Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 57 , Issue 2
Showing 1-42 articles out of 42 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroyoshi ISHIKAWA, Jumpei NAITO, Yasushige OHMORI, Apinun SUPRASERT, ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 187-192
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the manner of reticulospinal projections in chickens, two different fluorescent dyes (Fast-Blue and Diamidino-Yellow) were injected into the lumbar and sacral segments. Results showed that the main projections to the spinal segments are clearly different for the pons and medulla. The main source of the medulospinal projections was in the ventral reticular formation, and the projections from the dorsal reticular formation were sporadic. On the other hand, the main pontine projections drose from the dorsolateral tegmentum and they projected to the sacral segments. In contrast, projections to the lumbar segments were somewhat more dominant in the ventromedial tegmentum than in the dorsolateral tegmentum. Double projection neurons were observed in the ventrolateral reticular formation and dorsolateral tegmentum where there were many cells of origin of the spinal descending projections. The reticulospinal projection manner of birds was organized dorsoventrally, and it was comparable with that of mammals.
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  • Gen KINOSHITA, Makoto WASHIZU, Motoki KONDO, Yoshihito MATSUKURA, Tsuk ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 193-197
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of indomethacin on liver blood flow and oxygen supply-uptake relationship were investigated using a right heart bypass technique. Portal venous blood flow was decreased by the mesenteric vascular effects of indomethacin, which produce intense mesenteric vasoconstriction. Hepatic arterial blood flow was increased and therefore, total liver blood flow was not significantly changed after indomethacin administration. Portal venous oxygen delivery was significantly decreased by reductions in both portal venous blood flow and portal venous oxygen content. Total liver oxygen delivery, however, was not changed after indomethacin administration. This response was caused by a large increase in hepatic arterial oxygen delivery. Liver oxygen uptake and liver oxygen extraction ratio were not changed after indomethacin administration. We conclude, therefore, that total liver blood flow and oxygen delivery were well maintained, even if the mesenteric vascular effects of indomethacin decreased both portal venous blood flow and portal venous oxygen delivery.
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  • Terumasa SHIMADA, Yasunobu MATSUMOTO, Masaru OKUDA, Yasuyuki MOMOI, Ma ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 199-204
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Erythroleukemia was observed in two unrelated cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) from the same household. Case 1, a 1-year-old neutered male cat developed erythroleukemia (M6) after a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS-Er) on the criteria of FAB classification of acute leukemias. Case 2, a 1-year-old neutered female cat, which had close contact with Case 1, also developed erythroleukemia (M6Er). In both cases, marked proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells with disproportionally large numbers of immature forms was observed in the bone marrow. In Case 1, neoplastic proliferation of myeloid cells in the bone marrow was also noted at the terminal stage. Combination chemotherapy with daunomycin was partially effective for treatment of these erythroid neoplasias, but did not induce complete remission. Southern blot analysis using exogenous FeLV-specific probes indicated the clonal origin of these hematopoietic tumor cells. Furthermore, the erythroid and myeloid tumor cells in Case 1 were shown to be derived from independent transformed c1ones. A variant FeLV was shown to be integrated into the tumor cells in Case 1, while a full-length FeLV was found in both cases. Because these erythroid neoplastic diseases occurred in two unrelated cats kept in the same household and these diseases are rare, they may both have been associated with the same FeLV strain.
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  • Masahiro MATSUMOTO, Chun-hua ZHANG, Chisato KOSUGI, Isamu MATSUMOTO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 205-211
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    After the urine was treated with urease, lyophilized, and trimethylsilylated, it was examined for metabolic profiles in Dalmatian dogs and Shetland sheepdogs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which simultaneously analyzes organic acids, amino acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides. The profiles were compared with those from human specimens. As clarified in past studies, Dalmatian dogs showed an extreme decrease in allantoin, which is the final product of purine metabolism in the canine of other species, and a marked detection of uric acid peak. This finding suggests that purine metabolism in Dalmatian dogs is different from that in the other species. Only two Shetland sheepdogs, whose mother had chronic renal fallure, showed a marked excretion of uric acid, as in Dalmatian dogs. In addition, some Dalmatian dogs, who were maintained on a protein-restricted diet, showed a little excretion of uric acid. A large amount of uric acid is detected in combination with pentose-monosaccharides, hexose-monosaccharides and sugar alcohols in neonatal human urine in comparison with the present dog samples. A marked difference between the canine and the humans is that phenylacetylglycine, which is derived from the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine, is excreted in the canine urine. Phenylacetylglycine is not detected in the human urine, and there have been no reports of its excretion in canine urine.
