The fine structures of different tendons in various animals at different ages have been studied extensively to reveal their arrangement and growth patterns. However, knowledge of the microstructures of the growing tenocytes in the tendons of piglets is still lacking. Thus, we performed the first morphometric analysis to describe the characteristics of tenocytes in the metacarpal superficial digital flexor tendon of 0-, 10- and 20-day-old piglets. In the present study, hydrochloric acid/collagenase digestion was applied to remove the interstitial connective tissue to obtain clear visualization of intact tenocytes and their cytoplasmic processes (Cp). Then, the morphometry of the tenocytes was investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The mean ± SE values of the fascicle area, number of tenocytes/fascicle, cell density, number of Cp/tenocyte, length of Cp, and thickness of Cp were compared among the three age groups. Significant differences (judged at P<0.05) were found in almost all morphometric aspects among the age groups, except for the number of Cp/cell (P=0.545) and thickness of the Cp (P=0.105). A decrease of cell density corresponded with an increase in the length of the Cp, which were extended to connect either with the Cp of the other tenocytes or the surrounding endotendineum. Moreover, an increase of the fascicle area reflected the increase in tendon diameter. The revealed morphometric characteristics are thus the outcome of tendon growth.
To establish an accurate, rapid, and a quantifiable method for the detection of Riemerella anatipestifer infection, a widespread infectious disease in birds, we developed a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay by using DtxR gene-specific primers and a TaqMan probe. The standard curve established with a linear correlation (R2) of 0.998 and efficiency of 99% between the Ct value and the logarithm of the plasmid copy number. The reproducibility and specificity of the real-time PCR assay were confirmed by using plasmids containing DtxR genes or DNAs extracted from well-known bacteria or viruses causing duck diseases. The real-time PCR assay was 100 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR. The results reveal that the established real-time PCR assay might be a useful method for diagnosis and quantitative detection of Riemerella anatipestifer in birds.
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using lipopolysaccharide extract as antigen was evaluated for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 15. The serovar 15 ELISA had a higher sensitivity and specificity than latex agglutination test for 63 and 80 sera from pigs experimentally infected and not infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. When the serovar 15 ELISA was applied to 454 field sera, high rates of seropositivity were found in pigs from farms infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15, but not in those from farms free of A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15. The results suggest that the serovar 15 ELISA may be useful for the serological surveillance of infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15.
Bovine mastitis causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry. Effective prevention of bovine mastitis requires an understanding of the infection status of a pathogenic microorganism in a herd that has not yet shown clinical signs of mastitis and appropriate treatment specific for the pathogenic microorganism. However, bacterial identification by culture has drawbacks in that the sensitivity may be low and the procedure can be complex. In this study, we developed a genetic detection method to identify mastitis pathogens using a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical DNA chip which can specifically detect bacterial DNA in milk specimens. First, we selected microorganisms belonging to 12 families and/or genera associated with mastitis for which testing should be performed. Next, we optimized the conditions for amplifying microorganism DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using 32 primers and the use of a DNA chip capable of measuring all pathogens simultaneously. Sample detection could be completed in just a few hours using this method. Comparison of the results obtained with our DNA chip method and those obtained by bacterial culture verified that when the culture method was set to 100%, the total positive concordance rate of the DNA chip was 85.0% and the total negative concordance rate was 86.9%. Furthermore, the proposed method allows both rapid and highly sensitive detection of mastitis pathogens. We believe that this method will contribute to the development of an effective mastitis control program.
