To achieve a better understanding of rabbit large intestinal functions, such as production of hard and soft feces and cecal fermentation, knowledge of the intestinal wall structure is essential. However, such knowledge is far from complete. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure the thickness of the wall and its constituent layers and describe distribution of mucous cells in each segment of the large intestine in New Zealand White rabbits. Results showed that the cecum had the thinnest entire wall throughout the large intestine, and the fusus coli and rectum had a thicker entire wall in comparison to the cecum, the first segment of the proximal colon, the second segment of the proximal colon, and the distal colon. Moreover, the thickness of the mucosa in the fusus coli and that of the inner and outer layers of the tunica muscularis in the rectum were greater than that of the other segments. Mucous cells in the mucosa were the fewest in the cecum and most numerous in the fusus coli. This study provides detailed knowledge of the wall thickness and distribution of mucous cells in the large intestine of the rabbit. These findings are important for improving our understanding of rabbit intestinal physiology and pathology.
Papillomavirus (PV) is a well-known pathogen associated with epithelial and mucosal neoplastic diseases. In contrast to human PVs, characterization of animal PVs from the aspect of anogenital neoplasm is still on a learning curve. In the present study, two vulval and one anal warts, histologically diagnosed as fibropapillomas, excised from dairy cattle were analyzed. PCR and sequencing revealed that bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and BPV-2 were detected from anal and vulval fibropapillomas, respectively. Immunohistochemistry detected PV antigen in a few differentiated keratinocytes of one vulval case. Reverse-transcriptase PCR detected the early region, but not the late region of BPV mRNA in all three cases. The present study will provide new insight into the relationship between BPV and anogenital papilloma in cattle.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac acute volume loading effect on left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate (SR) parameters derived from two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in healthy dogs. Six healthy beagles were anesthetized and subjected to increase cardiac preload by intravenous infusion with lactated Ringer solution at 150 ml/kg/hr for 90 min. A Swan-Ganz catheter was placed to directly measure the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Echocardiography was performed before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after acute volume loading began. Apical 4-chamber images focused on the LA were digitally recorded for later strain and SR analysis via 2D-STE. Acute volume loading significantly increased from baseline during LA strain and SR as assessed by the speckle tracking–based technique during reservoir and conduit function at 15 to 90 min after volume load began, and strain indices representing booster pump function were enhanced at 45 to 90 min. In addition, acute volume loading resulted in a significantly greater PCWP after fluid infusion. On multiple regression analysis, quadratic regression analysis was a better fit for the relationship between PCWP and all LA functional indices. Our findings indicated that LA function analyzed by strain and SR was enhanced during cardiac acute volume loading in healthy dogs. The change in strain and SR during acute volume loading should be interpreted with caution during the diagnosis of heart diseases related to volume overload.
The objective of the present study was to identify the effect of feeding management on disease incidence and blood metabolite levels in dairy herds in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. A generalized linear model approach was used to identify the risk factors for ketosis and displaced abomasum (DA) in dairy herds (n=30), and metabolic profile test (MPT) results were compared to verify the involvement of the factors. Consequently, the proportion of corn silage (CS) with ≥30% of dry matter (DM) fed to cows during the lactation period was confirmed as the most reliable risk factor for ketosis, while no risk factor was identified for DA. Meanwhile, the incidence rates of ketosis and DA were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the herds that were fed CS (n=20) than in those fed a non-CS diet (n=10). When the MPT results of the herds fed with CS containing ≥30% of DM (HCS group, n=4; 76 cows), with CS containing <30% of DM (LCS group, n=14; 285 cows), and a non-CS diet (NCS group, n=12; 236 cows) were compared, the HCS group showed higher beta-hydroxybutyric and lower blood urea nitrogen concentrations for until 49 days after parturition. Overall, feeding cows with CS diets containing over 30% of DM might increase their risk of developing negative energy and protein balances, thereby resulting in increasing incidences of ketosis in the Iwate Prefecture.
