Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 57 , Issue 5
Showing 1-39 articles out of 39 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasushi KAWAGUCHI, Takeshi MIKAMI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 801-811
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Human and animal herpsviruses are able to stimulate gene expression of various human and animal retroviruses and the activation appears to be a common theme. It is of interest why the retroviruses can be commonly activated by herpesviruses despite clear diversities in each mechanism for retrovirus gene expression. In this review, three typical examples of the interactions; human immunodeficiency virus and human herpesviruses, avian retroviruses and Marek's disease virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus and feline herpesvirus type 1 will be given to respond the above question on the basis of the comparative study of molecular interactions.
    Download PDF (1619K)
  • Akihiko MAEDA, Masanobu HAYASHI, Kozue ISHIDA, Tetsuya MIZUTANI, Tomom ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 813-817
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Twelve clones derived from the cells persistently infected with the JHM strain (JHMV) of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were established from mouse asterocytoma-derived DBT cells and characterized. All the cell clones were resistant to superinfection with MHV. Only one of the persistently infected cell clone synthesized viral RNA and proteins and produced virus particles. Viral RNA was detectable in some other cell clones without production of viral protein nor the virus. No cell clones exhibited contact fusion activity. The results suggested that such variety of cell clones might have resulted from persistent infection with JHMV.
    Download PDF (1060K)
  • Seyed Mehdi GHAMSARI, Kiyoshi TAGUCHI, Noritsugu ABE, Jezie A. ACORDA, ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 819-824
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experimentally-induced perforating wounds in 4 Holstein Friesian lactating cows were sutured using Gambee, continuous 2-layer (Cushing for submucosal layer and continuous horizontal mattress for skin and intermediate layer), separated 2-layer (simple continuous for mucosal layer and vertical mattress for skin and intermediate layer) and 3-layer (simple continuous for mucosal and intermediate layers, simple interrupted for skin) suture patterns. Wound healing was evaluated by radiography, blood flowmetry, tensiometry, measurement of hydroxyproline content and histopathology. The present results suggest that 3-layer pattern provided the best healing of the entire teat. Mucosal hyperplasia was observed in Gambee and continuous 2-layer pattern while eversion of the skin, presence of suture tracts and greater amount of granulation tissue were observed in continuous and separated 2-layer patterns.
    Download PDF (1690K)
  • Yoshikazu HIROTA, Mhan Pyo YANG, Seiichi ARAKI, Kazuhiro YOSHIHARA, Sh ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 825-829
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Immunostimulative effects of chicken egg white derivatives (EWD) on phagocytic responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in dogs were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) cultured with EWD showed the enhanced phagocytic response. The response was maximal when PBL were cultured with 100-400 μg/ml of EWD for 3-12 hr. Furthermore, significantly increased phagocytic responses were also induced even when PBL were cultured with protein components (200 μg/ml) of EWD such as conalbumin, flavoprotein and ficin-papain inhibitor for 3 hr. In addition, the enhancing effect of EWD on the phagocytic responses was also observed in MNC cultured with EWD (200 μg/ml) for 4 hr but not in PMN cultured with EWD in the same procedures. The supplement of the supernatant (20%) of MNC cultured with EWD (200 μg/ml) for 24 hr at 37°C to PBL and MNC resulted in the enhancement of their phagocytic responses. In contrast, the supernatant of PMN cultured with EWD for 24 hr at 37°C did not show any significant enhancing effect on the phagocytic responses of PBL, MNC and PMN. These results suggest that EWD has an enhancing effect on phagocytosis of MNC and PMN, which may be mediated through active humoral substances produced by EWD-stimulated MNC.
    Download PDF (879K)
  • Takehito MORITA, Tsuyoshi AWAKURA, Akinori SHIMADA, Takashi UMEMURA, T ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 831-837
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A pathological study on 5 of 21 cats affected naturally with systemic calcinosis was performed. The animals ranged in age from 1 to 9 years. Hematology and serum chemistry analyses showed the elavated values of phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. X-ray examination disclosed the increased density of systemic bones. Histologically, marked calcification was present at the vascular walls of almost all the organs including the lungs, trachea, kidneys, heart, aorta, alimentary tracts, choroid plexus and bones. In the lungs, kidneys and stomach, the calcified lesions were associated with deposition of oxalate crystals. Serum chemistry showed more elavated values of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D) of the affected cats than the normal level. Retrospective examination revealed that these cats had been fed the commercial pet foods containing a large amount of vitamin D (6, 370 IU/ 100 g diet) from their young age, and its value was about ten times as much as that of the control food (680 IU/100 g diet). Pathological changes found in the cats from the experimental vitamin D3 toxicosis were similar to those in the natural cases. In addition, tissue levels of calcium, phosphorous and zinc in the lungs and kidneys were markedly elevated in both natural and vitamin D-intoxicated cases. These findings suggest that long-term feeding of the pet food containing excessive vitamin D was responsible for the outbreak of the systemic calcinosis in the cats.
