In this study, we induced chemical damage of C2C12 myoblasts that had differentiated into myotubes with glycerol, and four sulfation enzymes for chondroitin sulfate (CS) [carbohydrate sulfotransferase (Chst) 12, Chst15 and Chst3 and uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (UST)] and two CS degradation enzymes [hyaluronidase (Hyal) 1 and Hyal2] were examined for changes in gene expression. Treatment of myoblasts with 5% glycerol significantly increased the expression levels of the sulfation enzymes Chst12 and Chst15 and the degradation enzymes Hyal1 and Hyal2. However, the expression levels of the other two genes (Chst3 and Ust) showed no change. Differences in the expression levels of these enzymes may help to understand the difference in responsiveness of myoblasts to glycerol after muscle injury in vivo or in vitro.
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) belonging to the subfamily Avulavirinae within the family Paramyxoviridae. APMVs consist of twenty-two known species and are constantly isolated from a wide variety of avian species around the world. In this study, the APMV isolates obtained from wild birds and domestic poultry during 2009–2020 in Taiwan were genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis of their complete fusion protein gene or full-length genome. As a result, 57 APMV isolates belonging to seven different species were obtained during this period and subsequently identified as APMV-1 (n=17), APMV-2 (n=1), APMV-4 (n=25), APMV-6 (n=8), APMV-12 (n=2), APMV-21 (n=2) and APMV-22 (n=2). Sanger sequencing was performed to provide 22 full-length genome sequences and 35 complete fusion protein gene sequences for the APMV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the recovered viruses were closely related to Eurasian strains, except five class I APMV-1 and four APMV-4 isolates were related to North America strains. Our findings provided more evidence for the intercontinental transmission of APMVs between Eurasia and North America by wild birds. In addition, according to the criteria of the classification system based on complete fusion protein gene sequences, three novel genotypes within APMV-2, APMV-12, and APMV-22 were identified. Together, this investigation provided a broader perspective on the genetic diversity, evolution, and distribution of APMVs in multiple avian host species sampled in Taiwan.
Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius are the causative agents of American and European foulbroods of honey bees, respectively. Since their virulence and resistance to disinfectants differ depending on the genotypes/phenotypes of the strains, the discrimination of strain types is important for the effective control of these diseases. Methods to detect and differentiate pathogens in honey are useful for surveying the contamination status of beehives/apiaries. In the present study, we selected a sequence (GenBank accession no. FI763267) as the specific target for enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) II-type P. larvae strains for the first time and developed a novel multiplex PCR assay that precisely distinguishes between the major types of foulbrood pathogens (ERIC I and II P. larvae and typical and atypical M. plutonius) in one reaction. In addition, we found that commercially available kits designed for DNA extraction from Mycobacterium in feces efficiently extracted DNA from foulbrood pathogens in honey. Using the multiplex PCR assay and DNA extraction kits, all the targeted types of P. larvae and M. plutonius were detected in honey spiked with the pathogens at a concentration of 100 bacterial cells/strain/ml. Moreover, 94% of the Japanese honey samples examined in the present study were contaminated with one or more types of the foulbrood pathogens. These results indicate that the newly developed methods are useful for detecting foulbrood pathogens in honey. The epidemiological information obtained by these methods will contribute to the effective control of foulbroods in apiaries.