This study evaluated the effects of increasing the proportion of concentrate in the diet on the rumen pH and bacterial community in Japanese Black beef cattle at different fattening stages. Six rumen-cannulated beef cattle were studied in the middle (Mid group, n=3, age 21–22 months) and late (Late group, n=3, age 31 months) fattening stages. The cattle were fed rice straw with control (CON period) or high-concentrate (HC period) diets for 14 consecutive days in each period. Rumen pH was measured continuously and the rumen fluids were collected on the last day of each period. The 24-hr mean and minimum rumen pH in the Mid group were significantly (P<0.05) lower during the HC period compared with the CON period, whereas those in the Late group were continuously low during both periods. In the Late group, the ruminal volatile fatty acid and lactic acid concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher during the HC period. During the HC period, the proportions of Prevotella and Caloramator were significantly (P<0.05) higher and lower, respectively, in the Mid group. From these findings, significant changes in the rumen pH and bacterial community induced by dietary changes were mainly observed in the Mid group. Therefore, the ruminal fermentative function in response to a higher concentrate diet might adapt differently in Japanese Black beef cattle at the two different fattening stages.
Feline polycystic kidney disease (PKD), an inherited autosomal dominant disease, has been reported to occur mostly in Persian or Persian related cats, and to be associated with a mutation from C to A at position 10063 in exon 29 of the feline PKD1 gene (PKD1 mutation). Many clinical cases have been recognized in Japan, but the mutation rate in cats has not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine epidemiological characteristics and clinical features in cats with the PKD1 mutation. Referring veterinarians sent blood samples of 377 cats for the PKD1 gene evaluation. The blood samples were from 159 cats with renal cysts confirmed by ultrasonography, 60 cats without renal cysts, and 158 cats that did not undergo ultrasonography. In total, 150 cats carried the PKD1 mutation and the signalment, site and number of renal cysts, and results of blood test were evaluated in cats with the PKD1 mutation. The breeds with the highest rate of the PKD1 mutation were Persian (46%), Scottish Fold (54%) and American Shorthair cats (47%). However, mixed breed cats also showed high rates of the PKD1 mutation. Of cats with the mutation, the incidence of high plasma creatinine (≥1.6 mg/dl) was greater in cats ≥3 years old, although a few cats ≥9 years of age had low plasma creatinine (<1.6 mg/dl). The coincidence of renal and hepatic cysts was 12.6%, with the high prevalence in Persian cats (31%).
Dynamic pharyngeal collapse (PC) is a rarely reported condition in cats defined as the partial or complete collapse of the pharyngeal lumen during inspiration. Herein, we report the imaging findings and clinical features of three cats with dynamic PC. Lateral radiograph of the head was insufficient to detect dynamic PC, but fluoroscopy in conscious cats revealed dynamic PC. Magnetic resonance imaging was not helpful to reveal dynamic PC and underlying diseases. We obtained biopsy samples from the irregular nasopharyngeal mucosal membrane through endoscopy in two of the three cases and high-grade B-cell lymphoma was histopathologically diagnosed. In feline cases with abnormal upper respiratory sounds, dynamic PC should be considered, and fluoroscopy is the imaging technique of choice to diagnose the condition.
This study aimed to assess the effects of mosapride at various dosages on ruminal motility in cattle and the absorption kinetics of mosapride in cattle. Mosapride was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in cattle. Oral administration at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the detection time. At the 1 mg/kg dose, the motility index of rumen in cattle significantly increased at 60, 70, and 80 min (134 ± 20, 168 ± 37, 173 ± 45%, respectively), compared with that of the control. The administration of mosapride in cattle did not cause any subsequent adverse clinical signs or blood test abnormalities. It was suggested that mosapride enhanced ruminal motility without adverse effects in cattle.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endotoxin activity in plasma and that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bronchopneumonia. Thirty-three calves were included in this study (17 healthy calves and 16 calves with respiratory disease). In the calves with bronchopneumonia, the median endotoxin activity in plasma (0.437 EU/ml, P<0.001) and BALF (29.45 EU/ml, P<0.001) was significantly higher than in the control calves. Plasma endotoxin activity was significantly and positively correlated with that in BALF (r2=0.900, P<0.001). Based on the receiver operating characteristics curves, we propose a diagnostic cutoff point for plasma endotoxin activity (0.104 EU/ml, AUC=0.914, P<0.001, Se 81.3% and Sp 82.4%) for identification of bronchopneumonia in calves which could die within a week.