    Download PDF (1742K)
  • Minoru NARITA, Kenji KAWASHIMA, Tetsuo MOROZUMI, Hisataka TAKASHIMA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 839-844
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seven pigs inoculated endobronchially with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) serotype 1 developed acute and subacute necrotizing pleuropneumonia. When treated with high doses of atropine (0.25 mg per kg) and/or xylocaine spray using a bronchoscope, which suppressed mucus secretion and ciliary activity, the pigs showed severe pleuropneumonia and 2 treated pigs died within 36 hr after inoculating 320 colony forming units (CFU)/ 2 ml of App serotype 1. Histopathologically, their lungs had alveolar and interlobular edema and intravascular fibrinous thrombosis. In the surviving pigs, the lymph nodes had App antigens in the germinal centers corresponding closely with activated follicular dendritic cells and increased in the number of IgG- and IgM-containing cells. The bacterial antigens were also observed as small sized granules in the cytoplasm of bronchoalveolar macrophages. These findings suggest that the attachment of App to the mucosal surface may be crucial in the development of pneumonic lesions.
    Download PDF (1047K)
  • Satoko HIRATA, Yuji MORI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 845-850
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Characterization of the estrous cycle and the ability to detect pregnancy are essential for the development of efficient captive breeding programs in wild mammalian species and for their conservation. We assess here the feasibility of using fecal progesterone analysis as a non-invasive method of monitoring the ovarian function of the Shiba goat as an experimental model for ruminant species. Feces and blood samples were collected sequentially from 4 female goats throughout the estrous cycle and gestation period and from 2 ovariectomized goats which were subcutaneously implanted with progesterone. The recovery rate with ether extraction was about 70% for fecal progesterone. Fecal progesterone concentrations changed dramatically in accordance with plasma progesterone during the estrous cycle and the pregnancy. Moreover, implantation and removal of progesterone capsules resulted in matched elevation and decline in fecal and plasma progesterone. The present data suggest that measurement of progesterone in feces is a potential noninvasive method of assessing the reproductive status of ruminant species.
    Download PDF (800K)
  • Yoshiharu OKAMOTO, Kenji SHIBAZAKI, Saburo MINAMI, Akira MATSUHASHI, S ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 851-854
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Analysis on the accelerating effects of open wound healing by chitin and chitosan were carried out in dogs. Two, square, full-thickness wounds of skin (2 × 2 cm2) were created on the each dog's both sides of dorsal midline at 0, 14, 21, and 24 days. In one dog, one wound (left side) was treated with chitin (chitin group) and the othor wound (right side) was not treated (control group). In another dog, one wound (left side) was treated with chitosan (chitosan group) and the other wound (right side) was not treated (control group). At 28 days after initial wounding, each wound site including surrounding tissue was taken for macroscopic and histological observations. Reepithelialization tended to be greater in chitin and chitosan groups than in the control group. However, when the scores of reepithelialization and granulation tissue were evaluated statistically, there was no significant differences in three groups during experimental period. Number of inflammatory cells was greater statistically in level in the control group than those in chitin and chitosan groups at 28 days after wounding. Many rete ridges were observed in the control group but very few in the another groups.
    Download PDF (1089K)
  • Noriyuki TAIRA, Yoshio NAKAMURA, Maria Angela O. ALMEIDA, Hideharu SAE ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 855-858
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ten rats were divided into five groups, A-E, to determine the larval dose-effect of infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis (SVZ). The rat groups were exposed to SVZ infective larvae as follow: (A) 100, (B) 1, 000, (C) 10, 000, (D) 100, 000 and (E) 1, 000, 000. The eight rats in Groups A-D survived the infection. Rats exposed to the higher doses of larvae had the higher egg per gram counts (EPG), but more rapid reduction in EPG counts. The four rats in Groups C and D had EPG counts greater than 10, 000 EPG during days 7-21 after infection. Maximum EPG values in Group C were 85, 400 and 106, 600; those in Group D were 134, 000 and 346, 000. The two rats in Group E showed severe itching and bleeding on their digital pads at the time of infection. They became listless thereafter and died with hemorrhagic pneumonia at 4 days after infection. The sudden death that has been demonstrated in calves infected with massive doses of S.papil1osus was not observed in SVZ-infected rats.