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  • Shigeru OKUMURA, Akiko TAKEDA, Toru MIYAMOTO, Mitsuyoshi HAGIO, Toru F ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 213-218
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To study the transmigration of fluid rapidly infused intravenously, lactated-Ringer's solution was infused at the rate of 90ml/kg/hr for 30 min into generally anesthetized dogs. Four groups were made; group C with no fluid infusion as the control, group F with rapid fluid infusion only, group LF with renal blood vessels ligation and rapid fluid infusion, and group OF with increased pulmonary capillary permeability experimentally induced by oleic acid and rapid fluid infusion. The extravascular lung water volume (ELWV) was measured by the thermal-sodium double indicator dilution method, and the amounts of ascites and urine, and other clinical parameters were monitored before and after fluid infusion. The results show that in the dogs without increased pulmonary capillary permeability excessive fluid is mainly excreted as urine (group F) or transudates into the abdominal cavity (group LF). But in the dogs with increased pulmonary capillary permeability (group OF) excessive fluid easily and rapidly transudated into the pulmonary interstitium, resulting in pulmonary edema.
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  • Noriko NAKAGAWA-TOSA, Masami MORIMATSU, Masami KAWASAKI, Hiroki NAKATS ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 219-223
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The hepatic synthesis of acute phase proteins in ruminants has been suggested to be regulated by some mechanisms different from those in other species such as rodents and human. To explore possible fegulatory factors unique to ruminants, we examined effects of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), on haptoglobin (Hp) synthesis using a primary culture system of bovine hepatocytes. After bovine primary cultured hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of various concentrations of the cytokines, the synthesis and mRNA level of haptoglobin and albumin were measured by labeling with [<35>S]-methionine and immunoprecipitation, and by Northern blot analysis, respectively. Hp synthesis was dose-dependently increased by recombinant human (rh) IL-6, and also by rhTNF-α, but to a less extent, while it was not affected by rhIL-1β. The stimulatory effect is mainly pretranslational, because mRNA level of Hp changed in parallel with protein synthesis. In contrast, albumin synthesis was suppressed by these three cytokines similarly. These results are inconsistent with the previously proposed view that TNF and IL-1 overlap in their pathways leading to the transcriptional activation of many acute phase protein genes. In conclusion, there is a species-specific unique signaling system, especially for TNF, in transcriptional activation of bovine Hp gene.
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  • Fernando TORRES-BOGGINO, Kunitada SATO, Akio OKA, Yukio KANNO, Shin-ic ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 225-229
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Seminal characteristics, fertility and the response to semen preservation (liquid storage and cryopreservation) were evaluated in 4 Draft stallions (Percheron 2, Breton 2). Seminal characteristics (gel-free volume, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, percentage of motile spermatozoa) were assessed in 5 ejaculates from each of the 4 stallions. The fertility of the stallions was calculated retrospectively as the accumulated pregnancy rate over 3 breeding seasons. Five ejaculates from each of the stallions were subjected to liquid storage at 5°C. The percentage of motile spermatozoa (PMS) was assessed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cryopreservation was done with a glucose-EDTA-lactose egg yolk extender and a skim milk-based extender containing clarified egg yolk (4 replicates per stallion). PMS and the percentage of spermatozoa with an intact plasma membrane (IPM) were evaluated before and after freezing. Although semen charatcteristics and fertility were within a physiological range, significant differences among stallions were found for gel-free volume, percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa, PMS, and fertility but there was no clear relationship between these parameters. The response to liquid storage of diluted semen samples differed among stallions and best results were obtained in a stallion with the highest initial motility. The freezability of semen from the 4 stallions was poor with both of the freezing protocols (PMS range 13.8%-26.3% ; IPM range 19.5%-38.0%). Results of liquid storage and cryopreservation were not correlated in individual stallions and were not related to their fertility. Since predictability for the response to semen preservation is low, the suitability of individual stallions for semen preservation has to be examined carefully. To improve the freezability of semen from Draft stallions, currently employed standard Protocols for cryopreservation need to be modified.
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  • Erika SASAKI, Yukio KANAI, Tateki CHIKAMUNE, Michiharu SAKURAI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 231-236
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The Kit tyrosine kinase (Kit) encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene is a receptor for stem cell factor (SCF). Kit proteins of mice and humans are expressed in various kinds of hematopoietic progenitor cells and are essential for the growth of these cells. Wild-type chKit (chKit+) and a mutant chKit (chKit42) that contained an amino acid change from Asp777 to Asn corresponding to that in Kit of the W42 mutant mice were produced in Cos-1 cells transfected with expression plasmids containing the chicken c-kit cDNA, and characterized using two kinds of anti-chKit antisera. The W42 mutant Kit has previously been shown to be defective for kinase activity. The chKit+ of 145 kilodalton (kDa) and 130 kDa with varying degrees of N-linked glycosylation were detected. Western blot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody showed that autophosphorylation of chKit+ was greatly enhanced upon chicken SCF induction. The chKit+ did not respond to mouse SCF. The kinase activity of chKit42 was abolished by the amino acid substitution, indicating the Asp777 residue was essential for the activity. In addition, 145 kDa chKit conjugated with sialic acid residue(s) was detected in chicken brain by immunoprecipitation using the antisera. An in vitro kinase assay showed the kinase activity of this protein. These structural and functional similarities of chKit to mammalian Kit proteins shown in this study implicate a possible role of chKit in chicken hematopoietic system.
