22.3% for AKAV and 28.2% for AINV. The results indicate that among the six viral diseases, BHV-1 infection is quite prevalent, while BCoV infection is less prevalent on domestic goat farms in Gyeongsang and Jeonla Provinces.