The hmtp210 gene of Avibacterium paragallinarum, the causative agent of infectious coryza, encodes an outer-membrane hemagglutinin (HA) that plays an essential role in pathogenicity. A hypervariable region within this HA, which is highly antigenic, is proposed as a candidate for recombinant vaccine production. Nonetheless, little is known about its genetic variability. We performed sequencing analysis of the hmtp210 hypervariable region in 16 clinical isolates from Costa Rica and compared them with 4 vaccine strains and the hmtp210 sequences available in public databases. Except for isolate ApCR12, all isolates showed high identity with reference vaccine strains 0083 and H18. Better genetic characterization of the hypervariable region of hmtp210 is necessary to develop better immunogenic strategies and improved molecular typing methods.
Colibacillosis is one of an economically significant disease in the poultry industry, especially for meat breed chickens. Recently it has become a serious problem for layer especially when the birds start laying and also at the later stage of laying. In Japan, the productivity of field laying hens improved when the Δcrp avian colibacillosis live vaccine (“Gall N tect CBL”) was used. The survival rate and egg laying rate increased during almost all of the laying period when compared with the control group. The improvement in productivity was clearly demonstrated by comparing the number of eggs laid per day. The use of an avian colibacillosis live vaccine proved to be cost-effective in laying hens.
Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844–0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.
Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.
Sociability is an essential trait for dogs to successfully interact with humans. In this study, the relationship between sociability and physiological stress was examined. Additionally, whether differences exist between companion dogs (C group) and shelter dogs (S group) was examined. Overall, healthy 37 dogs (C group=21 and S group=16) were examined. After 5 min of walking, the dog and the owner (or the chief manager) rested freely in the experimental location for 5 min. The behavioral test with 6 categories was conducted to evaluate sociability over 4 min. The establishment of two groups (H group=dogs with high sociability; L group=dogs with low sociability) was supported by the statistical results of the behavioral tests. Saliva was collected before (P1) and after the test period (P2), and salivary cortisol levels were determined and statistically analyzed. The cortisol concentrations at P2 and the differences in concentrations between P1 and P2 (P2–P1) in the groups with high sociability were significantly lower than those in the groups with low sociability. These results may demonstrate that sociable dogs adapt more comfortably to strangers and unfamiliar situations. Meanwhile, there were significant differences in hormonal results between the C and S groups. For this reason, their sociability should be evaluated using behavioral and physiological assessments before re-adoption to ensure their successful adaptation.
A 16-year-old spayed female American Shorthair cat was presented with lethargy, anorexia, and wamble. Physical and blood examination did not reveal any remarkable findings. Abdominal ultrasonography identified the presence of a localized anechoic structure with a thick wall in contact with the small intestine and adjacent to the liver. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the structure revealed fluid containing numerous cocci and neutrophils. Two days after antibiotic treatment, exploratory laparotomy was performed and the content of the structure was removed before multiple lavages. The pathological and bacteriological examination results supported a confirmatory diagnosis of pancreatic abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus infection, making this the first such report in a cat. The cat remained healthy thereafter with no disease recurrence.
A Holstein calf was born with a large protruding right eye and a central corneal opacity. Enucleation was the first choice of treatment. The calf had a good prognosis and was raised for milking purposes. Macroscopically, the enucleated eye was characterized by the protruded cornea, adherence of the iris to the central posterior cornea and aphakia. Microscopically, central corneal thickening and a defect in the endothelium and Descemet’s membrane were observed. These data suggest that this represents a case of unilateral anterior segment dysgenesis consistent with congenital corneal staphyloma with Peters’ anomaly and aphakia. Neither a mutation of the WFDC1 gene in multiple ocular defects nor any other identifiable cause for ocular anomalies was detected.