A prospective observational study was performed in canine clinical medicine to evaluate the emetic action and adverse effects of tranexamic acid. Veterinarians treated 137 dogs with a single dose of tranexamic acid (50 mg/kg, IV) after accidental ingestion of foreign substances. If needed, a second (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 20–50 mg/kg, IV) or third dose (median, 50 mg/kg; range, 25–50 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in 116 of 137 (84.7%) dogs. Median time to onset of emesis was 116.5 sec (range, 26–370 sec), median duration of emesis was 151.5 sec (range, 30–780 sec), and median number of emesis episodes was 2 (range, 1–8). Second and third administrations of tranexamic acid induced emesis in 64.7 and 66.7% of dogs, respectively. In total, IV administration of tranexamic acid successfully induced emesis in 129 of 137 (94.2%) dogs. Adverse effects included a tonic-clonic convulsion and hemostatic disorder in two different dogs, both of which recovered after receiving medical care. Tranexamic acid induced emesis in most dogs following a single-dose. When a single dose was not sufficient, an additional dosage effectively induced emesis. Overall, adverse effects were considered low and self-limiting.
A 16-year-old castrated male mongrel cat presented with swelling under the left pinna and a 3 -month history of voice change. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed circumferential oedema around the arytenoid cartilages and hypersecretion of saliva. Histopathological examination of the mass around the left ear canal was considered the primary lesion that originated from cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma or parotid gland adenocarcinoma, and it metastasized to the larynx, lung and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes. This report provides new insights into feline laryngeal diseases which could result in laryngeal metastasis with slight mucosal irregularity alone and without obvious radiographic abnormalities. Therefore, histopathological examination should be performed when a cat presents clinical signs such as stridor, dysphonia or voice change without any mass-forming laryngeal lesion.
A Japanese Black calf, manifested by clinical signs of inability to stand and extending hind limbs after birth, was investigated clinically and pathologically. In the neurological inspection, gastrocnemius reflex and patellar tendon reflex of the right hind limb were hyperactive, and gastrocnemius reflex and crossed extension reflex of the left hind limb were also hyperactive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination showed a cavity in the cord at the area of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae in T2-weighted imaging. After the calf was euthanized, necropsy confirmed the swelling of the spinal cord at the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. The histopathological examination confirmed that the central canal remained open, and the inner surface of central canal was lined with ependymal cells. Therefore, this calf was diagnosed to have hydromyelia of the lumbar cord. This study indicated that MRI was useful for diagnosing myelodysplasia such as hydoromyelia. This is the first report of hydoromyelia in Japanese Black calf.
For field-identification of taeniid cestodes in canine animals in Tibetan area, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for Echinococcus multilocularis, E. shiquicus, Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis and T. crassiceps were developed and evaluated along with the reported assay for E. granulosus. The LAMP assays showed specific reaction with their corresponding target species DNA with the detection limit of 1 to 10 pg. Moreover, the assays for E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, T. hydatigena and T. multiceps could detect DNA extracted from 3 or more eggs of their corresponding target species. Then, the LAMP assays were applied on samples containing 3 to 35 taeniid eggs obtained from 61 field-collected canine feces in Qinghai, and the result was compared with a reported multiplex PCR and sequence analysis. The LAMP assays and the PCR detected single species DNA of E. granulosus, E. shiquicus, T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in 5, 2, 44 and 2 samples, respectively. In the rest 8 samples, DNA of both E. granulosus and T. hydatigena were detected by the PCR but the LAMP assays detected those DNAs in 2 samples and only T. hydatigena DNA in 6 samples. It was assumed that less than 3 E. granulosus eggs were mixed in the samples although the samples contained 21 to 27 eggs in total. In conclusion, the LAMP assays were less sensitive than the multiplex PCR, but would have adequate sensitivity for field use in Tibetan area.