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of antimicrobial components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin (LF), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and S100A7) in normal milk and their relation to host factors (Age, somatic cell count (SCC), days in milk, richness, and alpha diversity of the milk microbiota) in dairy cows using multivariate regression tree analyses, and to clarify how the milk microbiota is related to the obtained results. Thirty normal milk samples were collected from a commercial dairy farm in June 2020. The thresholds that predicted the concentration of each antimicrobial component in milk were obtained by regression tree analysis, and the beta-diversity of the milk microbiota composition between groups divided according to each threshold was compared by an analysis of similarities test. The IgA and LF concentrations were mainly predicted by the SCC (177,500 and 70,000 cells/ml, respectively), and the LAP and S100A7 concentrations were predicted by Age (29.667 and 40.3 months, respectively). No relationship was observed between the concentration of IgA, LAP, or S100A7 and the milk microbiota composition between the groups divided by the threshold for prediction, but the milk microbiota composition was significantly different between the groups divided by the threshold for predicting the LF concentration. Our results indicated that the LF concentration in normal milk may be associated with the milk microbiota composition.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotics administration on fatty acid metabolism in Japanese Black cattle as per changes in blood fatty acid concentrations and blood biochemical tests. Eighteen clinically healthy Japanese Black female fattening cattle bred on the same fattening farm were randomly classified into the probiotics administration group (n=9) or the control group (n=9). In the probiotics administration group, 50 g of probiotics were started per animal per day at the age of 18 months, and the administration period was 2 months from the start date of the study. Blood was collected twice before starting the probiotics administration and at 2 months after starting the probiotics administration. In the probiotics administration group, palmitic, linoleic, arachidonic and α-linolenic acid tended to be higher at the end of the administration compared with those before probiotics administration. Additionally, as a result of multiple comparison test, monounsaturated fatty acids at Post was significantly higher, and the ω6 / ω3 ratio was significantly lower than in the control group. Vitamin A, E and albumin were significantly higher at the end of the administration than in the control group. In this study that administering probiotics to Japanese Black cattle in the late middle stage of fattening period did not have a significant effect on fatty acid metabolism during feed digestion and absorption, but suggested that may alter some blood fatty acids concentrations.
This study analyzed the pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin (OBFX) in plasma, and its migration and retention in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar cells within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Four healthy calves received a single dose of OBFX (5.0 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Post-administration OBFX dynamics were in accordance with a non-compartment model, including the absorption phase. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of plasma OBFX was 2.2 ± 0.1 μg/ml at 2.3 ± 0.5 hr post administration and gradually decreased to 0.3 ± 0.2 μg/ml at 24 hr following administration. The Cmax of ELF OBFX was 9.3 ± 0.4 μg/ml at 3.0 ± 2.0 hr post administration and gradually decreased to 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/ml at 24 hr following administration. The Cmax of alveolar cells OBFX was 9.3 ± 2.9 μg/ml at 4.0 hr post administration and gradually decreased to 1.1 ± 0.2 μg/ml at 24 hr following administration. The half-life of OBFX in plasma, ELF, and alveolar cells were 6.9 ± 2.2, 7.0 ± 0.6, and 7.8 ± 1.6 hr, respectively. The Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve for 0–24 hr with OBFX were significantly higher in ELF and alveolar cells than in plasma (P<0.05). These results suggest that OBFX is distributed and retained at high concentrations in ELF and alveolar cells at 24 hr following administration. Hence, a single intramuscular dose of OBFX (5.0 mg/kg) may be an effective therapeutic agent against pneumonia.
This study aimed to determine whether causative pathogens in mastitic milk can be determined by Gram staining after the centrifugation of milk. Gram staining was performed using unconcentrated and concentrated milk cells. Using this method, we found that the background of microscopic image of unconcentrated milk cells was complex and bacteria were difficult to detect. In contrast, the background of the smears in the concentrated milk cells was translucent, and bacterial and somatic cells were clearly visible. The sensitivity and specificity of the Gram staining of concentrated milk cells were 84.4% and 86.0% and 50.0% and 94.5% for the detection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. The presented method provides a simple and inexpensive means of determining mastitis-causing pathogens.
An 11-year-old neutered male Domestic Shorthair cat presented with a 3-month history of hypoglycemia, two episodes of seizure, and intermittent tick-like signs. Serum biochemistry revealed severe hypoglycemia associated with high insulin concentrations. Dynamic abdominal computed tomography (CT) indicated two pancreatic masses, which were enhanced most during the late arterial phase but had different degrees and variations of attenuation. Partial pancreatectomy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed that one mass was an insulinoma and the other was an ectopic splenic tissue, consistent with the differences in imaging findings. When an intrapancreatic lesion with hyper-attenuation on dynamic abdominal CT is detected, not only insulinoma or metastasis of malignancies but also intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) should be considered as differential diagnoses.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and psychiatric disorders such as major depression. In this study, we investigated pathophysiological changes in the brains of female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats with diabetes and obesity. Brains of Sprague-Dawley (SD), SDT and SDT fatty rats were collected at 58 weeks of age. The parietal cortical thickness was measured and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) regions were counted. The area of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positivity in CA1, CA3 and DG regions were measured. The parietal cortical thickness and the number of cells in CA3 and DG regions of SDT and SDT fatty rats did not show obvious changes. On the other hand, in the CA1 region, the number of cells in SDT rats and SDT fatty rats was significantly lower than that in SD rats, and that in SDT fatty rats was significantly lower than that in SDT rats. The GFAP-positive area in SDT fatty rats was significantly reduced compared to that in SD rats only in the DG region. Preliminarily result showed that the expression of S100a9, an inflammation-related gene, was increased in the brains of SDT fatty rats. These results suggest that female SDT fatty rat may exhibit central nervous system diseases due to obesity and DM.
