The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 × 103/ml.
Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.
Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.
Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular coccobacilli that are pathogenic to a variety of mammals, including ruminants and humans. The conventional serological test for diagnosing brucellosis in cattle in Korea is the standard tube agglutination test. However, agglutination tests sometimes give false-positive results due to cross-reactions with other pathogens. The outer membrane proteins of Brucella species have been extensively studied for their immunogenicity and serodiagnostic applications. However, an application of B. abortus OMPs for serodiagnosis has not been successfully established. In this study, cloning and expression of B. abortus Omp28, a group 3 antigen, were accomplished by PCR amplification cloning into a pMAL expression system, and purification of a recombinant Omp28 (rOmp28). The immunogenicity of rOmp28 was confirmed by Western blot analysis with Brucella-positive bovine serum. To determine whether rOmp2 has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rOmp28-based ELISA and latex bead agglutination test were performed. B. abortus positive (n=122) or negative (n=88) from TAT were positive (118/122, 96.7%) or negative (84/88, 95.4%) in ELISA and were positive (94/122, 77%) or negative (71/88, 81.7%) in that the latex bead agglutination test, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 96.7, 95.4, 96.2% in ELISA and 77, 80.6, 78.5% in latex bead agglutination test, respectively. These findings suggest that the rOmp28 of B. abortus might be a good candidate for developing serological diagnostic tools for bovine brucellosis.
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE) and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) are common idiopathic inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases with unknown etiology in dogs. We previously showed that IgG autoantibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of NME cases reacted to unknown brain proteins as well as to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In the present report, we evaluated the autoantibodies against transglutaminase2 (TG2) in the canine CNS diseases. CSF samples obtained from dogs with NME (n=19), NLE (n=7), GME (n=11) and miscellaneous CNS diseases (n=12) were subjected. CSFs from 20 healthy dogs were used as controls. Indirect fluorescent antibody test on the canine cerebrum revealed astrocyte-binding IgG in the CSF of NME. After absorption of the CSF with bovine GFAP, the CSF still possessed the reactivity to astrocytes. Double-color staining showed clear colocalization of the autoantibodies and anti-human TG2 rabbit polyclonal IgG. An immunoblot assay against human recombinant TG2 revealed anti-TG2 IgG in the CSF from dogs with NME, NLE and GME. The CSF of canine idiopathic encephalitis cases, notably of NME, tended to show high ELISA OD values against human recombinant TG2 compared to healthy controls. The presence of anti-TG2 autoantibodies in the CSF may contribute to the elucidation of the etiology of canine NME, NLE and GME.
The small molecule inhibitor, ABT-737, inhibits Bcl-2 that is overexpressed in many tumor cell lines and, in combination with an anticancer drug, can strongly enhance proapoptotic activity. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of ABT-737 on the survival of a canine melanoma cell line (MCM-N1). MCM-N1 cell viability was decreased following 24- and 48-hr culture with ABT-737, depending on ABT-737 concentration, while cell viability was unchanged in controls. ABT-737 synergized with carboplatin to promote cell death. Notably, approximately 50% of MCM-N1 cells survived following culture with 2-4 μg/ml of carboplatin; whereas, less than 20% of MCM-N1 cells survived following culture with ABT-737 (1 mM) plus carboplatin (2-10 μg/ml).
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J poses a great threat to the poultry industry in China. To reduce the economic losses, a quick method for detection of ALV-J antigen is required for diagnosis and identification of the congenitally transmitting hens. In this study, we report the production and evaluation of one monoclonal antibody (MAb) suitable for achieving these goals. The gp85 gene of avian leukosis virus subgroup J CAUHM01 China isolates was subcloned into the expression vectors pGEX-6p-1 and pET28a and successfully expressed in E. coli. After immunizing BALB/c mice with recombinant His-Jgp85 protein, splenic cells from immunized mice were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells to produce hybridomas. We isolated and characterized one ALV-J gp85-specific MAb by determining its titer, affinity and IgG subclass. In addition, we performed epitope mapping and determined the epitope for the MAb 1E3 to be 81-92 aa of ALV-J gp85 protein (LPWDPQELDILG). Bioinformatics analysis and IFA studies revealed that this epitope is conserved among all ALV-J isolates and that this antibody could serve as a useful reagent for ALV-J detection and diagnosis.