Quercetin is a plant flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-ischemic properties. Moreover, quercetin exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a form of serine/threonine phosphatase that modulates various biological functions. Among PP2A subunit types, subunit B exists abundantly in brain tissue and plays an essential function in nervous system. We previously reported the decrease of PP2A subunit B in focal cerebral animal model. This study explored the change of PP2A subunit B expression by quercetin treatment in cerebral ischemic animal model and glutamate-treated hippocampal-derived (HT22) cell culture. Quercetin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally into male rats before 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortices were isolated 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO induced the neurological behavioral deficit and increased infarct volume. However, quercetin treatment attenuated the increase of neurological deficit and infarction. We detected the alleviation of MCAO-induced the decrease in PP2A subunit B by quercetin treatment using a proteomic approach. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed lower PP2A subunit B expression levels in MCAO group with vehicle. However, quercetin treatment attenuated MCAO-induced this reduction. We also observed the neuroprotective effect of quercetin and the change of PP2A subunit B expression in glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Glutamate exposure dramatically reduced cell viability and PP2A subunit B expression, and quercetin treatment significantly improved these decreases. We clearly showed that quercetin performs a neuroprotective function and modulates down-regulation of PP2A subunit B against MCAO injury and glutamate toxicity. Thus, our finding suggests that the regulation of PP2A subunit B by quercetin contributes to neuroprotective function in ischemic brain injury.
This study was conducted to elucidate the intestinal dysmotility during coccidiosis. C57BL/6 male mice at seven weeks of age were inoculated with Eimeria pragensis sporulated oocysts (100 to 1,000 oocysts). The intestinal motility was evaluated by observing discharging time of barium sulfate (Ba2SO4) after oral administration (WITT: the whole intestinal transit time). The exact location of the dysmotility was analyzed by intermittent barium gastrography. Upper intestinal dysmotility was evaluated by charcoal propulsion study. Additionally, the occurrence of dysmotility was observed at different post-infection times (4, 7, and 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.)) and in infection-dose dependent manner (100, 300, and 1,000 oocysts). As the E. pragensis infected mice had significantly lower feed intake compared to the control group, we designed a feed apprehension study to evaluate the effect of low feed intake on the intestinal dysmotility. The WITT of infected mice at 7 d.p.i. was significantly longer (6 hr) than the uninfected mice (2.5 hr). Intestinal dysmotility was observed in the small intestine, caecum, and colorectum in the infected mice. Charcoal propulsion was slower in infected group (reaching to 40.4% of the whole small intestine) compared to control group (68.0%). The dysmotility was observed at the beginning of the patent period (7 d.p.i.) and subsided as the patency ended (14 d.p.i.). Mice with lower feed intake appeared to have similar intestinal motility as control mice. In summary, this study revealed the evidence of intestinal hypomotility during E. pragensis infection.
A 21-year-old male masked palm civet died after 2 months of continuous abdominal distention and poor appetite. Grossly, both musk glands were markedly swelled. Microscopically, round, polygonal and spindle neoplastic cells proliferated diffusely in the right musk gland and a metastatic focus was observed in the lung. The neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasm with faintly eosinophilic inclusions that ultrastructurally corresponded to whorl aggregates of intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for vimentin, cytokeratins and glial fibrillary acidic protein and negative for desmin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant rhabdoid tumor. Papillary adenoma was seen in the opposite musk gland. T-cell lymphoma of the lymph nodes, small intestine and liver was considered as the cause of death.
A case of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and squamous papilloma in a 19-year-old Thoroughbred stallion is described. The animal exhibited severe wheezing caused by laryngopharyngeal stenosis. Histological examination identified laryngeal, laryngotracheal, and guttural pouch tumor masses consisting of areas of SCC. In the epiglottic lesion, the overlying epithelium was replaced by papilloma cells, and superficial cells frequently had nuclear inclusion bodies that expressed oncoprotein E6, which is characteristic of high risk human papillomaviruses. The papillomatous epithelium was continuous with epithelium composed of SCC cells. Equus caballus papillomavirus 2 (EcPV2) DNA was detected in the guttural pouch tumor. These findings suggest that laryngeal SCC and papilloma are a continuum of EcPV2-induced neoplastic lesions in horses.