    Download PDF (556K)
  • Iwao SAKONJU, Yasuho TAURA, Kouichi MAMBA, Tatsuyuki SUZUKI, Koichi TA ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 859-863
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have investigated the freezing tolerance of rat pancreatic islets. Freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets were divided into three groups based on their longest diameter (small; 100-200 μm, medium; 201-300 μm, large; >300 μm). They were then cryopreserved at a slow cooling rate (-0.3°C/min) in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) or ethylene glycol (EG). After storage at -196°C for 1-4weeks, they were thawed and their ability to secrete insulin in response to fluctuations in glucose concentration was examined during three consecutive static incubations in vitro (1st; 2.8 mM, 2nd; 16.7 mM, 3rd; 2.8 mM). Morphological examination of the beta-granule population was determined by image analysis, and correlation with islets size was analyzed. The amount of insulin released from large-sized islets was significantly suppressed in EG (p<0.05) and Me2SO (p<0.01) groups compared to unfrozen islets. However, the mean volume of the large-sized islets isolated from one rat accounted for 43.0% of the total volume. On the other hand, the amount of insulin released from small- and medium-sized islets did not differ from those of unfrozen islets, and their mean volumes were 13.2 and 43.8%, respectively. The percentage of cells with beta-granules was significantly correlated with size in both EG (r=-0.52) and Me2SO (r=-0.35) groups, but no significant correlation was observed in the unfrozen islets groups. These findings suggest that large-sized islets are more susceptible to freezing injury than small- or medium-sized islets. Moreover, the volume distribution of isolated islets indicated that it may be important to retain the ability of insulin secretion from the large-sized islets.
    Download PDF (835K)
  • Hae-Sung HYUN, Takenori ONAGA, Hitoshi MINEO, Seiyu KATO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 865-869
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on glucose absorption and the net movement of electrolytes and water in the jejunum of sheep was investigated using a Thiry-Vella loop. Intraluminal perfusion of glucose solution (10 mM) containing NaCl (149 mM) and PEG (1 mg/ml) was done at 1 ml/min and the outflow solution was collected every ten minutes. After a 30 min control period, VIP was infused into the jugular vein for 30 min at rates of 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1, 000 pmol/kg/hr. In the control period, water, sodium, chloride and glucose were absorbed, while bicarbonate and potassium were secreted. VIP decreased water absorption at 10 and 30 pmol/kg/hr and converted to secretion at over 100 pmol/kg/hr in a dose-dependent manner. Sodium flux changed to secretion only at 1, 000 pmol/kg/hr, but chloride flux remained absorptive even at the highest dose. Bicarbonate secretion was stimulated dose-dependently by VIP. Potassium secretion was also increased at all doses, though this response was not dose-dependent. The net glucose absorption was not altered by VIP at any dose. Our findings indicate that VIP stimulates the jejunal secretion of water, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate and that VIP does not inhibit glucose absorption when the secretion of luminal fluid is accelerated by VIP in the jejunal loop of sheep.
    Download PDF (758K)
  • Yuji UZUKA, Miyoko SAITOH, Ikuko HIRAMATSU, Tadashi NAGATA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 871-876
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since spinal cord abnormalities are often associated with lesion in the thoracic or lumber vertebrae, examination of Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) induced by hind limb nerve stimulation will be useful. In the experiment, scalp recorded SEP in dogs by tibial nerve stimulation was studied on the distribution, the change of latency by body size and the influence of experimental compression to the spinal cord. Greatest response was got at Fz, and shorter latencies for SEP recorded on the ipsilateral stimulation side than from the contralateral side. The equation describing the regression line of the latency with the distance to the recording site from stimulating site was Y=0.072X+13.23 and the regression was statistically significant. In the experimental study of compression to spinal cord, dorsal compression tended to be sensitive compared to the ventral compression. This study suggested that not only increase of latency but also reduction of amplitude could occur as a result of spinal cord disorders.
    Download PDF (923K)
  • Jun YANASE, Hiroyuki OGAWA, Hiromitsu OHTSUKA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 877-881
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In anesthetized beagle dogs, electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded with full-field stimuli during, and after, dark adaptation. With blue stimuli, a cornea-positive b-wave appeared at 13 min in the dark, and increased in amplitude and peak latency with dark adaptation, reaching near-plateau level approximately 61 min after bleaching. This b-wave was considered to be derived from rods (scotopic b-wave) based on its spectral sensitivity function. After about 31 min, oscillatory potentials and a small cornea-negative wave preceding the b-wave appeared. With red stimuli, a small cornea-positive b-wave with a short peak latency appeared immediately after the start of dark adaptation. The amplitude and peak latency of this wave remained substantially unchanged for 16 min. It then gradually became obscure after the appearance, and increase in amplitude, of scotopic components. After 2 hr dark adaptation, ERGs elicited by blue and red stimuli showed essentially the same waveforms, and in contrast to the situation in humans and monkeys, the cone component was not easily distinguished in the waveform elicited by red stimulus. It was confirmed that the ERG elicited by red stimulus, under blue-green background light sufficient to eliminate rod components, included a cone-derived photopic b-wave. The ERGs elicited by red stimuli were not different from those elicited by blue stimuli, because the photopic b-wave had a very small amplitude relative to the scotopic b-wave and a peak latency very similar to that of the scotopic cornea-negative small wave.