Adrenomedullin (AM), a peptide identified to have vasodilating and natriuretic effects, is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. To evaluate plasma AM concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valvular disease (MMVD), and to investigate the associations between the concentrations of plasma AM and natriuretic peptides and the echocardiographic data, we evaluated plasma AM concentrations in 31 healthy control dogs and 57 dogs with MMVD. Plasma AM concentrations in dogs with MMVD were higher than that in the control subjects. The plasma AM concentration increased in conjunction with the severity of heart failure according to the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC). The AM concentrations were 25.1 ± 5.0 fmol/ml (ISACHC class Ia), 29.9 ± 11.0 fmol/ml (ISACHC class Ib), 43.4 ± 19.8 fmol/ml (ISACHC class II) and 73.5 ± 21.7 fmol/ml (ISACHC class III) and 7.5 ± 5.1 fmol/ml (control group), respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated an area of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.8801-0.9889; <0.0001), a cutoff value of 30.5 fmol/ml, a sensitivity of 87.1%, and a specificity of 82.5% for the determination of congestive heart failure. Plasma AM concentrations correlated with atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations, LA/Ao ratio, and left ventricular diameter. In conclusion, AM may be a potential diagnostic marker for canine MMVD and possibly plays a pathophysiological role in collaboration with the other neurohumoral factors such as natriuretic peptides.
We performed proteomics analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy dogs and dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE). By comparing two-dimensional electrophoreses (2DE), an upregulated spot was found in MUE dogs. This protein was identified as a neuron-specific enolase (NSE) by analysis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In comparing dot blots using an antibody against NSE, the NSE levels in the CSF of MUE dogs was significantly higher than that of the controls. NSE is a diagnostic marker of neuroendocrine tumors, brain injury and spinal cord trauma in humans. It seems that the NSE concentration in the CSF is increased by cellular destruction in canine encephalitis. Though elevation of NSE may not be specific in canine encephalitis because the NSE level was increased in other CNS diseases, further study including measurement with serum is necessary.
A 4-year-old intact female Pekingese dog was presented with ataxia and seizure episodes. Based on magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis results, meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology was suspected. The present case survived for 1,096 days under cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy and was definitively diagnosed with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. This report describes the clinical findings, serial magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and pathologic features of a necrotizing meningoencephalitis and long-term survival after cyclosporine with prednisolone therapy.
Two intact female dogs were admitted for growing mammary tumors. They had symptoms of acromegaly including weight gain, enlargement of the head, excessive skin folds, and inspiratory stridor. Serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and insulin were elevated in the two cases. From these findings, both dogs were diagnosed with acromegaly. In case 1, the GH, IGF-I, and insulin levels subsided after removal of the focal benign mammary tumors and ovariohysterectomy. In case 2, those levels subsided after removal of only focal mammary carcinoma. In both cases, immunohistochemical investigations for GH were positive in the mammary tumor cells but not in the normal mammary glands. We concluded that GH-producing mammary tumors caused the present acromegaly.
Two dogs, emigrated from Zambia and China to Japan, were diagnosed with Ehrlichia canis infection. Both cases had thrombocytopenia, non-regenerative anemia, and hypergloblinemia with polyclonal gammopathy. Case 1 had ataxia of the hind limbs. Severe meningitis was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging examination. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in mononuclear cells of cerebrospinal fluid. Case 2 had a history of bilateral epistaxis, and severe pancytopenia was noticed in complete blood count. Diagnosis was finally achieved by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Thus, even in non-endemic areas, E. canis infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of clinically ill dogs that emigrated from endemic areas.
Trapped neutrophil syndrome (TNS) is an autosomal recessive inherited neutropenia known in Border Collies since the 1990’s. Recently, the causative mutation has been identified in the canine VPS13B gene and a DNA-based diagnosis has now become available. The present paper describes clinical and clinico-pathologic findings in a Border Collie with TNS that was molecularly diagnosed for the first time in Japan. In a 10-week-old male Border Collie with microgenesis and symptoms related to recurrent infections, a hematological examination revealed severe leukopenia due to neutropenia, suggesting the dog to be affected by inherited neutropenic immunodeficiency. Direct DNA sequencing demonstrated that the dog was homozygous for the causative mutation of TNS and both its parents were heterozygous carriers. In addition, a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction-based length polymorphism analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis was developed for the genotyping of TNS. This assay could discriminate clearly all genotypes, suggesting that it was suitable for both individual diagnosis and large-scale surveys for prevention.
Three cats were diagnosed as having food hypersensitivity by food elimination and oral food provocation tests. Twelve allergenic food ingredients were identified by oral food provocation test in the 3 cats. Of the 12 food ingredients, 9 offending food antigens were shown to be positive in a lymphocyte stimulation test; however, none of them were positive in antigen-specific IgE testing, and only four food antigens were positive in intradermal testing. The stimulation indices in the lymphocyte stimulation tests for the 9 food ingredients were found to be decreased after the cats were fed elimination diets. The present study demonstrates that the lymphocyte stimulation test reflects an immunologic reaction involved in food hypersensitivity and can help identify allergenic food ingredients in feline food hypersensitivity.