A 14-month-old Japanese Black heifer presented with unilateral epistaxis and mild swelling of the right face. Radiography revealed a mass with increased radiopacity on the right side of the nasal bridge, extending to the left side. Intranasal endoscopy confirmed a large tumor-like structure protruding into the nasal cavity. Following euthanasia, cranial computed tomography (CT) was performed, revealing a tumor 24.3 × 17.5 × 14.8 cm in size. The tumor occupied the entire right nasal cavity and the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of well-differentiated trabecular bones and loose connective tissue. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of osteoma was established. This report describes a case of osteoma with an acute course in a Japanese Black heifer.
We examined whether multidrug resistant (MDR) canine lymphoma increases gene expression for platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and c-KIT, and whether toceranib phosphate (TOC) has potential as a treatment for MDR canine lymphoma. The clinical data showed that PDGFRα expression was higher in canine subjects with MDR T-cell lymphoma than in those with untreated T-cell lymphoma, and that c-KIT expression was greater in subjects with T-cell lymphoma than in those with B-cell lymphoma. TOC monotherapy was well tolerated without serious adverse effects, and two of the five subjects that received TOC exhibited partial responses. The data presented here could contribute to the assessment of TOC-based therapy for dogs with MDR or T-cell lymphoma.
Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are useful laboratory rodents for studying human infectious diseases, metabolic diseases and cancer. In other rodents, such as mice and rats, a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol functions as a useful anesthetic, although it alters some blood biochemical parameters. In this study, we examined the effects of this mixture on anesthesia and blood biochemical parameters, and the action of atipamezole, a medetomidine antagonist, in hamsters. Intramuscular injection of a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol at doses of 0.15, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, had a short induction time (within 5 min) and produced an anesthetic duration of approximately 100 min in hamsters. We also demonstrated that 0.15 mg/kg of atipamezole, corresponding to the same dose as medetomidine, made hamsters recover quickly from anesthesia. The anesthetic agent markedly altered metabolic parameters, such as plasma glucose and insulin; however, 0.15 mg/kg of atipamezole returned these levels to normal range within approximately 10 min after the injection. The anesthetic also slightly altered mineral levels, such as plasma inorganic phosphorus, calcium and sodium; the latter two were also improved by atipamezole. Our results indicated that the mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol at doses of 0.15, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, functioned as an effective anesthetic, and atipamezole was useful for antagonizing both anesthesia and biochemical alteration in hamsters.
The C57BL/6J-Daruma mouse is an animal model of obesity derived from the original genetically obese ICR-Daruma mouse by transfer of the phenotype into the C57BL/6J background by backcrossing into the C57BL/6J strain. Although, like the original ICR-Daruma mouse model, both male and female C57BL/6J-Daruma mice develop obesity, the latter strain shows sex differences in several phenotypes. A sex difference in plasma insulin levels was especially notable in C57BL/6J-Daruma mice; only males showed hyperinsulinemia. Orchiectomy suppressed this hyperinsulinemia completely, whereas testosterone supplementation restored it. Glucose administration increased the plasma glucose level in both male and female Daruma mice to a greater extent than in wild-type control mice. Orchiectomy, but not ovariectomy, decreased the plasma glucose level to that seen in wild-type controls. On the other hand, this effect of orchiectomy was abrogated by testosterone supplementation. The expression of mRNAs for several genes related to insulin resistance was significantly changed in white adipose tissue and liver of C57BL/6J-Daruma mice, especially males, as early as 4 weeks of age. The present results suggest that testosterone may be involved in the hyperinsulinemia shown by male C57BL/6J-Daruma mice and that this strain may be an appropriate animal model for examining the relationship between obesity and sex hormones.
Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells have stem cell-like properties is unclear. We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells were more resistant to vincristine, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin than adherent cells. Xenograft transplantation demonstrated that 1 × 103 sphere-forming cells derived from CMS-C were sufficient for tumor formation. The sphere assay showed that the sphere-forming cells were present in these tumors. These results suggest that the spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells may possess characteristics of TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs to rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis.