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  • Muhammad Iqbal BHAIYAT, Yoshiyasu KOBAYASHI, Chitoshi ITAKURA, Muhamma ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 237-244
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Neuroadapted Newcastle disease virus (Q10) was selected by tenth serial passage, in the chicken brain, of a mesogenic strain (Q0) originally isolated from quails. Specific pathogen-free birds were inoculated intranasally with one of these viruses. At daily intervals for 7 days and then at l0, 14, and 21 days post-inoculation (PI), two birds from each group were killed and samples of the brain were collected for histopathological and virological examination. Q10 caused severe nonsuppurative encephalitis with nervous signs and high mortality. Lesions characterized by neuronal degeneration and necrosis, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, and focal or diffuse astrogliosis occurred mainly in the parahippocampal cortex, hippocampus, hyperstriatum, neostriatum, subleptomeningeal and periventricular regions of the cerebrum. Spongy changes with neuronal degeneration and axonal spheroids were also observed in the brain stem of a few cases. The amount of virus in the brain reached a peak on day 4 PI and virus could not be recovered from the brain after 6 days PI. In contrast, Q0 caused nonfatal asymptomatic disease and virus could not be isolated from the brain, sections of which showed only minimal inflammatory changes. This difference in the lesions of the brain might be related to neurovirulence and, neuroadaptation by serial passage may occur by increased efficiency of viral replication in neurons.
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  • Shigeyuki TANABE, Yasuho TAURA, Shuichi FURUSAWA, Yoshikazu HIROTA, Mi ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 245-249
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to rat hepatocytes (HCs) in mice were investigated by flow cytometric analysis and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies directed against murine class II, CD4, and CD8 antigens. Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with 106 rat HCs (referred to as s.c.-immunized mice), and control mice were injected s.c. with sterile Hanks' solution (non-immunized mice). Four days later, 105 rat HCs were injected into the footpad of s.c.-immunized mice and non-immunized mice. The DTH response in s.c.-immunized mice significantly increased after challenge when compared to that in non-immunized mice. The numbers of class II+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells in the footpad, and CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the inguinal lymph node of s.c. -immunized mice significantly increased during the DTH response. An increase in the number of CD4+ cells in the footpad of s.c.-immunized mice after challenge was more significant than that of non-immunized mice. The number of CD4+ cells increased more markedly in the footpad of s.c.-immunized mice as compared to that of CD8+ cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies of the footpad of s.c.-immunized mice showed more severe infiltration of CD4+ cells rather than CD8+ cells at the injection site of rat HCs. These results suggest that the DTH response in the footpad of mice immunized with rat HCs is associated with severe infiltration of CD4+ cells.
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  • Mohammad Abdul AWAL, Mitsuharu MATSUMOTO, Hayao NISHINAKAGAWA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 251-256
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Morphometrical changes of the arterial walls from the ascending aorta to the abdomino-inguinal mammary glands of rat from virgin through pregnancy, lactation and post-weaning stages were investigated by using a light microscope and an image analyzer. Based on the histological architecture and organization of connective tissue fibers and smooth muscle cells in the media, the arterial segments were clearly identified into three types; elastic, transitional and muscular types. The ascending aorta, the aortic arch, the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta were identified as elastic type and the maximum number of elastic lamellae was recorded in the ascending aorta as 10-13. In elastic type of arteries, the tunica media was thicker than other tunics with the exception of the abdominal aorta, in which the tunica externa was a little bit thicker than that of the media. From the external iliac artery to the proximal part of the femoral artery, the arterial segments were transitional in type and the elastic lamellae were ranged from 1-3 in numbers; The deep circumflex iliac, the external pudendal, the caudal superficial epigastric, and the mammary arteries were identified as muscular type, and the media was completely devoid of elastic lamellae. Distinguishable significant changes of diameters and thickness of the arteries were recorded in the deep circumflex iliac, the external pudendal, the caudal superficial epigastric and the mammary arteries, and showed that the diameters and thickness were gradually increased during pregnancy and reached to the maximum values during lactation and again decreased following the post-weaning stages. It is assumed that the histological arrangements of tissues in the arterial walls and the changes of diameters and thickness among the reproductive stages are certainly closely related to the functional demand of the mammary glands.
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  • Kiyoshi TAGUCHI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 257-260
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    In 368 cows with various abomasal disorders - left abomasal displacement (LAD), right abomasal displacement (RAD), abomasal volvulus (AV) and abomasal impaction (vagal indigestion) - the degree of dehydration was compared with electrolytes and acid-base status of the cows. No clinical symptom of dehydration was observed in 62% of cases with LAD and 43% of cases with RAD. The cows were moderately and severely dehydrated in 86% of the cases with AV and 84% with abomasal impaction. Hypochloremic alkalosis was observed in cows with LAD only when the cows were severely dehydrated, but cows with RAD revealed less electrolytes and acid-base abnormalities despite the increase in the dehydration score. In cows with AV, the acid-base status could not be predicted by the degree of dehydration. Profound hypokalemia and hypochloremia were observed in cows with abomasal impaction for all dehydration states. These findings indicated that hypochloremic alkalosis could be predicted in cows with abomasal impaction for all dehydration states and in LAD cases with marked dehydration, but not in RAD cases.
