There have been a number of studies which have categorized cells of feline taste buds: Types I, II, III and IV; however, few studies have examined whether feline taste bud cell types differ from each other histochemically. The goal of the present study is to figure out what kinds of glycoconjugates correspond to the four different types of cells in the taste bud. We have detected glycochains by lectin histochemistry. We have also identified Types II and III by immunohistochemistry. Then, we combined lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to determine which types of cells have which glycochains. In addition, we have compared these reactions in different papillae in the oral cavity: circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and epiglottises. Our results demonstrated that glycoconjugates showed a variety of distributions among cells in these papillae, although immunopositive reactions of the proteins involved in the taste transduction showed similar distributions in the taste buds in these papillae. Amongst all, N-acetyllactosamine was the most prominently detected glycoconjugate residue in a subpopulation of Type II (receptor) cells and Type III (pre-synaptic) cells. Our findings suggest that 1) Different localization of glycol-residues in taste buds might be owing to the possibility that different types of cells need different types of glycoconjugates, possibly for the function of cells in the taste buds, and 2) N-acetyllactosamine might play some roles in taste sensation perception and their transfer by Type II and III cells.
In this study, we examined the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the barfin flounder by transmission electron microscopy. As in the case of the ordinary teleost, the OE of the barfin flounder had 3 types of olfactory receptor cells (ciliated olfactory receptor cell, microvillous olfactory receptor cell and crypt cell), 3 types of supporting cells (ciliated, microvillous and crypt supporting cells) and basal cells. Each type of OE cells in the barfin flounder had similar ultrastructure to that of the ordinary teleost. Crypt cell is the third type of olfactory receptor cell unique to fish, whose function is unclear. The barfin flounder may be a suitable material to study crypt cells because it has relatively abundant crypt cells in the OE.
In this study, we attempted to establish a simple detection method for classification of IBV S1 genotypes by direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Then, to evaluate the usefulness of the S1 genotype-specific RT-PCR, we examined the relationship between S1 genotypes and serotypes of IBV in Japan. Sequencing of the S1 genes of IBV and phylogenetic tree analysis were conducted. On the basis of the sequencing data of the S1 genotype samples, we determined primer sets specific for each genotype. Five vaccine strains in Japan as reference strains and 46 field isolates were classified into different genetic clusters by phylogenetic tree analysis (JP-1, JP-II, JP-III, Mass and 4/91) and were matched to the results of S1 genotype-specific RT-PCR. A cross virus-neutralizing test showed that the five vaccine strains in Japan exhibited different serotypes from each other. The concordance rate of the 46 field isolates between the S1 genotypes and serotypes was 65.2%. The present study indicates that genotype-specific RT-PCR could be a convenient and useful tool for determining IBV serotypes and could contribute to the control of IBV outbreaks in Japan.
It is known that antibody responses in chickens against invading organisms or antigens are considerably different among different lines. Thus, an avian influenza vaccine was prepared from inactivated whole particles of the virus of non-pathogenic strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) using an oil adjuvant containing anhydromannitol-octadecenoate-ether and injected intramuscularly into each ten 10-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens and commercial layers of Julia and Boris-Brown to obtain comparative data for antibody responses until 6 weeks after vaccination. Despite significant partial differences of antibody titer between the chicken lines, this study clearly showed that the vaccine induced good and sufficient antibody response in both SPF chickens and commercial layers.
As little is known about antimicrobial resistance genes in fish farms, this study was conducted to monitor the incidence and prevalence of a wide range of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water samples taken from fish farms in the northern part of Egypt. Ninety-one out of two hundred seventy-four (33.2%) non-repetitive isolates of Gram-negative bacteria showed multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that 72 (26.3%) isolates contain tetracycline resistance genes and 19 (6.9%) isolates were positive for class 1 integrons with 12 different gene cassettes. The β-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 14 (5.1%) isolates. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr, were identified in 16 (5.8%) and 3 (1.1%) isolates, respectively. Finally, the florphenicol resistance gene, floR, was identified in four (1.5%) isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from fish farms in Africa.
For three years investigations from 1996 to 1998, we tried to isolate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from fecal samples collected from dogs and cats. In results, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 1 out of 614 samples (0.16%). This isolate produced Stx1 and Stx2 and was isolated from a dog kept by a human patient infected with E. coli O157:H7. Excluding in this case, dogs and cats as companion animals, therefore, may not give harbor to E. coli O157:H7.