A non-narcotic anesthetic combination (Me/Mi/Bu) of medetomidine (Me), midazolam (Mi), and butorphanol (Bu) has been recommended as the injectable anesthesia in mice. An original dose of Me/Mi/Bu (0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg) has provided sufficient anesthetic duration of 40–50 min in mice. In addition, atipamezole is available for reversal of Me/Mi/Bu anesthesia. As an adverse effect of Me/Mi/Bu anesthesia, however, severe hypothermia has been also observed in mice. In the present study, we investigated 1) the main agent in Me/Mi/Bu to cause of hypothermia, 2) the effects of the differential doses of atipamezole on hypothermia induced by Me/Mi/Bu anesthesia and on the plasma levels of creatinine phosphokinase and transaminases, and 3) those recommended doses for preventing hypothermia induced by Me/Mi/Bu anesthesia in mice. The results suggested that 1) the α2-agonist medetomidine is most likely to induce hypothermia in mice under Me/Mi/Bu anesthesia, 2) the antagonism of atipamezole within proper dose range is effective in promoting the recovery from Me/Mi/Bu-induced hypothermia, and 3) Me/Mi/Bu at the recommended dose of 0.2/6.0/10.0 mg/kg enable to provide anesthetic effects for 40 min and is more considerable to prevent the hypothermia than that at the original dose of 0.3/4.0/5.0 mg/kg.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by infection with the larvae of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) cluster. Currently, new drugs are urgently required due to the poor therapeutic effect of the existing drugs albendazole and mebendazole. Capparis spinosa, a traditional medicinal plant, has potential therapeutic effects on various diseases based on extracts from its fruit and other parts. The results of this study demonstrated that the water-soluble and ethanolic extracts of C. spinosa fruit had in vitro killing effects on the larvae of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and disrupted the ultrastructure of protoscoleces and metacestodes. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the water-soluble and ethanolic extracts of C. spinosa fruit were not significantly toxic to primary mouse hepatocytes at an effective dose to CE. In conclusion, water-soluble and ethanolic extracts of C. spinosa fruit have great potential for the development of new drugs for the treatment of CE.
The present study examined the presence of Babesia parasites in 104 domestic dogs in Nigeria. Sequentially, Babesia parasites infecting domestic dogs underwent genetic and phylogenetic analyses. The results of nested PCR based on the Piroplasmida 18S rRNA gene illustrated that 13.5% (14/104) of the samples were positive. The obtained positive samples determined the nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA genes. In the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, four of five nucleotide sequences were similar to Babesia canis rossi, and one sample exhibited a close similarity to a Babesia sp. isolated from a raccoon in Hokkaido, Japan. The present study revealed the widespread presence of B. canis rossi among domestic dogs in Nigeria.
Paragonimiasis is a zoonotic trematode infection caused by Paragonimus spp. To determine the recent status of Paragonimus infections in wild animals, this study investigated Paragonimus spp. in 39 raccoon dogs and 54 Japanese badgers from March 2019 to January 2021 in Miyazaki Prefecture, and examined metacercariae in freshwater crabs. Triploid P. westermani was found in one raccoon dog (2.6%), and metacercariae were recovered from Eriocheir japonica captured near the infected animal collected. One Japanese badger (1.9%) harbored P. skrjabini miyazakii; this prevalence was lower than the approximately 30% that was reported in the 1970s. Results indicated that zoonotic Paragonimus was sporadically prevalent in wild animals. Further investigation in various animals is awaited to elucidate current wildlife reservoirs for those Paragonimus.
