Currently, antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are frequently isolated from canine superficial pyoderma in Japan. However, little is known regarding the nasal prevalence of MRSP in pet dogs. Here, we determined the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in nares and affected sites of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma. Of the 125 nares and 108 affected sites of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma, 107 (13 species) and 110 (eight species) staphylococci strains, respectively, were isolated. The isolation rate of S. pseudintermedius from pyoderma sites (82/110 strains, 74.5%) was significantly higher than that from nares (57/107 strains, 53.3%) (P<0.01). Notably, the prevalence of MRSP (18/57 strains, 31.6%) in nares was equivalent to that in pyoderma sites (28/82 strains, 34.1%). Furthermore, the phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance in MRSP strains from nares were similar to those from pyoderma sites. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in the nares of pet dogs with superficial pyoderma is the same level as that in affected sites. Therefore, considerable attention should be paid to the antimicrobial resistance of commensal staphylococci in companion animals.
Hereditary methemoglobinemia associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in animals. Recently, nonsynonymous b5R gene (CYB5R3) variants have been reported to be associated with canine and feline hereditary methemoglobinemia. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of canine and feline methemoglobinemia caused by these nonsynonymous variants have not yet been reported. Previously, we reported a Pomeranian dog family with hereditary methemoglobinemia, carrying CYB5R3 mutation of an A>C transition at codon 194 in exon 7, replacing an isoleucine residue with leucine (p.Ile194Leu). In this study, we investigated the enzymatic and structural properties of the soluble form of wild-type and Ile194Leu canine b5Rs to characterize the effects of this missense mutation. Our results showed that the kinetic properties of the mutant enzyme were not affected by this amino acid substitution. The secondary structure of the wild-type and Ile194Leu b5Rs detected by circular dichroism showed a similar pattern. However, the mutant enzyme exhibited decreased heat stability and increased susceptibility to trypsin hydrolysis. Moreover, the thermostability and unfolding measurements indicated that the mutant enzyme was more sensitive to temperature-dependent denaturation than the wild-type b5R. We concluded from these results that unstable mutant enzyme properties with normal enzymatic activity would be associated with hereditary methemoglobinemia in the Pomeranian dog family.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal solid tumors with poor prognosis. In 2017, two chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and continuously optimized CAR-T cells therapy might be the novel hope for OC patient. EpCAM are known to be over-expressed in OC cells and could be targeted by CAR-T cells. However, the feasibility of using EpCAM-CAR-T cells to treat OC still needs to be verified. We engineered the 3rd-generation EpCAM-CAR containing a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) EpCAM-scFv that targeting EpCAM, a CD8 transmembrane domain, the costimulatory domains from both CD28 and 4-1BB, and activating domain CD3ζ and then transduced the CAR into T-cells via lentivirus. In addition, the cytotoxicity and cytokine releasing ability of the EpCAM-CAR-T cells against OC cell SKOV3 were verified in vitro. The in vivo data also showed that EpCAM-CAR-T cells significantly reduced the tumor size in OC xenograft mouse models. The anti-tumor activity of EpCAM-CAR-T cells against OC in vitro and in vivo indicated that the CAR-T might provide a promising therapeutic approach to OC.
Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic enteritis of ruminants. Previous studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is associated with the disease progression, and PD-L1 blockade activates MAP-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Here, we performed anti-PD-L1 antibody administration using 2 MAP-infected cattle at the late subclinical stage of infection. After administration, bacterial shedding was reduced or maintained at a low level. Additionally, MAP-specific Th1 cytokine production was upregulated, and CD69 expression was increased in T cells. Collectively, the treatment has a potential as a novel control method against Johne’s disease.
There has been an increase in the number of Jack Russell Terriers (JRTs) diagnosed with adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract in Japan. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical and histopathological features and prognosis of adenocarcinomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract in JRT dogs. Seven JRTs and 39 dogs of other breeds diagnosed with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma were included in the study. The most common sites of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in JRTs were the pylorus and rectum. On histopathological examination, these adenocarcinomas showed a papillary or tubular growth pattern, and the lesions were confined within the mucosal epithelium and poorly invasive. Among all dogs with gastric adenocarcinoma, the median survival time (MST) for five of the JRTs could not be determined because more than half of the cases remained alive, while the MST for nine non-JRT dogs was 34 days. Among all dogs with adenocarcinoma in the large intestine, the MST for three of the JRTs could not be determined, while the MST for nine non-JRT dogs was 1,973 days. The difference in MST between JRT and non-JRT dogs with gastric adenocarcinoma was significant (P=0.0220). Since gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in JRTs show distinct characteristics with respect to their clinical features, treatment course, and prognosis, a different surgical and medical treatment plan should be considered compared to the management of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in other dog breeds.