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  • Yuji UEDA, Shigenobu OHTSUKI, Noriaki NARUKAWA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 261-265
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The efficacy of florfenicol was evaluated on experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia in 5 to 7-week-old pigs. All pigs were intranasally inoculated with bacterial suspension containing 108 or 109 colony forming units of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Fukushima (serotype 2), Shope4074 (serotype 1), K17 (serotype 5), 8541 or 8543 (serotype 2; thiamphenicol-resistant strain). Florfenicol and thiamphenicol were given in feed for 12 days, from 5 days before inoculation to 7 days post inoculation (at necropsy). More than half the pigs died in the infected control groups, while no pigs died in florfenicol 50 ppm groups inoculated with each strain. On inoculation with thiamphenicol-sensitive strains, Fukushima, Shope4074 and K17, the average total score of clinical signs and percentage of lung lesion area in florfenicol 50 ppm groups were significantly lower than those in the infected control groups (P<0.05). On inoculation with thiamphenicol-resistant strains, 8541 and 8543, the average total score of clinical signs and percentage of lung lesion area in florfenicol 50ppm groups were significantly lower than those in the infected control and thiamphenicol 200 ppm groups (P<0.05). The development of pleuropneumonia was remarkably prevented by medication with feed containing florfenicol in pigs inoculated with serotype 1, 2, 5strains and thiamphenicol-resistant strains of A. pleuropneumoniae.
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  • Munehiro OKAMOTO, Hiromi UEDA, Masanobu HAYASHI, Yuzaburo OKU, Tsutomu ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 267-272
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    DNA from T. taeniaeformis digested with the restriction endonuclease was hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Metacestode and adult showed same clear multibanding patterns, which were characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprinting. The fingerprinting patterns were quite different from those of the rodent hosts. Genetic variations in 4 laboratory-reared isolates of T. taeniaeformis, including 3 isolates which have been reported to be indistinguishable by infectivity, morphology and protein composition of metaccstode, were investigated using this technique. Each of the 4 isolates exhibited isolate-specific fingerprinting patterns and were easily distinguished from one another, thus it was considered that (CAC)5 was a highly resolvable and informative probe for cestodes. However, it was also indicated that (CAC)5 was so sensitive that applying fingerprinting with (CAC)5 to taxonomical or phylogenetic analysis was limited where habitat of the host was restricted to the small area. In comparison to fingerprinting with <32>P-labeled (CAC)5, fingerprinting with digoxigenated (CAC)5 represented more and sharper bands. It was considered that a digoxigenated probe was more useful for genetic analysis of cestodes.
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  • Haruo MORITA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 273-277
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The corneal endothelia of 19 male and 19 female Japanese White rabbits (age: 6 to 15 months) were examined with a contact-type specular microscope under general anesthesia. The specular microscopy showed uniform-sized, pentagonal or hexagonal endothelia arranged regularly on the innermost layer of the cornea. In addition, large endothelial cells were sporadically observed in some rabbits. These large cells had smooth contour, rind were 3 to 15 times as large as the cells of standard size. The large cells were isolated from each other and randomly located in one or both eyes of both sexes in all age groups examined. The presence of large endothelial cells was not related with the wounds on the corneal surface or the inflammation in the anterior chamber. Concerning the cell density (cells/mm2) and the incidence of the large cell, no statistically significant difference was observed between the left and right eyes or between sexes. However, the cell density decreased in rabbits over 12 months old.
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  • Shuichi KUBOTA, Chihiro SUGIMOTO, Misao ONUMA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 279-282
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    In order to differentiate parasite populations bearing two allelic forms of p33/32, an immunodominant piroplasm surface protein of Theileria sergenti, two sets of oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify either of the two allele by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each set of the primers differentially amplified either of Ikeda- or Chitose-type p33/32 genes. By using this allele-specific PCR and restriction enzyme digestion of amplified products, parasite populations within field isolates collected from different geographical regions in Japan were analyzed. Both of the allelic forms were detected in 13 samples out of 20 isolates and stocks by PCR. Either of Ikeda or Chitose type of p33/32 allele was detected in the other 7 samples. These results indicated that the majority of T. sergenti-infected calves (11/15) in Japan harbored mixed parasite populations bearing at least two different alleles of p33/32.