Pancreatic fibrosis develops as the results of the activity of myofibroblasts capable of producing collagens. The myofibroblasts derive from pancreatic interstitial cells, including pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which can express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). First, we investigated the expression patterns of vimentin, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Thy-1 and GFAP in the developing rat pancreas (in fetuses at 18 and 20 days, neonates from 1 to 21 days, and adults). Interstitial cells in the developing pancreas expressed vimentin, desmin, GFAP and Thy-1 at varying degrees; interestingly, the reactivity for desmin and vimentin was the highest in fetuses. GFAP expression was consistent between fetuses and neonates, and Thy-1 reactivity transiently increased after birth; however, α-SMA-positive interstitial cells were rarely seen. Next, we analyzed the immunophenotypical characteristics of myofibroblasts appearing in pancreatic fibrosis in dogs and cats. With increasing fibrotic grade, myofibroblasts showed increased expression of vimentin, desmin and α-SMA, in addition to increased GFAP expression. Collectively, pancreatic interstitial cells and myofibroblasts may have similar immunophenotypes, and myofibroblasts might originate partly from GFAP-expressing PSCs.
The clinical and pathological records of 44 domestic, female rabbits with an age ranging from 6–124 months (median age: 63.5 month) were assessed retrospectively for ovarian lesions. Included were all rabbits that underwent an ovariohysterectomy with a subsequent pathological examination of the genital tract between March 1997 and June 2016. Pathological examination revealed ovarian lesions in 12 of the 44 rabbits including follicular cysts (n=7), cystic rete ovarii (n=3), widespread ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification (n=2), ovarian adenoma (n=1). Clinical examination including radiographs only suggested ovarian disorders in two cases of ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification and in two cases of cystic rete ovarii. Clinical significance was only conclusive in a case of cystic rete ovarii.
A 2- to 4-year-old uncastrated male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica) bred in a local wild animal park presented with generalized clinical signs including abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia, along with subcutaneous nodules along the trunk. The patient subsequently died of chronic, progressive dyspnea despite 45 days of antibiotic treatment. At necropsy, mesenteric fat inflammation and multiple subcutaneous, peritoneal, and intraabdominal nodules were observed. The lungs demonstrated congestion and heavy coagulation, and necrotic foci were observed on the cut surface. Histopathologically, the nodules were identified as granulomatous fatty tissue with numerous lymphocytes, infiltration with lipid-laden macrophages, and fibrosis. These changes were also noted in the lung. The etiology of this condition remains undetermined.
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe axonal swelling (spheroids) throughout the nervous system. In dogs, NAD has been reported in several breeds and a missense mutation in PLA2G6 gene has recently been identified in the Papillon dog NAD. Here we performed ultrastructural analysis to clarify the detailed ultrastructural features of the Papillon dog NAD. Dystrophic axons consisted of accumulation of filamentous materials, tubulovesicular structures, and swollen edematous mitochondria with degenerated inner membranes were often observed in the central nervous system. At axonal terminals, degeneration of presynaptic membrane was also detected. As reported in Pla2g6 knockout mice, mitochondrial and presynaptic degeneration may be related with the pathogenesis of NAD in Papillon dogs.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that shows severe toxicity to humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg toxicity are not completely understood. We have previously reported that the MARCKS protein is involved in the MeHg toxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and EA.hy926 vascular endothelial cell lines. In addition, calpain, a Ca2+-dependent protease, is suggested to be associated with the MeHg toxicity. Because MARCKS is known as a substrate of calpain, we studied the relation between calpain activation and cleavage of MARCKS and its role in MeHg toxicity. In SH-SY5Y cells, MeHg decreased cell viability along with increased calcium mobilization, calpain activation and a decrease in MARCKS amounts. However, pretreatment with calpain inhibitors attenuated the decrease in cell viability and MARCKS amount induced only by 1 µM but not by 3 µM MeHg. In cells with a MARCKS knockdown, calpain inhibitors failed to attenuate the decrease in cell viability caused by MeHg. In EA.hy926 cells, although MeHg caused calcium mobilization and a decrease in MARCKS levels, calpain activation was not observed. These results indicate that the participation of calpain in the regulation of MARCKS amounts is dependent on the cell type and concentration of MeHg. In SH-SY5Y cells, calpain-mediated proteolysis of MARCKS is involved in cytotoxicity induced by a low concentration of MeHg.