Few studies have examined platelet alterations in dogs with chronic enteropathy. Our aim was to investigate platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in dogs diagnosed with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE). In this retrospective study of 41 dogs, data regarding signalment, canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI), endoscopic and histopathological scores, PLT, MPV, PLR, total serum protein concentrations, albumin, and iron were collected. Clinical response and relapse were assessed with the evaluation of CCECAI over time. One month after starting therapy, dogs with >25% CCECAI reduction were considered responders. During a three-month CCECAI evaluation as part of a twelve-month follow-up, a CCECAI >3 together with a ≥2 unit increase in responder dogs was considered a relapse. PLT and PLR displayed significant negative correlation with MPV. MPV was positively correlated with total protein and albumin levels and negatively correlated with CCECAI. Three dogs were classified as non-responders, and 14 relapsed within 12 months. No differences were observed in PLT, MPV, or PLR between responding/non-responding and relapsing/non-relapsing groups. PLT, MPV, and PLR correlated with total protein, albumin, and CCECAI, confirming PLT as a potential marker, and suggesting MPV as a new marker of clinical efficacy against canine IRE.
Bovine isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) disorder, a major cause of weak calf syndrome, is caused by a homozygous missense (c.235G>C) mutation in the bovine IARS gene of Japanese Black (JB) cattle, which was identified in 2013. However, the extent to which the carrier rate has changed at Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, and whether the carrier status is associated with any clinical or reproductive problems, have yet to be ascertained. In this study, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping assay, we determined the carrier rate in a regional JB cow population at Kagoshima prefecture. Comparative analyses were performed on the metabolic profile test (MPT) results and reproductive performance data obtained for heterozygous carrier and homozygous wild-type cows. In 2009 and 2018, DNA samples were collected from 130 and 462 clinically healthy JB cows, respectively, in Kagoshima prefecture. MPT results and reproductive performance data were evaluated for 62 cows, comprising four heterozygous carriers and 58 wild-type cows. Genotyping revealed that the carrier rate was 6.9% in 2009 and 1.5% in 2018, the difference of which was statistically significant (P<0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between the carrier and wild-type cows with respect to either MPT results or reproductive performance, indicating that the carrier cows have necessary IARS activity to maintain minimal health and reproductive potential.
Changes in lipoprotein profiles occur in dairy cows during the periparturient period and in cows with transition cow disease. Here, the lipoprotein profiles of Holstein–Friesian dairy cows during the periparturient period were obtained by anion-exchange, high-performance liquid chromatography to evaluate the usefulness of lipoprotein profile evaluation during the periparturient period and in cows with fatty liver and milk fever. Lipoprotein levels (including total and high- (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol) in 10 healthy cows were low 4 weeks prepartum, with the lowest values at calving or within 1 week of calving; the values increased at 8 weeks postpartum. The lipoprotein levels were measured in 16 cows diagnosed with fatty liver (n=10) or milk fever (n=6) and compared to 10 healthy dairy cows. A significant difference was observed in HDL-C between healthy cows (at calving and 1 week postpartum), and the fatty liver and milk fever cows. Cows with fatty liver and milk fever had a lower mean HDL-C than the 10 healthy dairy cows at calving and 1 week postpartum. HDL-C might be a good indicator of energy balance for differentiating healthy cows from those with transition cow disease.