Commercial western blot (WB) assay was used to detect serum antibodies specific to Echinococcus multilocularis in 23 horses in which infection was confirmed by postmortem inspection at a slaughterhouse. Livers contained from 1 to >20 nodular lesions; foci diameter ranged from 1 to 25 mm. Antibody tests of serum from all 23 animals were negative for antigen bands at 7, 16, 18, and 26-28 kDa, which show specificity in the serum of human patients. However, sera from two infected horses with the largest nodules (diameter, 25 mm) showed positive response to one of the 22-kDa and 30-kDa antigen bands. It may be possible to diagnose E. multilocularis infection in horses based on the detection of these bands on commercial WB assay.
A 10-year-old female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) developed skin lesions in the left breast fin. Histopathologically, the lesions consisted of multiple granulomas spread diffusely into the deep dermis and bone; characteristically, each granuloma had septate, branching fungal hyphae and chlamydospores surrounded by eosinophilic Splendore-Hoeppli materials. Macrophages, epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells in the granulomas reacted mainly to anti-SRA-E5 antibody against human macrophage scavenger receptor type I. Fusarium solani was isolated and its gene was detected from the skin samples. Mycotic skin lesions by Fusarium spp. reported so far in marine mammals were regarded as superficial dermatitis; therefore, the present case is very uncommon in that the lesions spread deeper into the skin.
Traumatic neuroma of the cervical spinal cord was diagnosed in a 14-year-old male mixed-breed dog. A gross view showed two intradural extramedullary masses, measuring 1 and 0.6 cm in length and 0.7 and 0.4 cm in diameter, attached to the left side of the spinal cord at the level of the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. Microscopically, the cervical spinal masses comprised interlacing fascicles of axons and Schwann cells surrounded by collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemically, the fascicles were stained positively for neurofilament and S-100 proteins. Ultrastructurally, variably sized myelinated fibers and onion bulb-like structures were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a traumatic neuroma in the cervical spinal cord of a dog.
A rare case of complex apocrine carcinoma displaying dominant myoepithelial proliferation developed in the right leg subcutis of a 10-year-old male dog. The major cell population consisted of diffusely proliferating p63-expressing neoplastic cells that were largely myoepithelial in origin co-expressing α-smooth muscle actin. A small portion of the cell population consisted of concomitant basal epithelial cells lacking α-smooth muscle actin expression. The minor population consisted of p63-negative apocrine gland cells that expressed cytokeratin 8. The myoepithelial cell population showed a rather stronger proliferation activity than did the apocrine epithelial population. Thus, this tumor might have been derived from basal epithelial cells characterized by more predominant myoepithelial differentiation than luminal apocrine epithelial differentiation.
A 6-year-old female Labrador retriever presented with a mass in the right mammary gland, and swollen right inguinal and axillary lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration biopsy suggested a malignant lipid-producing tumor, such as liposarcoma. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were solid, lobulated nests of atypical epithelial cells with a large amount of extracellular deposits of amyloid in both mammary gland and lymph nodes. The proliferating cells contained large cytoplasmic vacuoles, positive for oil red-O. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and β-casein and negative for SMA. The amyloid deposits were immunopositive for β-casein. These findings suggested that the proliferating cells secreted β-casein forming amyloid deposits. This is the first report of mammary lipid-rich carcinoma with extensive amyloid deposition derived from β-casein.
Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) has a heparin-like structure and is purificated from the plant of European beech wood. PPS has been used for the treatment of interstitial cystitis for human patients. Recent years, it was newly recognised that PPS reduce pain and inflammation of OA. The molecular biological mechanism of PPS to express its clinical effects is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate a mechanism of action of PPS on inflammatory reaction of chondrocytes in vitro. It was evaluated that effects of PPS on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-actiated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 production in cultured articular chondrocytes. As a result, in the presence of PPS existence, IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK were certainly inhibited, while JNK phosphorylation was not affected. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB and MMP-3 production were suppressed by PPS pretreatment prior to IL-1β stimulation. In conclusion, it is strongly suggested that PPS treatment prevents inflammatory intracellular responses induced by IL-1 β through inhibition of phosphorylation of certain MAPKs, p38 and ERK and then nuclear translocation of NF-κB in cultured chondrocytes. These PPS properties may contribute to suppressive consequence of catabolic MMP-3 synthesis. These data might translate the clinical efficacy as PPS treatment could inhibit the cartilage catabolism and related clinical symptoms of OA in dogs.
In this study, the nuclear expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in 48 tissues specimens from 25 canine spontaneous mammary gland tumor (MGT) patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry to compare their levels with clinical features, histological types, prognostic outcomes and proliferative activities, including the mitotic index (MI) and cylcinD1 expression. Twelve of eighteen (66.7%) malignant tumor tissues showed greater than 10% nuclear staining, while benign tumor and hyperplastic tissues showed less than 10% nuclear staining. Higher nuclear expression of NF-κB was positively correlated with larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis and higher MI; however, no correlation was observed with distant metastasis and cyclin D1 expression. Higher NF-κB nuclear expression correlated with shorter patient survival. These findings suggest that NF-κB is a useful prognostic factor for canine MGT patients.