The information of the biosynthesis pathways of Mycoplasma fermentans specific major lipid-antigen, named glycoglycerophospholipids (GGPLs), is expected to be some of help to understand the virulence of M. fermentans. We examined primary structure of cholinephosphotransferase (mf1) and glucosyltransferase (mf3) genes, which engage GGPL-I and GGPL-III synthesis, in 20 strains, and found four types of variations in the mf1 gene but the mf3 gene in two strains was not detected by PCR. These results may have important implications in virulence factor of M. fermentans.
A monoclonal antibody to canine S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) was developed to determine the association between S100A8 and the disease severity of canine atopic dermatitis. Serum S100A8 concentrations were studied in dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (n=213) and healthy dogs (n=213). Statistical correlations between these indices and atopic dermatitis activity were established, and dermatitis severity was assessed according to the CADESI score. Serum S100A8 concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). S100A8 serum levels were significantly higher in canine atopic dermatitis patients than in healthy dogs. A strong positive correlation was identified between S100A8 levels and canine atopic dermatitis patients. Our findings suggested that S100A8 is actively involved in the pathogenesis and clinical picture of canine atopic dermatitis.
We characterized the SNP 53 JPN System for parentage verification during horse registry. The SNP 53 JPN System was constructed using 53 highly polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were amplified and genotyped with 2 multiplex assays. The SNP 53 JPN System showed good resolution for 95 unrelated thoroughbreds, and the exclusion probability (PE01) for each SNP ranged from 11.5 to 23.0%, resulting in a total PE01 value of 99.996%. These results indicate that the SNP 53 JPN System is useful for parentage testing of thoroughbreds. Of the 53 SNPs, 8 SNPs could be used to exclude a pseudo parent and sib combination found using the 2006 International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) horse comparison test, as efficiently as the parentage testing systems using short tandem repeats (STRs). Thus, we concluded that the SNP 53 JPN System could provide sufficient and reliable information for routine parentage testing of thoroughbred.
Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.
We attempted to develop a strain of Babesia gibsoni resistant to diminazene aceturate (DA), an anti-babesial drug, in vitro. Since the DA-sensitive B. gibsoni strain could survive and proliferate in culture medium containing 1 ng/m l DA, the concentration of DA was gradually increased from 1 to 200 ng/ml. The results showed that the parasites could survive and proliferate in the medium containing 200 ng/m l DA, which was much higher than the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DA for B. gibsoni. Subsequently, these parasites were removed from erythrocytes and exposed directly to 200 ng/ml DA. They were able to survive and invade fresh erythrocytes, though the DA-sensitive B. gibsoni strain did not survive. Based on these results, the parasites cultured within 200 ng/ml DA were determined to be a DA-resistant B. gibsoni strain. In addition, the IC50 levels of clindamycin, doxycycline and pentamidine for the DA-resistant B. gibsoni strain were determined. The IC50 levels of clindamycin, doxycycline and pentamidine for the DA-resistant strain were higher than those for the DA-sensitive strain. The IC50 of pentamidine for the resistant strain was much greater than that for the DA-sensitive strain. These results indicated that the DA-resistant B. gibsoni strain could have resistance not only to DA, but also to other anti-babesial drugs. In conclusion, we successfully developed a DA-resistant B. gibsoni strain in vitro.
We examined fluctuations in plasma tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) measured using fluorometry in conjunction with those in calcium (Ca) and other bone metabolic markers from 2 weeks prepartum to 2 weeks postpartum in 7 primiparous and 18 multiparous pregnant cows. The plasma Ca concentration decreased temporarily on the day of calving in multiparous cows only. Plasma TRAP5b peaked on the day of calving in primiparous and multiparous cows and was significantly lower in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows 2 weeks before and after parturition. Plasma hydroxyproline increased 1 week postpartum in multiparous cows. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin tended to decrease after parturition in primiparous and multiparous cows. These results suggest that bone resorption increases around parturition in healthy parturient cows from the viewpoint of the TRAP5b activity.
Seven hundreds fifty-two Standardbreds, with poor performance, underwent a thorough diagnostic protocol. In 157 out of 233 horses, with cardiac murmurs, echocardiography and color flow Doppler (CFD) mapping were performed. Murmur of tricuspid valve regurgitation was identified in 185 horses, while murmurs of mitral (23), aortic (9) and pulmonary (3) valve regurgitations were detected less frequently. Functional systolic, functional pre-systolic, and functional early diastolic murmurs were identified in 10, 11 and 2 horses. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography showed no abnormality in 145 horses and by CFD the presence of one or more jets of valve regurgitation were observed in 149 patients. The results obtained suggest that cardiac murmurs are a common finding in Standardbreds presented with poor performance.