The incidence of brain herniation (BH) in association with intracranial meningioma (ICM) in dogs and cats is poorly described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate and type of brain herniations in client-owned dogs and cats with ICMs and to determine the meningioma volume (MV) relative to cranial cavity volume (CCV). A retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis study of 24 cats and 45 dogs with ICMs was conducted to ascertain the presence and characteristics of BH. MV and CCV were measured and their ratio was calculated for each animal. Correlations of MV/CCV with independent variables were analyzed. BH was encountered in 24/24 cats (100%) and 30/45 dogs (66.7%) with ICMs. In cats, the most frequent presentation was foramenal herniation (FMH; 23/24, 95.8%), followed by caudotentorial (CTH; 21/24, 87.5%) and subfalcine (SH; 18/24, 75.0%) herniation. In dogs, the most frequent presentation was SH (28/45; 62.2%), followed by CTH (9/45; 20%) and FMH (2/45; 4.4%). Relative to dogs, cats with ICM had greater incidences of FMH (P<0.001) and CTH (P<0.001). Mean MV/CCV ratio was higher in cats (0.098) than in dogs (0.038; P<0.001). The most common clinical sign of ICM was altered behavior in cats (43%, P<0.01) and seizures in dogs (74.4%, P<0.001). In conclusion, cats were found to be more likely than dogs to present FMH and CTH, with a proportionally greater neoplasia volume.
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is a common cause of urinary incontinence in dogs. Although estrogen is often prescribed for the medical therapy of USMI for spayed female dogs, they are known to have limited effectiveness and potential adverse effects. In castrated male dogs with USMI, testosterone reagents have been attempted besides estrogen. In this study, the effect of testosterone drugs, mainly methyltestosterone, on spayed female dogs with USMI was retrospectively evaluated. Ten spayed female dogs with USMI were included. Diagnosis of USMI was based on the results of the dogs’ medical history, clinical signs, and no abnormalities in physical examinations, urinalysis, ultrasonography, X-ray imaging, and neurological examinations. Methyltestosterone was administered at doses of 0.32–1.27 mg/kg BW p.o. semel in die (sid.) to twice a week. Nine of the ten dogs had good or excellent responses 2 to 4 weeks after the start of treatment. The minimum effective dose was 0.32 mg/kg/day. Although no severe adverse symptoms occurred in any dog, a mild increase in alanine aminotransferase was temporally observed at doses of 1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg/day in the two dogs. After dose reduction or withdrawal, two of eight dogs had recurrence of urinary incontinence. Resumption of testosterone treatment clearly improved the symptoms in the two dogs. These results indicate that testosterone reagents might be an option for treating USMI in spayed female dogs as well.
In Japan, reducing the use of antimicrobials in pig production is a significant issue. However, there are no published reports concerning porcine disease treatment, as related to the age of the pigs and the indications (e.g., organ system) in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the prescription records of 17 farrow-to-finish farms from 2014 to 2018 in southern Kyushu, Japan. The farms’ antimicrobial usage was calculated as the active ingredient per population correction unit (PCU) or the number of treated pigs per PCU using the defined daily dose. All data were analyzed according to the indications and production stages (sows, suckling pigs, post-weaning pigs, and fattening pigs). In terms of active ingredients/PCU, tetracyclines were the most commonly used (43.2–59.3%), and the largest amounts of antimicrobials administered through feeds were for treating the respiratory organs of fattening pigs. In terms of the number of treated pigs/PCU, tetracyclines were most frequently used (16.3–31.1%), and a high frequency of antimicrobials administered through feeds was used for the treatment of respiratory organs in post-weaning pigs. In this study, it was confirmed that tetracyclines were used frequently as a herd treatment for respiratory diseases in post-weaning and fattening pigs in southern Kyushu, Japan. The findings suggest that it is necessary to improve the treatment and prevention of respiratory diseases in post-weaning and fattening pigs in order to reduce the frequencies of antimicrobial treatments.
This study reports findings from the pathological examination of the forestomach of an 11-month-old Japanese Black steer with severely retarded growth (41% of expected weight) and chronic ruminal tympany. The ruminal papillae were weakly formed (0.3–0.5 cm long) and unevenly distributed. The cellulae and cristae reticuli were underdeveloped; the cristae were 0.4–0.7 cm in height and milky white. The keratinized layer in the stratified squamous epithelium was thickened. Ruminal pH was 5.25, and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration was 11.7 mM. The steer’s severely retarded growth was considered to be caused by malnutrition due to developmental and functional failure of the forestomach.
This study established the precision and accuracy of a modified latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay (LATIA) reagent, and evaluated the ability of the measurement of serum amyloid A (SAA) compared to haptoglobin and α1-acid glycoprotein, which are acute phase proteins (APPs), for diagnosis of clinical mastitis. Concentrations of APPs in cows with mastitis were significantly higher than those in healthy cow. Only the plasma SAA concentration in cows with clinical mastitis (44.90 mg/l; n=15) was significantly higher than that in those with subclinical mastitis (10.70 mg/l; n=16), enabling their diagnosis in contrast to other APPs. Thus, the SAA assay using a LATIA reagent is useful in assessing mastitis severity due to its higher sensitivity and specificity than other APP assays.