    Download PDF (659K)
  • Chanhee CHAE, Yong-Soon LEE
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 883-889
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The carbohydrate histochemistry of normal porcine small intestine from eight one- to four-week-old pigs was investigated by the use of twenty one biotinylated-labeled lectins with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Five patterns of staining were seen. First, lectins were reacted with brush borders in enterocytes only, i.e. DBA, LEL, STL and PNA. Second, reactivity of lectins were specific for goblet cells, i.e. PSA. Third, lectins were reacted with both brush borders and goblet cells, i.e. RCA I, BSL II, DSL, WGA, Jacalin, ECL, ConA, LCA, UEA-1, PHA-E and PHA-L. Fourth, lectins were positive for brush borders but binding patterns of goblet cells were variable, i.e. BSL I and VVA. Fifth, the binding patterns were variable for brush borders and goblet cells. The binding patterns for SBA, SJA and s-WGA were variable. DSL bound weakly at first-week old pigs, and as the pigs aged, lectin reactivity on the brush borders of enterocytes as well as goblet cells increased. In contrast, STL, PNA and LEL bound strongly at first- and second-week old pigs, and as the pigs aged, lectin reactivity on the brush borders of ileal enterocytes decreased. Our results suggest the distinct age-, region-, and cell types-related Changes in epithelial glycocalyx as well as goblet cell mucins in the porcine jejunum and ileum.
    Download PDF (1623K)
  • Hiroetsu SUZUKI, Katsushi SUZUKI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 891-897
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The male hypogonadic rat (hgn/hgn) is accompanied with bilateral hypoplastic kidney (HPK; hpk/hpk) [34]. In this study, we examined the kidney weight (KW), glomerular number (GN), renal pathohistology at adult (80 days of age), and pathogenesis during the early postnatal stage in the hpk/hpk, +/hpk, and +/+rat. The GN of adult hpk/hpk was significantly less than that of the +/hpk and +/+. Histologically, there were the decreased number of nephrons and the associated secondary changes in the hpk/hpk kidney. The plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly higher in the hpk/hpk than in the +/hpk and +/+. During early postnatal stage, the KW of the hpk/hpk was significantly smaller than those of the +/hpk and +/+, and the GN was fewer in order of the hpk/hpk, +/hpk and +/+, showing the significant differences between given genotypes. The layer of nephrogenic nephron beneath the renal capsula of the neonatal kidney appeared to be thinner in the hpk/hpk than in the normal (+/hpk and +/+). In the hpk/hpk kidney on 3 days of age, the layer of the nephrogenic nephron was absent in some portions beneath the renal capsula. In the hpk/hpk kidney on 7 days of age, further, the layer of immature type of nephron was still observed under the capsula. These studies suggest that the hypoplastic kidney, which may result from reduced nephrogenesis, could not compensate the renal weight, GN and renal function during the postnatal nephrogenic stage.
    Download PDF (3074K)
  • Yasuho TAURA, Kunihiko ISHII, Mitsuhiro NAGAMI, Naoya MIKASA, Munekazu ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 899-904
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the effects of the presurgical vaccination with inactivated canine parvovirus vaccine (CPV) on immunological responses to surgery in puppies, we assessed it by measuring the blastogenic responses of lymphocytes and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses after laparotomy in the non- and vaccinated puppies. The inhalation anesthetic used was isoflurane or halothane. In post-surgery, the blastogenic responses of lymphocytes in the non-vaccinated puppies decreased, especially, those in these puppies with halothane aneshesia (GOF) did significantly, and the duration of this decrease prolonged more than that in the non-vaccinated puppies with isoflurane anesthesia (GOI). However, the responses in the vaccinated puppies with each anesthesia didn't almost decrease below the presurgical levels. In GOI groups, the DTH responses in vaccinated puppies increased significantly over those in non-vaccinated ones, but in GOF groups, there were few differences between the DTH responses in the non- and vaccinated puppies. These results suggest that the CPV vaccination immediately before surgery possibly prevents the postsurgical immunosuppression, and that GOI may depress the immunocompetence less than GOF.