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  • Shintaro OHTANI, Kiyoshi OKUDA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 283-286
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The endometrium plays an important role during attachment and implantation of embryos. Using histological techniques, we evaluated the morphological changes of the endometrium in repeat breeder cows. Endometrial biopsy specimens were obtained from 5 Holstein repeat breeder cows, 5 normally cyclic Holstein cows and 5 normally cyclic Holstein heifers on Days 1 and 8 after estrus. On Day 1, in the repeat breeder cows, the glandular secretions and supranuclear vacuolation were observed, but glandular mitoses were not observed, whereas these secretory characteristics were not observed in the normal cows. However, the appearance of stromal mitoses, stromal edema and pseudodecidual reaction was observed as in the normal cyclic cows. On Day 8, in the repeat breeder cows, the characteristics on the glandular indices were not different from those on Day 1, and were similar to those of the normal cows on Day 8. But, the characteristics on the stromal indices, the stromal mitoses and pseudodecidual reaction, were not observed, although these characteristics were observed in the normally cyclic cows. The presence of advanced morphology in the gland on Day 1 and the stroma on Day 8 indicates that these two events are controlled independently. These endometrial asynchrony might result in cows repeat breeding.
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  • Gen KINOSHITA, Makoto WASHIZU, Norihisa MURATA, Motoki KONDO, Yoshihit ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 287-291
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effects of dopamine and dobutamine in various doses on liver oxygen supply-uptake relationship were studied in 12 mongrel dogs. Dopamine 3 and 7 μg/kg/min infusion rates and dobutamine 5 μg/kg/min infusion rate did not produce any changes in total liver oxygen delivery. On the contrary, total liver oxygen delivery was increased at the 15 μg/kg/min dopamine in fusion rate and dobutamine 10 and 15 μg/kg/min infusion rates. The ratio of total liver oxygen delivery to the systemic oxygen delivery was increased at the 15 μg/kg/min dopamine infusion rate. Liver oxygen extraction ratio was decreased at the 15 μg/kg/min dopamine infusion rate and at the same rate of dobutamine. These decreases were due to the increases in oxygen delivery while both oxygen uptakes were avariant from control levels. The results of this study demonstrated that high dose of dopamine (15 μg/kg/min) and medium and high doses of dobutamine (10 and 15 μg/kg/min) should be useful to increase the liver oxygen delivery. However, these increases in liver oxygen delivery during dopamine and dobutamine infusion were not associated with an improvement in liver oxygen metabolism, since liver oxygen uptake was not changed.
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  • Gen KINOSHITA, Makoto WASHIZU, Norihisa MURATA, Motoki KONDO, Yoshihit ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 293-297
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The selective effects od dopamine and dobutamine in various doses on liver circulation were studied in 12 mongrel dogs. Dopamine increased portal flow but decreased hepatic arterial flow markedly as infusion rate of dopamine increased. Dopamine 3μg/kg/min infusion rate produced vasodilation in mesenteric vascular bed and the portal flow ratio to cardiac output was significantly increased. Dobutamine increased both portal and hepatic arterial flows at the 5 and 10 μg/kg/min dobutamine infusion rates, and decreased hepatic arterial flow at the 15 μg/kg/min dobutamine infusion rate. Both dopamine and dobutamine increased total liver flows, however, total liver flow ratio to cardiac output was not increased. Pressure gradient of portal system was not changed during dopamine and dobutamine infusion, since both portal venous pressure and hepatic venous pressure were avariant from control values. These findings suggest that congestive hyperemia was not occurred in intrahepatic portal vascular system when portal flows were increased during dopamine and dobutamine infusion. The results of this study demonstrate that both dopamine and dobutamine did not produce selective increases in total liver blood flow. In addition, both agents should be safe to use to the normal liver patient; total liver blood flow did not decrease and intrahepatic congestive hyperemia was not occurred when portal flow was increased.
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  • Yuichi YOKOMIZO, Yasuyuki MORI, Yoshihiro SHIMOJI, Shinya SHIMIZU, Hir ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 299-305
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The potential of staphylococcal enterotoxin A(SEA), B(SEB), C(SEC) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) to act as superantigens by inducing polyclonal T-cell mitogenesis and cytokine production was tested on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These four toxins were capable of inducing strong proliferative response of PBMC from calves over a broad dosage range (1 pg/ml to 1 μg/ml) in vitro. The toxin-activated blast cells consisted of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ T-cells, but the T-cell proliferation depended upon the presence of monocytes. Treatment of monocytes with monoclonal antibody to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens substantially inhibited the toxin-induced T-cell proliferative response, but paraformaldehyde-fixation did not abrogate the accessory function. SEA, SEB, SEC and TSST-1, all induced the in vitro release of interleukin-2, interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that SEA, SEB, SEC and TSST-1 are capable of acting as superantigens by stimulating bovine T-cells as shown in the human and murine systems. The possible implications of these toxins in the immunopathogenesis of bovine mastitis caused by the infection with staphylococcus aureus are discussed.
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  • Nobuaki HIRAI, Hiroyuki FURUYAMA, Akira AWAYA, Misao ONUMA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 307-310
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effect of serum thymic factor (FTS) administration in bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV)-infected calves and rabbits was examined. We previously found that some of the macrophage functions were depressed and humoral immune responses against foreign proteins were delayed in BIV-infected calves compared to uninfected calves. After FTS administration, however, no delay of antibody responses against foreign proteins was observed in BIV-infected calves. Though the chemiluminescence (CL) responses of macrophages in BIV-infected calves were significantly depressed (p<0.05), FTS administration resulted in the recovery of the CL responses in the BIV-infected calves comparable to those in the control calves. Antibody responses against foreign proteins in BIV-infected rabbits were significantly depressed (p<0.025) as compared with those in uninfected rabbits, though the depression became no significant after FTS administration.