Cytological diagnosis is not generally conclusive enough to identify histopathological malignancy in canine mammary tumors (CMTs). To establish cytological examination using fine needle biopsy (FNB) samples, gene expressions of hormonal receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and transcription regulators (Special AT-rich binding protein 1: SATB1 and Snail) were investigated in both tissue and FNB samples of CMTs. In tissue samples of malignant CMTs, especially invasive ones, low expressions of hormonal receptors and high expressions of SATB1 and Snail were detected. On discriminant analysis of tissue samples, 73.2% of CMTs were correctly classified according to histopathological examinations. In FNB samples of malignant CMTs, low expressions of hormonal receptors were detected. On discriminant analysis of FNB samples, 74.2% of CMTs were correctly classified according to histopathological examination. In conclusion, FNB gene expressions had a utility for diagnosis of CMTs malignancy in some degree. By researching more sensitive genes for malignant CMTs, the gene examination of FNB samples from CMTs will become a useful diagnostic tool that can be performed easily without anesthesia and could predict tumor malignancy and invasion prior to surgical removal.
Canine osteoarthritis occurs frequently and causes secondary synovitis. Administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is one of the major therapeutic options for pain management of joint diseases. Tepoxalin has an unique property as an NSAIDs that suppresses both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative effects of tepoxalin on cultured canine synovial cells. Cytotoxic effects of tepoxalin, carprofen, meloxicam and AA-861 on cultured canine synoviocytes were evaluated by MTT colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observations with Giemsa or annexin V/Hoechst 33342 staining and by the inhibition of caspase-3 activity with N-Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Cytotoxic effects of tepoxalin were evident in comparison with the effects of carprofen or meloxicam. The same tendency of cytotoxicity was observed when 5-lipoxygenase was inhibited by AA-861. The morphological findings and contradictory effects of Ac-DEVD-CHO with regard to the cytotoxicity proved the proapoptotic effects of tepoxalin. In conclusion, tepoxalin might control osteoarthritic synovitis by inducing apoptosis in proliferating synoviocytes, while most NSAIDs that selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 most likely would not suppress synovial proliferation.
We investigated the influence of autologous serum (AS)-supplemented medium on the proliferation and differentiation into neurons of canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Canine BMSCs were cultured using α-MEM only, α-MEM with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 5, 10 and 20% AS-supplemented α-MEM. Growth of canine BMSCs was observed in all AS groups. The proliferation capacity of canine BMSCs in the AS groups was similar to that in the FBS group. No significant differences between the FBS and AS groups were observed in the percentage of the cells that changed to the neuron-like morphology and neuron-specific enolase-positive ratio after neuronal differentiation. Canine BMSCs cultured using AS-supplemented medium were able to proliferate and showed neuronal differentiation potency.
Feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) have been increasing in number since 1979 and are currently subject to pest control in Hokkaido. One of the reasons for the increase in numbers is thought to be the high reproductive potential of raccoons, but little is known about their reproduction. The main aim of this study was to clarify seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and peripheral testosterone concentration of raccoons in Hokkaido. In the present study, external characteristics and histology of the testis and epididymis and the plasma testosterone concentration were investigated in 68 feral, male raccoons culled for pest control and once a month in one live, captive male. The feral males exhibited seasonal changes in spermatogenesis, showing active spermatogenesis in autumn, winter and spring (October-June) with noted spermatogenesis and inactive spermatogenesis in summer (July-September) with lower mean levels of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Even in the inactive period, spermatozoa were observed in about half of the individuals (14/26); therefore, individuals producing spermatozoa existed every month throughout the year. Testosterone concentrations were significantly high in the winter mating season. In the captive male, the testosterone concentrations were low from June to August, and spermatozoa could not be observed from July to September. These results suggest that raccoons exhibit seasonality of reproduction, but the time and duration of spermatogenetic decline varies widely among individuals. This individual variation in the inactive period is a feature of male raccoon reproduction and is unique among seasonally breeding mammals.
Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.
The immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was investigated in horses with or without pyrexia after natural infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) in the field. All horses were kept at the training centers of the Japan Racing Association and were immunized with an inactivated EHV-1 vaccine before EHV-1 infection. An IgG subclass response dominated by IgGa and IgGb was induced in horses without pyrexia after EHV-1 infection. In contrast, horses that developed pyrexia showed increased IgGc and IgG (T) subclass production in addition to IgGa and IgGb. Although inactivated EHV-1 vaccines are considered to induce a mainly Th-2-biased response, these results indicated that the responses in horses inoculated with inactivated EHV-1 vaccine were not uniform, and that horses with a Th-1-biased response were likely to be protected from pyrexia.