    Download PDF (822K)
  • Keitaro YAMANOUCHI, Shintarou YOSHIDA, Telhisa HASEGAWA, Akihiro IKEDA ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 905-909
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    cDNA encoding equine inhibin α-subunit precursor protein was isolated from an equine ovarian cDNA library. For screening, the DNA probe was amplified by the RT-PCR using primers designed based on the rat inhibin α-subunit cDNA sequence. Out of 1.2×105 plaques screened, 19 positive clones were isolated, and one of these clones (Eq-α-11) contained a complete open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. The similarity of the deduced amino acid sequences of both equine inhibin a-subunit precursor protein and the mature protein were greater than 80% to those of other six mammalian species, including bovine, porcine, ovine, human, rat and mouse. Northern blot analysis revealed that a single major band at 1.5 kb was present in the RNA samples both from equine follicles and testes.
    Download PDF (754K)
  • Chieko KAI, Yasuhiro YOSHIKAWA, Hidechika OKADA, Kazuya YAMANOUCHI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 911-915
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After incubation of the cells with fresh quail serum, deposition of the third component of complement (C3) was demonstrated on the cell surface of various quail cell lines transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) as well as on that of primary quail embryo (QE) cells transformed by RSV. The C3 deposition occurred irrespective of virus production. On the other hand, the C3-deposition was not observed on two quail cell lines transformed by a chemical carcinogen, QE cells infected with avian leukosis virus or normal QE cells. Moreover, QE cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV activated the complement at 37°C but not at 41°C. Since the progeny virus was generated even at 41°C, viral molecules on the cell surface may not play an essential role for the activation. The activation of complement was blocked by EDTA but not by EGTA-Mg++. Therefore, the complement activation on the transformed cells appears to be mediated via the alternative complement pathway (ACP). Similar results were obtained with the complement consumption test; the residual cytolytic activity of fresh quail serum via ACP was markedly reduced by pre-incubation of the serum with transformed cells.
    Download PDF (766K)
  • P. GEERTS, M. PENSAERT, R. SANCHEZ
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 917-920
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In 3 farrow-to-finish farms with enzootic classical swine fever (CSF) all sick pigs were culled and an intensive vaccination programme was introduced. Boars and sows were vaccinated every 6 months and piglets at the age of 6 and 8 weeks. The infection was monitored on clinical grounds and by means of serological examination of the farms. Serological results reflected well the clinical situation in the farms. High titers and a high percentage of animals with positive titers were observed in infected farms, compared to lower titers in a clinically "free" farm, which were interpreted as titers due to vaccination. Although clinical improvement was noticed, the rigid vaccination regime was not able to control CSF in none of the farms. In all cases, a small percentage of pigs in the finishing stage was still affected. Since these pigs seemed not to have responded to vaccination at 6 and 8 weeks of age, the programme was questioned. Additionally, very high titers were recorded in sows from infected farms, which would automatically extend the period of passive protection in offspring and postpone the age at which piglets could be vaccinated. More intensive programmes, which include also vaccination beyond the age of 8 weeks, were suggested to bring enzootic infections under control.
    Download PDF (553K)
  • Ken NEMOTO, Ro OSAWA, Katsuhiko HIROTA, Tsuneko ONO, Yoichiro MIYAKE
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 921-926
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gram-negative tannin-protein complex degrading bacteria (T-PCDB) were first isolated from animals except for the koala. The occurrence of T-PCDB in feces of 15 species of mammals with different feeding habits was investigated. T-PCDB occurred in 7 of 54 horses but they could not be isolated from other mammals tested. These T-PCDB comprised less than 0.1% of the facultative anaerobic microflora in horse feces and it was much less than that previously reported in koala feces (>60%). A total of 7 T-PCDB fecal isolates showed a range of phenotypic diversities. They were all Gram-negative rods of various sizes and shapes including coccoidal rod. Although all produced tannase, no strain showed to have gallate decarboxylase. A total of 23 representative strains belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae were also tested for tannase production. Two strains, Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans NIAH-10202T and Haemophilus segnis NIAH-10183T which were isolated from human oral cavity were detected positive for tannase.
    Download PDF (970K)
  • Taisuke HORIMOTO, Toshihiro ITO, Dennis J. ALEXANDER, Yoshihiro KAWAOK ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 927-930
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An avian influenza virus, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1), showed extremely high virulence in chickens, although its hemagglutinin (HA) cleavate site sequence (R-K-R-K-T-R), having a nonbasic (Thr) residue at the second position (P-2) from the carboxyl terminus of HA1, does not conform to the previously established concensus sequence motif, X-X-R/K-X-R/K-R (X=nonbasic residue), for highly virulent phenotype of the H5 virus. When we evaluated the HA cleavability of this strain in chicken embryo fibroblast culture, we observed that, unlike other HAs with a Thr residue at P-2, this HA was efficiently cleaved. These findings suggest that a nonbasic residue at the P-2 does not affect its recognition and catalyzation by cleavage enzymes that are otherwise influenced by steric structure around the cleavage site.