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  • M.D. RUBIO, A. MUNOZ, R. SANTISTEBAN, P. TOVAR, F.M. CASTEJON
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 311-315
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Exercise-induced hematological alterations were studied in 20 four-year old foals, 11 Andalusian and 9 Arabian. They were subjected to a test exercise program consisting of 4 levels of gradually increasing intensity (15, 20, 25 and 30 km/hr) with a duration of 5min each. Blood samples were taken during resting, after each exercise level and at 10 and 30 min of recovery from exercise. The following hematic parameters were analyzed: red blood count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin, volumetric indexes (MCV, MCH and MHCH) and total plasma proteins. The alterations as a result of the physical effort were studied as well as any possible differences between the two breeds. The Arabian foals showed higher total plasma protein concentrations when resting, after each exercise level and at 10 mins of recovery time. The other variables studied remained with similar values in the two breeds without any significant changes.
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  • Makoto HIRAKO, Hideo KAMOMAE, Ikuo DOMEKI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 317-321
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) is a long acting luteotropin with follitropin activity. Cattle were used to examine whether a smaller dose of PMSG has substantial luteotropic effect without excessive follitropic effects. Eleven Japanese Black heifers were randomly assigned to two groups. Animals were administered 500 IU PMSG on the day of ovulation (Day 0) to promote the formation of corpus luteum (group A; N=5) or Day 7 to stimulate the luteal function (group B; N=6). Four of them were given injections of saline on Days 0 and 7 of the preceding estrous cycle for control. All animals were examined by palpation per rectum every other morning and bled every day for steroids analyses. The length of estrous cycle was shortened by the treatment in group A compared with the previous cycle, whereas it was extended in group B (P<0.05). Progesterone secretion was not enhanced in group A, but it was significantly elevated and sustained on higher levels in group B (P<0.05) as compared with the control. Although estradiol-17β concentrations were significantly increased in both PMSG-treated groups (P<0.05), no excessive follicular development was observed. It is concluded that 500 IU PMSG administered on Day 7 enhances luteal function without excessive follicular development, whereas the administration on Day 0 has an adverse effect on luteal function.
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  • Gen KINOSHITA, Makoto WASHIZU, Motoki KONDO, Yoshihito MATSUKURA, Tsuk ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 323-326
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Hepatic hemodynamics and the liver oxygen supply-uptake relationship, in response to eating, were investigated in a chronically catheterized conscious dog method. Portal venous pressure was significantly increased after eating, however was within the normal range reported previously. Hepatic venous pressure correlated well with portal venous pressure throughout the experiment, therefore, the pressure gradient of the portal system was unchanged. Hepatic venous oxygen content, correlated well with liver oxygen extraction, was unchanged after eating. Therefore, it is possible to assume that liver oxygen supply-uptake relationship is well maintained during digestion of food.
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  • Kozo TAKASE, Mamoru Jiruberto BABA, Rikako NISHI, Hideo FUJIKAWA, Shin ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 327-330
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Agar-gel precipitin responses obtained for serologically different strains of fowl adenovirus (FAV) in tests using antigens prepared from FAV-infected chorioallantoic membranes (CAM antigen) and chicken kidney cell cultures (CKC antigen) were compared. Findings showed that both types of antigens exhibited less sensitivity to heterologous than to homologous antisera and that quantitative differences in sensitivity were present between serotypes. CAM antigens were more sensitive than CKC antigens to heterologous antisera. Polyvalent CAM antigens containing 2 or 3 antigens increased sensitivity in testing of field serum samples, resulting in a higher rate of detection.
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  • Motozumi MATSUI, Yoshiyuki TAKAHASHI, Mitsugu HISHINUMA, Hiroshi KANAG ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 331-336
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To obtain information about the effects of insulin on the development of bovine embryos, fertilized bovine embryos in vitro were cultured in a chemically defined, protein-free medium: modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) supplemented with 1 mg/ml polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The percentage of embryos reaching the morula stage was not affected by the addition of 5 μg/ml insulin alone, but insulin showed a beneficial synergistic effect with amino acids (AAs) on the embryonic development to morula. Supplementation of insulin (1-100 μg/ml) with mSOF + AAs did not improve the percentage of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage. However, a significant increase in cell numbers of blastocysts was observed with the addition of 1 mM glucose and 1 or 10 μg/ml insulin from the morula stage. These results show that insulin has a beneficial effect on the preimplantation development of bovine embryos in the presence of AAs and/or glucose, and suggest that insulin improves embryonic development by stimulating AAs transport and/or glucose uptake.