Dogs with ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma occasionally present with ascites and/or pleural effusion. These aspirated fluids often contain a large number of cells, and distinction between neoplastic cells and activated mesothelial cells can be difficult. In this study, 7 cases of canine ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma, including 3 with ascites and pleural effusion, were immunohistochemically examined. Ovarian tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin CAM5.2 (CAM5.2), Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT-1) and progesterone receptor (PR) in all 7 cases. A metastatic lesion of the mediastinum in one case was also positive for CAM5.2, WT-1 and PR. Immunohistochemistry on cell blocks obtained from ascites and/or pleural effusion of 2 cases revealed the presence of PR-positive epithelial cells. Whereas, activated mesothelial cells in ascites or pleural effusion collected from dogs without neoplastic lesions were negative for PR. In addition, surface epithelium and subsurface epithelial structures (SES) of normal canine ovaries, that are considered to be the cell of origin for ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma, were also positive for CAM5.2, WT-1 and PR. These results indicate that, together with CAM5.2, WT-1 and PR is a useful diagnostic marker for canine ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma. Expression of PR may be associated with progesterone-dependent nature of canine ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma.
A 31-month-old Japanese Black cow (Bos taurus) aborted at 5 months of gestation with no clinical symptoms. Histopathological examination of the placenta and fetus revealed severe necrotic placentitis associated with numerous irregular degenerative fungi and inflammatory cells. Regular filamentous fungi were also detected, without inflammatory response in the fetal digestive and respiratory organs. Both fungi had aleurioconidia and septa in the placenta and fetal organs and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus terreus was isolated from the fetal lung and abomasal contents as confirmed using mycological and molecular methods. This is the first immunohistochemical, morphological, and molecular identification of A. terreus in bovine placenta and aborted fetuses.
This study aimed to analyze the incidence of Campylobacter in a small-scale chicken meat processing plant producing “chicken-sashimi”, and determine the effectiveness of surface burning as a treatment during processing. The most probable number (MPN) method was used to analyze the load of Campylobacter in 48 samples from four different processing steps (de-feathering, chilling, surface burning, and final-products; 12 samples each). We found the highest load of isolated bacteria in chicken skin after de-feathering. Campylobacter was not detected after the surface burning step despite a large load of bacteria present in the cecum content. Campylobacter was absent in the final products. Adequate surface burning can avoid Campylobacter contamination of chicken sashimi in the processing plant by applying the external stripping method.
This prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of epidural anesthesia (EA) placed at the lumbosacral compared to the L5–L6 junction in dogs undergoing hindlimb orthopedic surgery. In all, 98 dogs were randomly assigned to receive injection at either L7–S1 (LS group) or L5–L6 (LL group) at the same local anesthetic regimen (1 mg/kg bupivacaine 0.5% and 0.1 mg/kg morphine 1%). Fentanyl (1 µg/kg) was the intraoperative rescue analgesia (iRA) administered if mean arterial pressure increased by 30% above pre-stimulation value. Procedural failure, iRA, hypotension, motor block resolution, and postoperative side effects were recorded. There were 7/47 (15%) epidural procedural failures in the LS group and 8/51 (16%) (P=1.00) in the LL group; iRA was administered in 21/40 (52%) LS group dogs and in 13/43 (30%) LL group dogs, respectively (P=0.047). The incidence of hypotension was 10/40 (25%) and 16/43 (37%) in the LS group and the LL group, respectively (P=0.25). Proprioceptive residual deficit at 8 hr after EA was recorded in 3/26 (12%) in group LS dogs and in 13/26 (50%) group LL dogs, respectively (P=0.01). The proprioceptive residual deficit at 24 hr in one dog (LL group) resolved within 36 hr. No episodes of postoperative urinary retention, pruritus or neurological damage were recorded. The L5–L6 EA decreased significantly iRA but delays the proprioceptive recovery time. Further studies are needed to determine whether a lower bupivacaine dose reduces the duration of the residual block retaining the same incidence of iRA.