    Download PDF (647K)
  • Kazutaka OHSAWA, Yoji WATANABE, Hiroshi SATO
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 931-934
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate lymphoid cell Hantavirus (HV) interaction, we examined the replication of the HV strains, Hantaan 76-118(HTN), SR-11, and B-1 with the B95d; LYM-1, CGM1, JM, Jurkat, MOLT-4, AT(L)5KY, BW5147, L1210, and Vero/E6 cells. HV-growth was determined by immunofluorescence and focus-forming assays. LYM-1 and Vero/E6 supported the growth of all HV strains, and B95a only HTN, while remaining cells did not sustain these strains. This is the first report to indicate the HV-replication in lymphoid cell lines. B95a and LYM-1 cells may be useful for revealing the mechanism of HV-infection in animals.
    Download PDF (611K)
  • Fernando Alberto PAOLICCHI, Ana Libertad CIPOLLA, Adolfo Pablo CASARO, ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 935-938
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Histochemical studies on tissue sections showed alterations of lectin-binding reactivities in the epididymis, seminal vesicle and ampulla of Brucella ovis-infected rams. These modifications in the carbohydrate composition of organs participating in maturation, transport, and storage of spermatozoa, could be involved in the impaired fertility observed in this disease.
    Download PDF (803K)
  • Masayuki TANAKA, Hiroshi TAKUMA, Norihide KOKUMAI, Eiji OISHI, Takeshi ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 939-941
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) virus was first isolated from a commercial broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in Japan. At the same time, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian reovirus (ARV), Escherichia coli (E.coli), Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis were also isolated from the same broiler Chicken. The presence of antibodies to TRT virus was confirmed in the sera of 34-day-old chickens of the flock with SHS, however the antibodies to TRT virus were undetectable in the sera of 17-day-old chickens. In this investigation, we confirmed avian pneumovirus infection in chickens in Japan, and the virus and other agents may be considered as a cause of SHS.
    Download PDF (834K)
  • Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Tatsuya TAKIZAWA, Takashi ODA, Masako YAMAMOTO, Hi ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 943-944
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Newborn rats delivered by cesarean section were given subcutaneously propranolol (PRO), a β-adrenergic blocker, (1) immediately or (2) 180 min after delivery. The diameter of the ductus arteriosus (DA) of the newborn pups was calibrated at 30, 60 and 90 min after the PRO-administration. The results were as follows : (1) The DA calibers of the pups given 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg PRO immediately after cesarean delivery remained significantly larger than those of controls in a dose-dependent manner for 30 min after treatment. In the 5 mg/kg group, the enlargement of the DA was prolonged for 90 min after treatment. (2) In untreated pups, the DA completely closed by 180 min after cesarean delivery. The DA was not affected by the administration of 5 mg/kg PRO at 3 hr after delivery. It was concluded that, PRO inhibits the spontaneous constriction of the DA, suggesting an important role of β-adrenergic stimulation on the spontaneous closure of the DA in newborn rats.
    Download PDF (424K)
  • Hideaki YAMAMOTO, Masakazu HATTORI, Kazuhiko OHASHI, Chihiro SUGIMOTO, ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 945-946
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In chickens inoculated with a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine and subsequently with virulent MD virus (MDV), CD4+ T cell population was drastically decreased following a transient increase at 21 days after hatching (16 days after MDV infection). To elucidate the immune response after the decrease of CD4+ T cell population, the antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was examined in these chickens. Chickens challenged with a virulent MDV after MD vaccination produced lower titers of anti-SRBC antibody than untreated control chickens. Antibody production against SRBC was also lowered in vaccinated chickens or chickens challenged with a virulent MDV.
    Download PDF (439K)
  • Takashi OYAMADA, Noboru KUDO, Takashi YOSHIKAWA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 947-949
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A case of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus angustidens captured in Aomori Prefecture, was first reported in Japan. Two dead worms recovered from the pulmonary artery and detected within an organized arterial thrombus in the lung, were identified as a male and a female young adult Dirofilaria immitis, restiectively. Principal lesions in the lung were associated with pulmonary arterial degeneration and consisted of rugose and villous intimal fibrosis, endarteritis with infiltration by numerous eosinophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells, and thrombosis.