The role of cardiac autonomic modulation on ventricular arrhythmia, known as ventricular premature complexes (VPC), after splenectomy was investigated. Twelve dogs undergoing splenectomy were divided into 2 groups: low VPC (<1,000/day, n=6) and high VPC groups (≥1,000/day, n=6). Electrocardiograph recording was performed prior to (D0), during the first three days (D1–3) and on day 9 (D9) after surgery. Arrhythmic indices, Tpeak-Tend, corrected QT interval and short-term variability of QT interval as well as heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were measured. In the high VPC group, the occurrences of VPC were significantly increased (P<0.05) after surgery, and reached the levels higher than those in the low VPC group. For the arrhythmic indices, only Tp-Te in the high VPC group increased significantly (P<0.05) after surgery. For HRV analysis, enhancement of both time and frequency domains were found postoperatively in both groups. On D2, however, the high VPC group showed significantly lower total power and high frequency with higher low to high frequency ratio (P<0.05) than the low VPC group. Plasma NE concentration significantly increased in the high VPC group after surgery. Dogs in the high VPC group had shorter survival time than those in the low VPC group. In conclusion, dogs with imbalance cardiac autonomic modulation accompanied with high circulating NE concentration after splenectomy are prone to ventricular arrhythmia, which leads to short survival time.
Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis (OURePTM) is a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film which generates electric potential in response to light and stimulates nearby neurons. This study aims to test surgical feasibility of subretinal implantation and functional durability of dye-coupled films in the subretinal space. The dye-coupled films were implanted subretinally by 25-gauge vitrectomy in the right eye of 11 normal beagle dogs: 2 dogs served for film removal after 5-month film implantation, 3 dogs for film removal after 3-month film implantation, 3 dogs for 3-month film implantation and pathological examination, and 3 dogs for sham surgery. The surface electric potential of the removed dye-coupled films in response to light was measured by the Kelvin Probe system. At surgery, rolled-up dye-coupled films in 5 × 5 mm square size could be inserted into subretinal space of retinal detachment induced by fluid injection with a 38-gauge polyimide tip. Retinal attachment was maintained by silicone oil injection in vitreous cavity. At autopsy, the retina in all dogs maintained the ganglion cell layer, inner and outer nuclear layers while it lost the outer segments in some part. All 5 sheets of removed dye-coupled films maintained the dye color. One sheet of the 5-month implanted film showed proportional increase of surface potential in response to increasing light intensity. Subretinal implantation of OURePTM by vitrectomy was technically feasible in canine eyes, and OURePTM maintained the function of generating light-evoked surface potential after 5 months in subretinal implantation.
Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique using propofol-guaifenesin-medetomidine (PGM) and alfaxalone-guaifenesin-medetomidine (AGM) were preliminarily evaluated in Thoroughbred horses undergoing castration. Twelve male Thoroughbred horses were assigned randomly into two groups. After premedication with intravenous (IV) administrations of medetomidine (5.0 µg/kg) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin (10 mg/kg IV), followed by either propofol (2.0 mg/kg IV) (group PGM: n=6) or alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg IV) (group AGM: n=6). Surgical anesthesia was maintained for 60 min at a constant infusion of either propofol (3.0 mg/kg/hr) (group PGM) or alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg/hr) (group AGM), in combination with guaifenesin (80 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (3.0 µg/kg/hr). Responses to surgical stimuli, cardiorespiratory values, and induction and recovery characteristics were recorded throughout anesthesia. During anesthesia induction, one horse paddled in group PGM. All horses from group AGM were maintained at adequate anesthetic depth for castration. In group PGM, 3 horses showed increased cremaster muscle tension and one showed slight movement requiring additional IV propofol to maintain surgical anesthesia. No horse exhibited apnea, although arterial oxygen tension decreased in group AGM to less than 60 mmHg. Recovery quality was good to excellent in both groups. In conclusion, TIVA using PGM and AGM infusion was available for 60 min anesthesia in Thoroughbred horses. TIVA techniques using PGM and AGM infusion provided clinically acceptable general anesthesia with mild cardiorespiratory depression. However, inspired air should be supplemented with oxygen to prevent hypoxemia during anesthesia.