Although Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the bovine vaginal microbiota, it is an important pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases of the reproductive tract and sub-fertility. Recent studies have focused on virulence factors (VFs) of intrauterine E. coli; however, actual endometrial VFs have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to identify the VFs of E. coli associated with clinical metritis and endometritis. Thirty-two strains of E. coli and four mixed Trueperella pyogenes (TP) strains were detected in the uterus of 19 Holstein dairy cows with obvious clinical signs (between 8 and 66 days postpartum). The presence of six E. coli VFs (fimH, fyuA, kpsMTII, hra1, csgA, and astA) was examined by PCR, and clinical signs and reproductive performance (mixed TP, the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils [PMN%], days to uterine involution, etc.) were evaluated. Four VFs (fimH, hra1, csgA, and astA) were detected in all E. coli strains, whereas fyuA and kpsMTII were detected in 94% and 50% of strains, respectively. Cows with E. coli strains harboring kpsMTII exhibited significantly severe clinical scores (vaginal discharge score, PMN%, uterine involution), suggesting that kpsMTII is a key VF for progression of clinical metritis and endometritis. In the present study, we clearly identified six VFs associated with clinical metritis and endometritis. In addition, E. coli strains with kpsMTII probably play a crucial role in the progression of clinical metritis and endometritis.
Interferon-induced protein-35 kDa (IFI35) was an antiviral protein induced by interferon (IFN)-γ, which plays an important role in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, we cloned and identified IFI35 in the chicken for the first time. Chicken IFI35 (chIFI35) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,152 bp encoding a protein of 384 amino acids containing two conserved Nmi/IFI35 domain (NID) motifs. Tissue distribution analysis of chIFI35 in healthy and Newcastle disease (ND) virus-infected chickens indicated a positive correlation between chIFI35 mRNA transcription and ND viral loads in various tissues. The role of chIFI35 in regulation NDV replication were further assessed by up- or down-regulated chIFI35 expression in DF-1 cells transfected with plasmid harboring chIFI35, pCMV-3HA-chIFI35 or shRNA targeting chIFI35, pshRNA-chIFI35 plasmids. NDV replications in DF-1 cells were significantly reduced or slightly increased by over- or under-expression of the chIFI35 protein, respectively, indicating the role of chIFI35 in anti-NDV infection. Moreover, chIFI35 also involved in regulation of viral gene transcription and IFNs expression. The collected data were meaningful for research of chicken antiviral immunity and shed light on the pleiotropic antiviral effect of chIFI35 during NDV infection.
Lake Sinai virus (LSV), an RNA virus, is suspected to be associated with poor health in honeybees (Apis mellifera). We examined LSV in 26 specimens of healthy honeybees and 44 specimens of wild arthropods in the Gifu Prefecture, Japan. LSV was found more frequently in honeybee specimens (11/26, 42.3%) than in wild arthropod specimens (1/44, 2.3%) (P<0.01). Phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two lineages: LSV3 in honeybees, and LSV4 in both honeybees and wild arthropods. To our knowledge, this is the first report of LSV prevalence in honeybees and wild arthropods in Japan.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an important pathogen associated with enzootic bovine leukosis. In this study, we performed PCR and sequencing analysis to characterize BLVgp51 sequences from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens made from 1974 to 2000 and successfully obtained BLV proviral genome sequences from 94% of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, from these samples, we reconstructed eight full-length and nearly full-length BLVgp51 sequences. These sequences were classified as BLV genotype 1, implying that genotype1 has already been circulating in Japan since the 1970s. In our results, the proviral DNA was detected in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s in the same manner, indicating that the detection of BLV proviral genome depends on storage conditions rather than storage period. The sequences obtained in this study provide direct insights into BLV sequences before 2000, which serves as a good calibrator for inferring ancient BLV diversity.