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  • Takashi HASEGAWA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 337-338
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A 1.6 year-old male golden hamster was presented with alopecia on the back. The animal's physical condition was slightly below normal, and moderate pruritus was observed. Examination of skin scraping revealed mites identified as Demodex sp. Initially, combined therapy using 1% of selenium sulfide shampoo and a topical application of 0.013% amitraz was carried out, although this was not completely successful. Repeated use of 0.017% coumaphos was effective in achieving a complete cure of the alopecia associated with demodicosis. No adverse side effects were recognized during the treatment of this case.
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  • Hijiri IWATA, Shinji YAMAMOTO, Shinichi MIKAMI, Seiki YAMAKAWA, Yasuhi ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 339-340
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The occurrence of spontaneous osteochondroma in rats is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. Spontaneous multiple osteochondroma was found in a male SD strain rat, at the age of 58 weeks from the control group in a toxicity study. Histological findings of both a walnut-sized mass involving the humerus and scapula of right forelimb and a soybean-sized mass adjacent to the costochondrial junction of the right posterior rib were similar in appearance. The outer layer of the tumors consisted of hyaline cartilage and the core of the tumors consisted of trabecular bone with abundant fatty bone marrow. The periosteum of the surface was continuous with that of the parent bone, and cortical bone and the medullary cavity of the parent bone communicated with those of the tumors. Because of showing progressive enlargement, multiple osteochondromas in the rat were considered to be neoplastic in nature.
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  • Yasuro ATOJI, Yoshio YAMAMOTO, Yoshitaka SUZUKI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 341-342
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Neurotensin immunocytochemistry was carried out in the pigeon retina after colchicine had been injected into a ventricle of the brain. Immunoreactivity was observed in the ganglion cells and amacrine cells. The ganglion cells were stained in small and large types. This result indicates the presence of neruotensin in the ganglion cells of the pigeon retina.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 343-346
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The right lung of the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma) consists of the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes. The left lung consists of the middle and caudal lobes. The Japanese badger has four bronchiole systems, dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial, on each side. The cranial lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the dorsal bronchiole system. The middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. The accessory lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole System. The remaining bronchioles of the four bronchiole systems constitute the caudal lobe.
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  • Tadashi MIYAMOTO, Yasuho TAURA, Satoshi UNE, Makoto YOSHITAKE, Sanenor ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 347-349
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The immunological responses to commercially available polyvalent vaccines in dogs were examined. There was a tendency in decreased lymphocyte counts on day 7 in the puppy and adult dogs. There was a significant increase in the blastogenesis of lymphocytes on day 7 and 21 in puppies, whereas no significant changes were seen in the adult dogs. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and canine parvo-virus (CPV) vaccine monitored 0, 3, 8 weeks after vaccination produced strong reactions, in particular those to CPV vaccine rose significantly after vaccination and maintained the higher responses for at least 2 months. Therefore, it is considered that vaccination is immunomodulative rather than immunosuppressive and that DTH responses to PHA and CPV vaccine are helpful to monitor non-specific and specific immune functions in vivo.
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  • Naoaki MISAWA, Kazunori KUMAMOTO, Shigeyuki NYUTA, Mituaki TUNEYOSHI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 351-353
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, a simple and rapid method, was applied for the evaluation of bacterial contamination of carcasses in a slaughterhouse . Twenty-five pork carcasses were examined for bacterial contamination, and we evaluated the correlation between the LAL test and the methods usually employed for detecting indicator organisms of total viable cells, coliforms or Staphylococcus aureus. The reciprocal of the highest dilution found to be positive was used as the LAL index. A high correlation was observed between the LAL index and the number of coliforms, but not between the index and the number of other organisms. The LAL test was accomplished within 2 hr after sampling, and thus may serve as a useful tool for the substitute indicator of coliforms among bacterial contamination in carcasses.
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  • Akira ITO, Soichi IMAI, Masaharu MANDA, Keiji OGIMOTO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 355-357
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The composition of rumen ciliate protozoa was surveyed in 15 Tokara native goats, Capra hircus domesticus, inhibiting Kagoshima, Japan. As a result, of 11 species with 3 forms under 5 genera detected, Entodinium simplex, E. nanellum and E. rectangulatum were found in all the animals examined. The large ophryoscolecid ciliates detected were Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Metadinium affine alone, which have been regarded as the typical members of Type A composition proposed by Eadie. Since Tokara native goats have been bred isolated in a small islet for a long time, native goats that had been kept in south Japan might possess Type A fauna. Average ciliate density was 43.9×104 per 1 ml of rumen fluid. The number of species per host was 8.3 on average. Diversity index was 1.412 on average.
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  • Hiroto MIYATA, Mitsuo ABE, Kazushige TAKEHANA, Kenji IWASA, Takeo HIRA ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 359-361
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Thick primary processes issued from the hemispherical or plate-like cell bodies of podocytes in bovine renal corpuscles. These processes branched into secondary and tertiary ones, but no fine pedicels were observed on the outer surface of the podocytes by scanning electron microscopy, because each primary process closely interdigitated with those of adjacent cells. Many pedicels, however, were observed under the processes by using the freeze-fractograph and a transmission electron microscope.