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.
The plasma leptin concentration was evaluated in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Twenty normal and sixteen diabetic dogs were divided into nonobese and obese groups based on body condition score, respectively. The obese normal dogs had significantly higher plasma leptin concentrations than the nonobese normal dogs, whereas there was no significant difference between the nonobese and obese diabetic dogs. In addition, the plasma leptin concentration in the obese diabetic dogs was significantly lower than that in the obese normal dogs. In conclusion, the plasma leptin concentrations in the diabetic dogs were affected by factors other than adiposity.
A high performance liquid chromatography system with a gel permeation column (GP-HPLC) and an on-line dual enzymatic system was applied to lipoprotein analysis in dogs. A high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction obtained by conventional ultracentrifugation gave a single peak at around 28-29 min. Similarly, a low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction gave single peak at around 24-25 min. The lipoprotein profiles of healthy dogs were contained large HDL peaks and small LDL peaks, and VLDL and CM were only marginally detected. In diabetic dogs, concentrations of VLDL-triglyceride and VLDL-total-cholesterol were elevated significantly. The lipoprotein profile analysis by GP-HPLC method would be useful in explication of abnormality of lipid metabolism in dogs.
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a devastating developmental disorder with progressive and fatal neurodegeneration. We have used a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease to evaluate the effects of direct intracerebral transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) on the progression of neurological disease in this order. Here, we show that hUCB-MSCs transplantation into NP-C mice prevents the loss of Purkinje neurons and inhibits cerebellar apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, these effects were associated with the modulation of inflammatory responses, as evidenced by increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and reduced abnormal astrocytic activation. Furthermore, our results show that the hUCB-MSCs transplantation reduced the cholesterol accumulation level in neurons in NP-C mice compared with sham-transplanted animals. This study provides the first evidence that hUCB-MSCs can improve neurological symptoms in NP-C disease, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative diseases.
Paramylon is a β-1,3-D-glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of the oral administration of paramylon on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) in sensitized NC/Nga mice. The effects of paramylon were assessed by measuring macroscopical and histopathological findings of skin, ear swelling, serum levels of total IgE, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-18 and IL-12 contents in the skin lesions. Oral administration of paramylon inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions as exemplified by a significant decrease in dermatitis scores for the back, ear swelling and hypertrophy of the skin, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin, and serum IgE levels. Oral administration of paramylon reduced serum levels of both IL-4 and IFN-γ and IL-18 and IL-12 contents in the skin lesions. Oral administration of paramylon did not cause weight loss, as was observed with prednisolone. These results suggest that paramylon inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing both the T-helper (Th) 1 and Th 2 cell responses. Our results indicate that paramylon treatment could provide an effective alternative therapy for the management of AD.
A 10-year-old spayed female Japanese domestic cat exhibited clinical symptoms suggesting pancreatitis. One month later the cat exhibited Horner's syndrome and was euthanized. At necropsy, multiple neoplastic masses were found in the intestines, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, and lungs. On cytology, many neoplastic lymphocytic cells had fine to large cytoplasmic granules, suggesting large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphoma. Histopathological examinations revealed infiltrative proliferation of the neoplastic cells in almost organs. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were intensely positive for CD3 and granzyme B. In the brain, there were multifocal white matter lesions characterized by diffuse myelin loss with mild infiltration of the neoplastic cells. Based on these findings, the cat was diagnosed as LGL lymphoma presumptively of intestinal origin with systemic involvement.
It is well known that maintenance therapy using Chai-hu-gui-zhi-tang (CHGZT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to prevent the recurrence of peptic ulcers. However, little is known as to whether or not it has protective effects against acute gastric injury. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of pretreatment with CHGZT extract on the development of water immersion restraint stress-induced acute gastric ulceration in male Wistar rats. The CHGZT extract (50, 250, 500 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was given to rats before they were exposed to 2 or 4 hr of water immersion restraint stress; they were then were sacrificed immediately after stress exposure. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated macroscopically, and the gastric mucosal and hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) were measured simultaneously. The results indicate that exposure to water immersion restraint stress resulted in the development of acute gastric stress erosions. Pretreatment with CHGZT extract caused a significant reduction of stress lesions and an increase in the gastric mucosal NP-SH and hepatic NP-SH concentrations. We conclude that the anti-ulcer response and extensive antioxidant effect of Chai-hu-gui-zhi-tang may be valuable in prevention of experimental gastric mucosal lesions in rats because it possesses preventive and gastroprotective effects.