A 10-year-old French bulldog presented with an abdominal tumor. Triple-phase helical computed tomography was performed, revealing a hepatic tumor, an enlarged hepatic lymph node, and no masses in other organs. The hepatic tumor demonstrated marked enhancement, similar to that of the aorta in the arterial phase. The tumor had rich vascularization and a hepatic arterio-venous shunt formed between the hepatic artery and middle hepatic vein. The hepatic tumor was surgically removed and histological diagnosis revealed a hepatic carcinoid tumor. During surgery, rapid massive arterial hemorrhage occurred from the site of the incision. The animal died without improvement post-surgery. In the case of an arterio-venous shunt in a hepatic tumor, it is important to be careful to avoid perioperative bleeding.
To clarify the mechanisms underlying the development of displaced abomasum (DA), we repositioned DA in 12 cows by rolling and observed the course of redisplacement using X-ray fluoroscopy. Displacement of the abomasum was observed to follow three patterns: displacement to the left side of the abdominal cavity through the gap formed at the reticulum, atrium of the rumen and ventral sac of the rumen (n=7); displacement to the left side after cranial movement along the diaphragm (n=3); displacement to the right side after cranial movement along the diaphragm (n=2). These differences were considered to be associated with the rumen volume. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the visual observation of the course of DA in dairy cows.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of transrectal guidance of the ovaries by an assistant on operative time during bovine laparoscopic ovariectomy. Twenty four clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into two groups. In the transrectal guidance group, an assistant grasped the ovaries via the transrectal route and pulled them to a position where they could be visualized with a camera. On the other hand, the control group was operated without guidance. The time required to remove both ovaries in the guidance group was shorter than that in the control group (P<0.01). We concluded that laparoscopic ovariectomy with transrectal guidance of the ovaries can substantially shorten operative time, thereby greatly contributing to animal welfare and to reducing the burden on the operator.
Urethral prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and cats. A 7-month-old male cat presented with intermittent penile bleeding and a red mass protruding from the tip of the penis. Urethral prolapse was diagnosed by using a surgical microcamera to examine the genital area. Urethroplasty and preputial advancement surgery were performed using a surgical microscope, to successfully correct the urethral prolapse.
Liposarcoma of the spermatic cord is extremely rare in dogs and humans. This report describes the clinical signs, typical diagnostic imaging including ultrasound and computed tomography, and treatment of a liposarcoma of the spermatic cord of a Toy Poodle confirmed by histological examination after a surgical procedure. This case highlights the importance of preoperative diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination in dogs with an inguinal or scrotal mass.
The aim of this study was to investigate osteoclastogenic properties of inflammatory cytokines at different time-points of osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from five healthy dogs were stimulated with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-17. Osteoclasts (OC) formation and function were enhanced with TNF-α regardless of temporal differences. But in contrast, IL-1β suppressed the osteoclastogenesis at early phase of the process while upregulating at the late phase. Furthermore, differentiation of OC precursors into OC was suppressed at high concentrations of IL-17. Collectively, the results revealed that suppressing TNF-α would be a promising strategy to inhibit inflammation-associated bone destruction in dogs.
Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) belongs to the Orthoreovirus genus of the Reoviridae family, which is a significant poultry pathogen leading to high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the pathogenesis of the virus is not well understood. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) combined with LC-MS-MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts (MDEF) infected with virulent (MV9710 strain) and attenuated (CA strain) MDRV and non-infected MDEFs. A total of 115 abundant protein spots were identified. Of these, 59 of differentially expressed proteins were detected, with functions in metabolism and utilization of carbohydrates and nucleotides, anti-stress, and regulation of immune and cellular process. GO analysis of the identified proteins showed that they belonged to the classes molecular function (141 proteins), cellular component (62 proteins), and biological process (146 proteins). The results were validated by qRT-PCR, which suggests that the analysis method of 2D PAGE combined with LC-MS-MS used in this study is reliable. This study lays a foundation for further investigation of the biology of MDRV infection in MDEF.