Canine anal sac gland carcinoma (ASGC) frequently occurs in the apocrine glands of the canine anal sac and shows aggressive biological behavior. The expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been reported in various human and canine tumors. HER2 is a promising therapeutic target of these tumors, and HER2-targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab and lapatinib, have improved the outcome of these patients. In this study, HER2 expression in ASGC was evaluated to investigate its potential as a therapeutic target for canine ASGC. HER2 mRNA expression in surgically resected ASGC tissues was significantly higher than that in normal anal sac tissue. To evaluate the expression of HER2 protein, paraffin-embedded ASGC tissues were immunohistochemically evaluated. Strong and broad staining of HER2 was detected in ASGC tissues, while HER2 was weakly to moderately stained in normal anal sac apocrine glands and squamous epithelia. The degree of HER2 expression in ASGC tissues was scored based on its intensity and positivity (score: 0–3+). Scoring of HER2 expression revealed 6 samples (24%) scored 3+, 14 (56%) scored 2+, and 5 (20%) scored 1+, with no samples scoring 0. In all, 80% of canine ASGC tissues were positive for HER2 (scored ≥2+). Furthermore, putative HER2-overexpressed cells in ASGC were detected with trastuzumab by flow cytometry. These preliminary data may lead to further evaluation of the role of HER2 in canine ASGC as a mechanism of malignancy and as a therapeutic target for HER2-targeted therapy.
Peripartum disorders in dairy cows negatively influence their productivity and reproductive performance. However, only a few reports have clearly indicated the influence of such disorders on the productivity and reproductive performance at a local-area or cow-level in Japan. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of diseases occurring within 60 days after calving on subsequent productivity and reproductive performance. Accordingly, a wide-area database on dairy production was used for epidemiological analysis; subsequently, multivariable analysis was performed to investigate the association of such diseases with productivity or reproductive performance in 6,545 cows from 178 farms in Fukuoka. We used 305-day energy-corrected milk (305 ECM) as an index of productivity and conception and culling as indices of reproductive performance. With regard to causality, mixed-effects model was used for analyzing the association between disease and productivity, and Cox proportional hazard model was used for analyzing the association between disease and reproductive performance. Compared to the disease absence group, the disease presence group demonstrated significantly lower 305 ECM [−154 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), −229 to −79] and risk of pregnancy [hazard ratio (HR), 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80–0.91] and higher risk of culling (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17–1.59). These results indicate that, in Fukuoka, dairy cows affected by diseases within 60 days after calving exhibit lower productivity and reproductive performance. Therefore, proper dairy cow management during the peripartum period to prevent diseases during early lactation may maintain or improve productivity.
Knowledge of genetic polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes of medical drugs and xenobiotics including cytochrome P450 (CYP) is very limited in cats. We investigated polymorphisms in CYP1A2, one of the major CYP isoforms in the feline liver. Wild-type and three non-synonymous polymorphic variants, but no synonymous variant, were identified in feline CYP1A2 in 50 alleles of domestic cats in Japan. Metabolic parameters, Km and Vmax, of ethoxyresorufin hydroxylation by CYP1A2 were shown to range within two times for identified non-synonymous variants by using a heterologous coexpression system. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP1A2 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in the treatment of domestic cats as well as for hereditary disorders.
Knowledge of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP), the most important xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, is very limited in cats. Preliminarily, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in CYP2A13, one of the major CYP isoforms in the liver and lung. Four synonymous and three non-synonymous polymorphic variants were identified in feline CYP2A13 in domestic cats in Japan, without an obvious major type. Metabolic parameters, Km and Vmax, of coumarin hydroxylation of CYP2A13 were shown to range within two times for the identified non-synonymous polymorphic variants by using heterologous coexpression system in Escherichia coli. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP2A13 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in treatment of domestic cats.
Atypical scrapie in goats has only been reported in European countries. The present study reports the identification of the first case of atypical scrapie in goats in Japan. The genotype of the animal was ALRQ/ALHQ at codons 136, 141, 154, and 171 in prion protein (PrP). Western blot analysis showed a multiplex proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP-res) band pattern with a band <15 kDa that was clearly distinguishable from the triplet PrP-res band pattern observed in classical scrapie cases. Histopathological and immunohistological examination showed mild vacuolation and fine granular to globular immunolabelling of disease-associated PrP in the dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. Collectively, our results confirmed that this goat was affected by atypical scrapie.
To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.
Teat papillomatosis is one important infectious disease affecting cattle health and results in significant economic losses especially in the dairy industry. Although there is a large number of commercial cattle herds in China, limited information is available for molecular epidemiological investigation of bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs). In October 2017, an outbreak of teat papillomatosis occurred in the Shandong Province of China. Samples were collected and diagnosed with PCR, and 3 full-length viral genomes were amplified from tissue samples collected from 3 outbreak farms. Analysis results revealed that the outbreak was associated with BPV type 10. This is the first report of BPV-10 infection in China and will contribute to the molecular epidemiological study of the disease.