    Download PDF (980K)
  • Nam-Sik SHIN, Soo-Wan KWON, Duk-Hwan HAN, Gill-Han BAI, Junghee YOON, ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 951-953
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A respiratory disorder was noted in a 5-year-old female orangutan kept in the Yongin Farmland. Radiographically, multiple radiodense foci ranging from 2 to 6 mm diameter were seen throughout the lung lobes. Grossly, the thoracic cavity revealed a firm texture and grayish-pink discoloration of the left apical lung lobe. Histopathologically, multifocal areas of granulomatous pneumonia present the right and left apical lung lobes. Both primers from IS 1081 and IS6110 targeting 196 bp and 245 bp respectively were used in polymerase chain reaction, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from liver and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.
    Download PDF (715K)
  • Sojin SHIKANO, Kenichi NAKADA, Rie HASHIGUCHI, Terumasa SHIMADA, Kenic ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 955-957
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In vitro cultivation of Babesia rodhaini (BR) and Babesia microti (BM) was attempted. When RPMI1640 was supplemented with 30 or 40% of non-treated fetal bovine serum (FBS), the gas mixture of 30% CO2-80% O2 best supported the growth of both parasites. Under this optimized condition, the percent parasitized erythrocytes peaked to approximately 4- and 2-times initial values for BR and BM, respectively. The cultivated parasites retained the infectivity to the host mice. BM showed the characteristic feature of division during cultivation. However, the lots of FBS will have to be taken into consideration, since the FBS lots were shown to give large varieties to the results. Selection of the appropriate FBS lot may yield the better growth of these protozoa.
    Download PDF (451K)
  • Kazuhiro MISUMI, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Ryosuke SHIMIZU
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 959-961
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate muscular adaptation to swimming training in young horses, 18 two-year-old Thoroughbred horses were trained in a program which included both running and swimming, and the changes in skeletal muscle composition during the training period were evaluated histochemically. The horses were divided into the following three groups: Group A, trained by running only; Group B, trained by running plus a gradual increase in swimming; Group C, trained by running plus constant swimming. In Groups B and C, fast twitch-low oxidative (FT) fibers tended to decrease, while fast twitch-high oxidative (FTH) fibers to increase with the training progressed. The tendency was more remarkable in Group B. Therefore, in these two groups, it was suggested that the horses' aerobic capacity at the muscular level was improved significantly.
    Download PDF (523K)
  • Yasuro ATOJI, Yoshio YAMAMOTO, Yoshitaka SUZUKI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 963-964
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The morphology of the interdigital glands of a male 9-year-old Formosan serow was examined. The glands were sock-shaped depression of the skin and were present in four feet. The glands were composed of a neck and a body. The epidermis of inner wall of the glands was keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Apocrine glands were developed, while the sebaceous glands and hair follicles were very poorly developed. Contents, probably dirt, were small in the interdigital glands. These findings resemble to the interdigital glands of the Japanese serow and suggest that the interdigital glands have very low activity of secretion.
    Download PDF (523K)
  • Fumihito OHASHI, Toshiki AWAJI, Terumasa SHIMADA, Yasuaki SHIMADA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 965-966
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Plasma methylguanidine (MG) and creatinine (CRN) concentrations were measured in 11 cats with experimentally induced acute renal failure by a two-stage surgical procedure. According to the progression of renal failure, both plasma MG and CRN levels increased. A significant positive correlation (y=0.187X-0.379, γ=0.9176, P<0.001) was found between plasma MG and CRN levels. These results suggested that the increase in plasma MG level was an available indicator for uremic status in cats.
    Download PDF (412K)
  • Kohji MARUO, Tsuyoshi SUGIMOTO, Kaoru SUZUKI, Kinji SHIROTA, Hiroyasu ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 967-969
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Nine feline tumors resected at surgery were subcutaneously xenotransplanted into SCID mice. The primary take rate of the benign and malignant tumors was 50% (1/2) and 100% (7/7) respectively. Six of the eight primary tumor xenografts transplanted and grown in the first recipient were successfully transplanted serially. One feline mammary adenocarcinoma xenograft metastasized to the lung of a SCID mouse. The primary take rate of feline tumors to SCID mice was high and the established xenografts appear to be valuable tools for investigating growth and metastasis mechanisms, and various therapies for feline neoplasms.
    Download PDF (1004K)
  • Hisashi INOKUMA, Takashi YOSHIDA, Takafumi ONISHI
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 971-972
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Development of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) in 5 Japanese Black newborn calves was examined by the MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay until the day 28 after birth. The PHA responses of PBMC from calves aged from 0 to 7 days were less than those of PBMC from control adult cattle. While the difference of the Con A response of PBMC between newborn calves and adults was not significant statistically. These results suggest that the response of T cell to PHA may be insufficient at early stage after birth in Japanese Black.