Although many studies have been conducted worldwide for Equus caballus papillomavirus (EcPV), limited information is available on the virus in Japan. We recently collected one classical viral papillomatosis sample (E150904) from a racing horse in Japan. Papillomavirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays, and the sample was diagnosed as epithelial papilloma. Full-length genome of the virus was cloned and sequenced. It was 7,613 bp in length and had the same genome organization with reported EcPV-1. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based on L1 gene revealed that the infection was caused by a variant of EcPV-1. This is the first report of EcPV infection in Japan, and would further contribute to the molecular epidemiological and pathological studies for EcPV.
Enzootic bovine leukemia is caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is transmitted vertically or horizontally through the transfer of infected cells via direct contact, through milk, insect bites and contaminated iatrogenic procedures. However, we lacked direct evidence of intrauterine infection. The purpose of this study was to confirm intrauterine BLV infection in two pregnant dams with high viral load by cesarean delivery. BLV was detected in cord and placental blood, and the BLV in the newborns showed 100% nucleotide identity with the BLV-env sequence from the dams. Notably, a newborn was seropositive for BLV but had no colostral antibodies. In this study, we presented a direct evidence of intrauterine BLV transmission in pregnant dam with a high proviral load. These results could aid the development of BLV control measures targeting viral load.
Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), caused by ovinegammaherpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), is a fatal disease in all ruminants. The epidemiological survey and molecular characterization of OvHV-2 in Mongolian livestock were performed. Of 928 blood samples, 14 were positive for OvHV-2 in sheep and native cattle from Tsenkher County and in sheep from Lun County. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the tegument gene of OvHV-2 sequences from Mongolian animals is identical to that in animals from Egypt, India, and Turkey, and is 98.0% similar to that in animals from Germany and Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of OvHV-2 in Mongolian livestock, and could provide useful information for controlling SA-MCF.
The purpose of this study was to compare the concentration of trace elements in the plasma of sea turtles that inhabited the suburban (Okinawa Main Island, n=8) and the rural coast (Yaeyama Island, n=57) in Okinawa, Japan. Particle induced X-ray emission allowed detection of 20 trace and major elements. The wild sea turtles in the suburban coast in Okinawa were found to have high concentrations of Pb, Si and Ti in the plasma when compared to the rural area but there were no significant changes in the Al, As and Hg concentrations. These results may help to suggest the status of some elements in a marine environment. Further, monitoring the plasma trace and major element status in sea turtles can be used as a bio-monitoring approach by which specific types of elements found here could indicate effects that are related to human activities.
A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs. Tubular interstitial congestion and necrosis was noted in the kidneys. Bacterial culture and nucleotide sequencing of the inflammatory specimens identified the causative agent as Serratia marcescens, an uncommon bacterium in birds. In summary, this study describes the sudden death of an Indian peafowl due to S. marcescens infection, which is rarely seen in animals.
The sequence of cranial suture closure among cervids is reported to be generally species-specific and highly conservative within species. On the other hand, it is known that intraspecific variation often exists to some extent in other mammalian taxa. Here we studied the cranial suture closures of Capreolus pygargus from Jeju Island and compared it with other cervid species. We found that the timing of the interparietal suture closure is highly variable within C. pygargus. Capreolus capreolus similarly shows intraspecific variation of the interparietal suture closure, whereas other cervid species studied to date do not show any intraspecific variation in the sequence of cranial suture closure. Such high intraspecific variation of the interparietal suture may be a derived character for Capreolus.