The red-crowned crane Grus japonensis in Hokkaido, Japan forms a closed population as a residence that is independent of the mainland population. Based on observations of a limited number of individuals as well as cranes in captivity, red-crowned cranes are omnivores and eat fish, worms, insects and plants in their own territories except in winter, when they are fed with dent corn that is supplied in eastern Hokkaido. DNA metabarcoding based on high throughput sequencing was carried out using universal primer sets for cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Feces from 27 chicks collected in June and July in the period from 2016 to 2018 and intestinal contents from 33 adult and subadult cranes that were found dead almost throughout year in 2006–2013 in the field in eastern Hokkaido were used. Although compositions varied considerably in the cranes, both insects and fish were found in adults and subadults to the same extents, while insects were predominant in chicks. Both insects and fish were detected in all seasons for adults and subadults. Horse flies, scarab beetles and weevils accounted for the most of the insects regardless of the life stage. Dace, stickleback, flatfish and sculpin were the major fish species in adults, while chicks ate almost only stickleback. The results provide the first comprehensive data on carnivorous diets in wild red-crowned cranes in eastern Hokkaido as basis for conservation of red-crowned cranes, for which the life style and area continue to change.
Captive penguins with respiratory diseases exhibit advanced pathological conditions upon the appearance of clinical signs. Therefore, the successful treatment of respiratory diseases remains difficult after the onset of clinical signs, leading to high mortality rates. In this study, we measured air sac volume using computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the respiratory condition of penguins. In a regular quarterly health checkup, blood samples were collected from 45 penguins housed at an aquarium in Hokkaido, Japan. A total of 12 penguins with abnormal blood parameters underwent CT. The air sac volumes were calculated in three-dimensional CT, and the scatter plots of the air sac volumes and body weights were analyzed. No correlation was found between the air sac volume and body weight in both the gentoo and king penguins. Two gentoo penguins with infiltration and one king penguin with multiple nodules on CT were tentatively diagnosed with aspergillosis and treated with oral administration of itraconazole. Follow-up CT examination was performed until the outcome: healed or died. The mean air sac volumes of the two gentoo penguins, which recovered after treatment, increased from 273.9 and 329.0 cm3 before healing to 449.0 and 424.6 cm3 after healing, respectively. Meanwhile, the air sac volume of the king penguin, which subsequently died, decreased from 1,556.9 to 920.6 cm3 despite treatment. Changes of the air sac volume in the same individual could be useful for evaluating the respiratory condition of penguins.
In the Japanese macaque, semen has been collected by electro-ejaculation (EE), using the higher voltage stimuli compared to other species including genus Macaca. Semen coagulates immediately after ejaculation, which makes difficult to produce high-quality semen for artificial insemination. Recently, semen collection using urethral catheterization (UC) has been reported in carnivore and this technique may allow semen collection without coagulation in a less invasive manner. Further, the temporal preservation temperature and cooling rate of semen during cryopreservation affect post thawing sperm quality. In this study, to improve semen quality and quantity, as well as the animal welfare, semen collection was performed by EE with high (5–15 V) or low (3–6 V) voltage, UC and a combination of the two (EE-UC). It has been suggested that a high voltage is necessary for semen collection, but 10 V stimulation was effective enough and 15 V is for additional sperm collection. Also, liquid semen was collected by EE-UC and this could increase the total number of sperm. Further, to improve the post thawing sperm motility, semen was kept at four temperatures (4, 15, 25 and 37°C) for 60 min, and processed with two cooling procedures (slow cooling before second dilution and fast cooling after second dilution). Holding semen at 25°C and fast cooling after the second dilution maintained progressive motile sperm rate. The present results will contribute to the improvement of semen collection and animal welfare of Japanese macaques.
A 21-year-old female spotted seal (Phoca largha), with a swollen abdomen, had a five-month history of anorexia and vomiting. Ultrasonography revealed an extended mass with central necrotic foci in the right cranial abdomen. Computed tomography revealed an abdominal mass with a low-density central lumen and a pulmonary nodular lesion. Cytology of an abdominal specimen collected through fine-needle aspiration indicated a malignant tumor with round, atypical cells with large nuclei. Three days after diagnosis, necropsy revealed a 10-cm large, solid, whitish mass in the pancreatic parenchyma and multiple small nodules in the liver, spleen, mesentery, lungs, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histopathological analysis showed prolific neoplastic cells with marked atypia and occasional keratinization. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. Thus, the seal was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, of presumed pancreatic origin, which had metastasized to multiple organs.