    Download PDF (391K)
  • Yoshihiro KAKU, Yasuhiro KON, Nobuo TAKAGI, Tadashi YAMASHITA, Masanob ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 973-975
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hybrid sterility is thought to play an important role in the differentiation and maintenance of respective biological species. In the present study, as a first step to clarify the mechanism of hybrid sterility caused by the Hst-1 gene in mice, the male sterile hybrid between C57BL/6 and M. m. musculus was investigated by histological techniques. Many spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in the testes of the hybrid sterile mice. Neither secondary spermatocytes nor spermatids were detected throughout the sections. It was noted that some spermatocytes showed degenerations in part of the lumina of the seminiferous tubules. In the chromosomal preparations of primary sterile hybrids, the percentage statistical values for the spermatogonia/leptotene stage were increased and those for the zygotene/pachytene stage were markedly decreased. Neither round nor elongated spermatids were detected throughout the preparations. It was observed that many primary spermatocytes were degenerated. These results suggest that spermatogenesis stops at the leptotene stage and that a small number of cells progress to the next meiosis, but degenerate to die during the pachytene stage.
    Download PDF (751K)
  • Syotaro TAKEUCHI, Toshio KAIDOH, Ryozo AZUMA
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 977-979
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Extracellular proteases of Actinomyces pyogenes were assayed by zymography on SDS-polyacrylamide gel with the concentrated culture supernatant of 7 isolates from pigs and cows. When gelatin was used as a substrate, three proteases with molecular weights of 69, 59 and 55 kilodalton (kDa) were detected in all the isolates from both the pigs and cows. In addition to these proteases, 108 and 102 kDa proteases were detected in the swine and bovine isolates respectively. No protease bands appeared, however, when the calcium ion was absent from the buffer solution of the zymography. When casein was used as a substrate, the bands of 69, 59 and 55 kDa proteases were present, but 108 and 102 kDa proteases were not detected in any of the isolates. The activity of all proteases was completely inhibited by phenylmethyl-sulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl flurophosphate but not by other protease inhibitors. From this result, it seems likely that the five proteases produced by A. pyogenes, originating from pigs and cows, are serine proteases.
    Download PDF (502K)
  • C. RIBER, M.D. RUBIO, F. MARQUEZ, M. PINEDO, A. MUNOZ, F. CASTEJON
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 981-984
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Clinical blood chemistry was studied on 13 Andalusian horses with laminitis. Ten healthy horses were used as controls. Blood samples were taken within the first 24 hr after the onset of the disease in Obel grade 3 before any type of treatment was given. No significant differences were observed in the number of red blood cells and white blood cells between Andalusian horses affected by laminitis and healthy animals. Significant decrease in the number of neutrophils and increased number of lymphocytes were noted. A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of CPK, LDH and AST in these animals strongly suggested the presence of muscular and hepatic disorders. The K ion increased, meeting with a slight acidosis. There was also an increase of glucose and total proteins. This fact may be a result of an excessive intake of carbohydrates (which could cause hyperglycaemia) and a diminution of the plasma volume, as a consequence of fluid movement as well as the sweating process (which could cause protein haemoconcentration).
    Download PDF (592K)
  • Kazuhiro YOSHIHARA, Shogo TANAKA, Yasuyuki MORI, Yuichi YOKOMIZO, Taka ...
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 985-988
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A cell line, FBM-17, was established from a fetal bovine thymus and passaged for more than a year. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the cytoplasm contained many phagosomes and a significant amount of rough endoplasmic reticula. In addition, FBM-17 cells showed non-specific esterase, phagocytosis and surface expression of Fc receptors for IgG and classes I and II MHC antigens. These observations confirmed that this cell line had the morphologic and functional features as a macrophage. MHC expression markedly increased by treatment with recombinant bovine gamma-interferon, showing the cell line to be sensitive to bovine gamma-interferon and functional. These present results suggest that the FBM- 17 is a functional bovine macrophage cell line. This line should be useful for clarification of roles of macrophages in immunoregulation in cattle.
    Download PDF (761K)
  • Akihiro OISHI, Satoko HAMADA, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Ryosuke SHIMIZU
    1995 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 989-990
    Published: October 15, 1995
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The preventive effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) administration on progression of anemia were evaluated during hemodialysis in nephrectomized dogs. In control dogs given no rhEPO, anemia gradually progressed with repeated hemodialysis and with little erythropoietic response observed in the bone marrow. In dogs administered with rhEPO, however, an active erythropoietic response was induced in the bone marrow, indicating that anemia due to hemodialysis was being prevented.
    Download PDF (409K)
feedback
Top