An 11-year-old female golden retriever dog had a mass at the right corner of the upper lip, which gradually increased in size and protruded into the oral cavity. The mass was removed surgically. The cut surface of the mass was smooth, whitish and solid, and covered by the oral mucosal membrane. Histopathologically, the mass consisted mainly of reticular pattern of short spindle cells that stained positively for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, α-smooth muscle actin and p63, suggestive of a myoepithelial cell phenotype. Between the neoplastic cords, there was myxoid or edematous connective tissue. Additionally, neoplastic cells with luminal epithelial and basal cell phenotypes were arranged in ducts and small islands, respectively. Based on the diverse histological and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma of the labial gland. To our knowledge, the reticular proliferation pattern of myoepithelial cells has not been described in salivary gland tumors of domestic animals.
A 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed neurological symptoms during quarantine for importation into Japan, and was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Gross anatomical examination revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the lateral ventricle in the cerebrum. Histologically, severe diffused suppurative meningitis and ventriculitis were detected with numerous Gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum. Immunohistochemically, the bacilli were positively stained with an antibody against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bacterium was isolated from the liver, and it was confirmed to be K. pneumoniae by 16S rDNA sequencing. The isolate displayed a hypermucoviscosity phenotype, was positive for the rmpA and k2A genes, and demonstrated multidrug resistance. These results suggest that invasive K. pneumoniae can cause septicemic infection, characterized by severe diffused suppurative meningoencephalitis in monkeys.
A 13-year-old spayed female dog had a mass in the left auricle. Grossly, connection between the mass and original auricular cartilage was not recognized. The mass was unencapsulated and contained multiple islands of mature hyaline cartilage and neoplastic adipocytes. The neoplastic cells comprised predominant mature adipocytes, scattered lipoblasts and irregular round to spindle cells with moderate atypia. The atypical cells occasionally had lipid droplets. A diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDL) with chondroid metaplasia was made. This is the first report for liposarcoma with chondroid metaplasia in the auricle of domestic animals.
A 10-year-old female spayed American Pitt Bull Terrier was presented with a slow growing mass on the temporal limbus area of the right eye. Canine nodular granulomatous episclerokeratitis was suspected, and the affected eye was treated with 1% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension and 0.03% Tacrolimus ophthalmic solution. As the lesion did not respond to the medical treatments and continued to grow, the mass was excised by lamellar sclerokeratectomy. Microscopically, the mass was composed of granulomatous inflammation with intrahistiocytic lipids and lakes of acicular cholesterol clefts, histopathology findings consistent with xanthogranuloma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first canine report of limbal xanthogranuloma.
The aim of this research was to compare plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium (CS) in healthy calves, and in calves with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Six calves received CS (2.2 mg/kg, IM) 2 hr after intravenous administration of 0.9% NaCl (Ceft group). After a washout period, the same 6 calves received CS 2 hr after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS+Ceft group). Another group of 6 calves received a combination of drug therapies that included CS 2 hr after administration of 0.9% NaCl (Comb group). A third group of 6 calves received the same combination therapy regimen 2 hr after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS+Comb group). Plasma concentrations of CS and all desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites were determined using HPLC, and its pharmacokinetic properties were determined based on a two-compartment model. The peak concentration of CS in the LPS+Comb group occurred the earliest, and the clearance rate of CS was the highest in the Comb and LPS+Comb groups (P<0.05). The elimination half-life of CS in the LPS+Ceft group was longer than that in the Ceft and Comb groups (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that combined therapies and endotoxemic status may alter the plasma pharmacokinetics of CS in calves.