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  • Yuji UEDA, Itaru SUENAGA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 363-364
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A total of 90 strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from porcine pneumonic lungs in Japan during 1989 to 1993 were investigated for their in vitro susceptibility to florfenicol (a derivative of thiamphenicol) and other drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of florfenicol against A. pleuropneumoniae ranged from 0.2 to 1.56 μg/ml with a peak at 0.39 μg/ml. Florfenicol showed a high antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae regardless of the sensitivity of the strains to thiamphenicol.
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  • Atsushi MIYAMOTO, Junko KANDA, Akira NISHIO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 365-366
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) induced relaxations in porcine and bovine basilar arteries which were abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by L-nitro-arginine (LNAG). However, TNS induced contractions in equine basilar artery which were abolished by TTX and by guanethidine, but not by LNAG. These results suggest that the TNS-induced contractions of equine basilar arteries may be mediated by norepinephrine release.
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  • Hiroyoshi NINOMIYA, Tomo INOMATA, Yoshito WAKAO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 367-371
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Intra hepatic portal-venous changes in dogs with dirofilariasis, in which characteristic cavernous transformation has been histologically observed, were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of resin casts of vasculature. Changes in the central and sublobular veins were the most significant. The venous channels were extremely dilated, thin-walled and showed cavernous structure. SEM observation showed multi-saccular formation with beads-like, helical and extremely dilated configuration. The conducting venules, i.e. terminal tributaries of the portal vein, showed a rapid taper just before the point of merging into sinusoids. Neither vascular Proliferation nor collateral circulation around the Portal channels could be detected in the present resin cast study.
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  • Shigeru SATO, Toshiyuki SUZUKI, Keiji OKADA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 373-375
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Mitogenic responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes in naturally occurring clinical puerperal metritis and mastitis were investigated. Glucose consumption index (GCI) values for phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in the puerperal metritic cows and mastitic cows were significantly lower than those in the healthy cows. Suppression of lymphocyte blastogenesis was correlated to an increased concentration of serum ammonia in the puerperal metritic cows, and of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AG) in the mastitic cows. Lymphocyte blastogenesis in the mastitic cows was also correlated to the serum concentration of vitamin E. These findings indicate that the puerperal metritic and mastitic cows are associated with impaired lymphocyte blastogenesis.
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  • Saburo MINAMI, Yoshiharu OKAMOTO, Akira MATSUHASHI, Hitoshi SASHIWA, H ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 377-378
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the exudate induced by subcutaneous implantation of a complex formed from non-woven fabric of polyester (NWF) and polymeric N-acety1-D-glucosamine (chitin) (chitin/NWF) or by implantation of NWF in dogs was measured by radioimmunoassay. The amount of PGE2 in the exudate induced by chitin/NWF was about five times as high as that in the exudate induced by NWF (p<0.05), while the level of PGE2 in the exudate was similar to that ip serum.
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  • Reiko USUI, Junko HIROTA, Takashi OYAMADA, Shigenori IKEMOTO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 379-380
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The canine C blood group was determined by an agglutination reaction with a plant agglutinin extracted from the seeds of Clerodendron trichotomum (CTL). A positive agglutination reaction was classified as type C and a negative reaction as type c. In this study, the C phenotype and the gene frequency of C were examined in 377 dogs (224 purebred dogs of 29 breeds and 153 mongrel dogs) that were bred in Utsunomiya-city, Tochigi Prefecture. Phenotype C was less frequent than phenotype c in every purebred dog. A variation in C gene frequency was observed among the purebred dogs. The highest frequency of C allele was in the Yorkshire Terrier (0.202), followed by Beagle, Shiba (0.091), Maltese (0.085), Shi Tzu (0.051) and Shetland Sheepdog (0.036). The C blood group system as a genetic marker may provide useful information for bleed identification, genetic studies between breeds, and pedigree certification.
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  • Junko HIROTA, Reiko USUI, Takashi OYAMADA, Shigenori IKEMOTO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 381-383
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The phenotypes and gene frequencies of genetic markers in 8 blood group systems were studied in Japanese crossbred cats. The gene frequency was 0.051 for Ca, 0.949 for ca, 0.484 for TFF, 0.5133 for TFs, 0.279 for GCF, 0.721 for GCs, 0.945 for PGDA, 0.055 for PGDB, 0.544 for ESD1 and 0.456 for ESD2. Genetic polymorphism was not detected in the PGM, ACP and GLO systems.
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  • Shozo OKANO, Masahiro TAGAWA, Norimoto URAKAWA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 2 Pages 385-387
    Published: April 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The therapeutic effects of TCV-309, a novel platelet activating factor antagonist, on hemodynamics in endotoxin-induced shock were evaluated. Ten Beagle dogs were used under general anesthesia and artificial ventilation. After intravenous injection of endotoxin (3 mg/kg), TCV-309 (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to the dogs. The results showed that the depression of mean aortic pressure, cardiac output, left ventricular stroke work index and urine volume which occurred in endotoxin shock was significantly improved by administration of TCV-309. These results suggested that TCV-309 was a useful therapeutic for the circulatory disturbance in endotoxin shock.
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