Cardiac fibroblasts play important roles during the cardiac remodeling through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β induces MMP-9 secretion in cultured cardiac fibroblasts. Angiotensin II is well known to play pivotal roles in cardiac remodeling, but the effect of angiotensin II on MMP-9 secretion in cardiac fibroblasts has not been fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II on basal and IL-1β-induced MMP-9 secretion in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. MMP-9 protein secreted into culture medium, and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cell lysates were measured by Western blotting. Angiotensin II (1 nM, 24 hr) alone-treatment did not induce MMP-9 secretion. However, angiotensin II significantly enhanced IL-1β (4 ng/ml, 24 hr)-induced MMP-9 secretion. Telmisartan (10 nM), an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, significantly suppressed the enhancement of IL-1β-induced MMP-9 secretion by angiotensin II, whereas PD123319 (10 nM), an angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist, was ineffective. IL-1β (4 ng/ml, 10 min) induced phosphorylation of NF-κB, JNK, and ERK. Angiotensin II augmented the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of ERK but not NF-κB and JNK. PD98059 (50 μM), a selective inhibitor of ERK pathway, inhibited the angiotensin II enhancement of IL-1β-induced MMP-9 secretion. These results suggest that angiotensin II enhances IL-1β-induced MMP-9 secretion through the augmentation of ERK phosphorylation via AT1R in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.
We observed the influences of low-temperature storage of the feline epididymis on the epididymal semen qualities before and after cryopreservation to identify the optimal duration for low-temperature storage of the epididymis. After excision, the feline epididymis was stored at 4°C for 0-72 hr and then subjected to epididymal sperm collection. When sperm from the refrigerated cauda epididymis were frozen and thawed, there was no significant difference in sperm motility between the 0- and 24-hr low-temperature storage groups, but sperm motility was significantly decreased in the 48-hr storage group. The above findings suggested that low-temperature storage of the epididymis until 24 hr is useful for frozen sperm collected from the feline cauda epididymis.
This study genetically characterized orf viruses (ORFVs) isolated from recent outbreaks in Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) in 2007 and 2008, and from earlier outbreaks from 1985 to 2001. Nucleotide sequences of genes for the viral envelope, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and virus interferon resistance (VIR) were determined in two ORFVs isolated from recent outbreaks and in eight from earlier outbreaks. No deletions or insertions were observed in these genes. Surprisingly, the amino acid sequences of the envelope and VIR genes were identical among the 10 ORFVs, and only one amino acid substitution in the VEGF gene was found in one of the two recent ORFVs (2007). Genotyping by differential PCR for the A32L gene, which encodes an ATPase, classified all of the 10 ORFVs into the same genotype. In an ORFV isolated from a sheep in 1970, the three sequenced genes were almost the same as in the ORFVs isolated from Japanese serows, and the ORFV in 1970 was classified into the same genotype as the ORFVs from Japanese serows. These results suggest that recent outbreaks in Japanese serows are caused by ORFVs genetically closely related to the viruses in earlier outbreaks and that these genetically stable ORFVs have circulated among Japanese serows over a long period of time.
Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. Because equine rotavirus of the single P genotype, P, is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an RT-LAMP primer set was designed to target the genotype P sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 103 copies of viral RNA, whereas that of semi-nested RT-PCR for genotype P was 105 copies. The RT-LAMP assay specifically amplified genotype P but did not amplify the other P genotype strains. The RT-LAMP assay did not amplify any pathogens related to equine intestinal disorder other than rotavirus. Using 96 diarrheal stools, the RT-LAMP assay detected equine rotavirus in 58 samples, whereas semi-nested RT-PCR only detected equine rotavirus in 25 samples. The RT-LAMP assay did not detect equine rotavirus with fecal samples collected from nine healthy foals. These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is specific for equine rotavirus and more sensitive than semi-nested RT-PCR. Because it is easy to manipulate without the need for a thermal cycler or gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay should be applicable to diagnosis of equine rotavirus infections in diagnostic laboratories.