Extragonadal tissues are known to produce estrogens. At these sites, the C19 precursor is important for aromatase expression for the production of estrogen. Aromatase expression is tissue-specific and is controlled by hormones. Recent studies have shown that rat gastric parietal cells expressed aromatase. Our first objective was to investigate steroidogenic enzyme expression in estrogen biosynthesis; the second objective was to investigate which site(s) of the GI tract expressed steroidogenic enzymes; and the third objective was to assess the effects of castration on steroidogenic enzyme expression. CYP19A1, 17β-HSD3, CYP17A1, 3β-HSD and P450scc were quantified in the GI tract by real-time PCR. CYP19A1 was detected mainly in the body and pyloric regions of the abomasum, while we detected weak expression of CYP19A1 in other parts of GI tract. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD3 and CYP17A1 was detected in abomasum. 3β-HSD expression was observed in duodenum and jejunum, while P450scc was not detectable in any part of GI tract. Immunohistochemical results showed immunolocalization of aromatase in parietal cells. Aromatase expression was observed to increase after castration. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results demonstrated that parietal cells also produced luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). These results indicate steroidogenic enzymes required for the biosynthesis of estrogen were expressed, and the abomasum appeared to be the responsible organ for estrogen biosynthesis in the goat GI tract. In addition, parietal cells were responsible for estrogen production and the expression of LHR. Castration increased aromatase expression in abomasum through LH mediation.
Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.
A scenario tree model was developed to propose efficient bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) control measures. The model used field data in eastern Hokkaido where the risk of BVDV infection in cattle has been reduced by an eradication program including mass vaccination, individual tests prior to communal pasture grazing, herd screening tests using bulk milk, and outbreak investigations of newly infected herds. These four activities were then used as hypothesized control measures in the simulation. In each simulation, the numbers of cattle infected persistently and transiently with BVDV detected by clinical manifestations and diagnosis tests and of missed by all of the diagnosis tests were calculated, and the numbers were used as indicators to be compared for the efficacy of the control measures. The model outputs indicated that the adoption of mass vaccination decreased the number of missed BVD cattle, although it did not increase the number of detected BVD cattle. Under implementation of mass vaccination, the efficacy of individual tests on selected 20% of the young and adult cattle was equal to that of the herd screening test performed in all the herds. When the virus prevalence or the number of sensitive animals becomes low, the efficacy of herd screening test was superior to one of individual tests. Considering the model outputs together, the scenario tree model developed in the present study was useful to compare the efficacy of the control measures for BVD.
We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3.0%) of the 33 rodents had antibodies against L. interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae, respectively. DNAs of leptospires were detected from 2 of the 3 seropositive rodents, but DNA of rickettsia was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the 2 leptospires were L. interrogans belonging to a novel sequence type. There is a potential risk for acquiring rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens even in cities in developed countries.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a potential alternative source of differentiated chondrocytes for cartilage tissue regeneration and repair of osteoarthritic (OA) joints. We investigated the effects of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) on chondrogenesis of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBMSC) in alginate and micromass cultures (MMC). Chondrogenic differentiation medium (CDM) was supplemented with PPS or PSGAG at concentrations of 0 (positive control; PC), 1, 3 and 5 µg/ml. 10% DMEM was used as negative control. Chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for alginate cultures and Alcian blue staining for proteoglycan (PG) synthesis for MMC. In alginate culture, PPS and PSGAG showed no significant effect on type II collagen, aggrecan and HIF-2α mRNA expression. PPS had no significant effect on type I collagen whereas PSGAG significantly upregulated (P<0.05) it at all concentrations relative to other treatments. PPS demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on type X collagen mRNA with significant inhibition observed at 5 µg/ml compared to the NC. PSGAG showed an inverse effect on type X collagen with 1 µg/ml significantly inhibiting its expression while increase in the concentration correspondingly increased type X collagen expression. In MMC, PPS significantly enhanced chondrogenesis and PG deposition whereas PSGAG inhibited chondrogenesis and promoted a fibrocartilage-like phenotype with reduced PG deposition. While PPS enhances chondrogenesis of cBMSC in MMC, the response of MSC to chondroinductive factors is culture system-dependent and varies significantly between alginate and MMC.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has an important role in musculoskeletal surgery; however, it has been underutilized for accelerating the healing of abdominal wall defects in veterinary practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) as a new composite mesh for the repair of experimentally induced abdominal wall defects in canine models, and to investigate the possible role of PRP for improving such repair and reducing allied complications. For this purpose, abdominal wall defects were created in 24 healthy mongrel dogs and then repaired with mesh alone (control group) or mesh and allogenic PRP (PRP group). Dogs were euthanized after 2 or 4 months for gross examination of implantation site, detection of adhesion score and hernia recurrence. Moreover, tissue samples were collected for histological and gene expression analyses for neovascularization, collagen formation and tissue incorporation. Hernia recurrence was not recorded in PRP-treated dogs that also displayed significantly more neovascularization and less severe adhesion to the underlings (1.08 ± 0.51) in comparison to control group (2.08 ± 0.99). Histological and molecular evaluation confirmed the gross findings that collagen deposition, new vessel formation, and overexpression of angiogenic and myofibroplastic genes (COL1α1, COL3α1, VEGF and TGFβ1) were observed more frequently in the PRP group, at both time points. In conclusion, we found that addition of allogenic PRP to Damour mesh enhanced neovessel formation, and increased tissue deposition and incorporation, with subsequent reduction of peritoneal adhesion and recurrence rate.
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is the most prevalent infectious cause of lameness in cattle. Because Treponema infection is a major etiology of BDD, the most common treatment of BDD is an antibiotic. Nonetheless, dairy cows require a withdrawal period after antibiotic treatment before their milk can be marketed. To address the problem, in this study, we tested whether 3 nonantibiotic agents (used separately)—allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), sodium alginate, and calcium hydroxide—alleviate BDD lesions in dairy cows. The AITC treatment improved the BDD lesions, whereas the sodium alginate and calcium hydroxide treatments did not. Therapeutic efficacy of AITC was similar to that of lincomycin, a topical antibiotic prescribed for BDD. These results suggest that AITC is a promising nonantibiotic agent for BDD treatment in dairy cows.
Neonicotinoids are pesticides used worldwide. They bind to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with high affinity. We previously reported that clothianidin (CTD), one of the latest neonicotinoids, reduced antioxidant expression and induced germ cell death in the adult testis of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the male reproductive toxicity of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to CTD, because it is likely that developmental exposure more severely affects the testis compared to adults due to the absence of the blood-testis barrier. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given water gel blended with CTD (0, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day; no-observed-adverse-effect-level [NOAEL for mice]: 47.2 mg/kg/day) between gestational day 1 and 14 days post-partum. We then examined the testes of male offspring at postnatal day 14. The testis weights and the numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule were decreased in the CTD-50 group, and abnormal tubules containing no germ cells appeared. Nevertheless, the apoptotic cell number and proliferative activity were not significantly different between the control and CTD-exposed groups. There were no significant differences in the androgen-related parameters, such as the Leydig cell volume per testis, the Sertoli cell number and the tubule diameter. The present study is the first demonstration that in utero and lactational exposures to CTD at around the NOAEL for mice reduce the germ cell number, but our findings suggest that these exposures do not affect steroidogenesis in Leydig cells during prenatal or early postnatal life.
This study investigated the effectiveness of the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using juvenile mice. Therefore, we analyzed various hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)- mediated activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation, tolbutamide hydroxylation, bufuralol 1’-hydroxylation, aniline hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation by CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2E and CYP3A, respectively, in non-treated male ICR mice aged between 3 and 8 weeks. The enzyme efficiency levels in 3- and 4-week-old mice were approximately similar to or higher than those in 8-week-old mice, except for CYP1A and CYP2E in 3- and 4-week-old mice, respectively. Since these results suggest that juvenile mice have sufficient activities for most CYP enzymes, we also conducted a liver MN assay using diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a rodent hepatocarcinogen, on male ICR mice aged between 3 and 6 weeks. A peripheral blood (PB) MN assay was performed simultaneously in 4-week-old mice. Assays incorporating DEN produced positive results in 3- and 4-week-old mice and showed a dose-dependent increase in the micronucleated hepatocyte frequencies at 4 weeks. Both the liver MN assay in 5- and 6-week-old mice and the PB MN assay had negative results when using DEN. These results suggest that 3- and 4-week-old mice have micronuclei-inducing potential in the liver to detect genotoxic compounds using the liver MN assay.
Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.