Corneal lesions appearing as white mass beneath intact epithelium, with ocular discharge in one mouse, was observed in a batch of laboratory-raised BALB/c mice (n=9 of 56). The affected mice remained active, well-groomed and had normal appetite. Isolates recovered from swab cultures of the external and internal contents of the eye had partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of 99.1% similarity to Streptococcus cuniculi. No previous report of S. cuniculi infection in laboratory rodents has been presented. The isolate was susceptible to all antibiotics tested. We suggest S. cuniculi is an opportunistic bacteria in laboratory mice but are uncertain of its source. Our findings revealed that S. cuniculi is able to colonize laboratory mice and should be considered when mice present with eye lesion or ocular discharge.
A survey for nematode infection in German cockroaches captured in restaurants in various areas of Japan as well as the laboratory-bred colony was carried out. The nematodes were then identified morphologically and molecularly. Of the 320 German cockroaches collected at 79 restaurants in 26 prefectures in Japan, 66.6% (213/320) were found to be parasitized by a single species of pinworm in the hindgut. The mean number of pinworms per cockroach was less than 1.6. Of the three laboratory-bred lines of cockroaches examined, 2 lines (NIID and NK) were found to be infected with a single species of nematode. The prevalence was 93.0% (40/43) and 84.8% (39/46), respectively. The other laboratory line (WAT) was found to be free of the nematode infection. The nematode detected in this study was identified as Blatticola blattae. This is the first report of B. blattae infection in German cockroaches in Japan. Our study showed that B. blattae is distributed all over Japan together with its host Blattella germanica. An experimental infection with B. blattae in nematode-free cockroach by contaminating the rearing environment with infected-cockroach feces showed that once the environment of the cockroach is contaminated with B. blattae eggs, the pinworm infection could spread easily.
The poultry infections caused by Dispharynx nasuta and Cheilospirura hamulosa nematodes are difficult to be diagnosed by fecal examination because of their egg similarity. In this study, we analyzed DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S region of D. nasuta and C. hamulosa and developed conventional multiplex PCR method using species-specific primers for discriminating between the two species. The method amplified 455-bp and 319-bp fragments specific to D. nasuta and C. hamulosa, respectively, and did not produce them against the other chicken nematode species, Ascaridia galli, Oxyspirura mansoni, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis beramporia, and Heterakis indica, suggesting that the multiplex PCR is sensitive and available for species diagnosis.
The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging cats on Tokunoshima Island was assessed by testing 125 serum samples using anti-T. gondii IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall seropositivity rate was 47.2% (59/125). Seropositivity rates in cats with body weight >2.0 kg (57.4%) were significantly higher than in those with body weight ≤2.0 kg (12.5%, P<0.01). Analysis of the number of seropositive cats by settlement revealed the presence of possibly-infected cats in 17 of 23 settlements, indicating the widespread prevalence of T. gondii on the island. This is the first study to show the seroprevalence of T. gondii in free-ranging cats on Tokunoshima Island. The information revealed in this paper will help to prevent the transmission of T. gondii among cats and also in both wild and domestic animals and humans on the island.
Neurotrophic factors have been implicated in the control of neuronal survival and plasticity in different brain diseases. Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine alpha-herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) infection is a frequent neurological disease of young cattle, being the involvement of apoptosis in the development of neuropathological changes frequently discussed in the literature. It’s well known that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can activate neuroinflammatory response and consequently lead to neuronal loss. However, there are no studies evaluating the expression of neurotrophic factors and their association with brain pathology and TLRs during the infection by BoHV-5. The current study aimed to analyze brain levels of neurotrophic factors along with neuropathological changes during acute infection by BoHV-5 in wild-type (WT) and TLR3/7/9 (TLR3/7/9−/−) deficiency mice. The infection was induced by intracranial inoculation of 1 × 104 TCID50 of BoHV-5. Infected animals presented similar degrees of clinical signs and neuropathological changes. Both infected groups had meningoencephalitis and neuronal damage in CA regions from hippocampus. BoHV-5 infection promoted the proliferation of Iba-1 positive cells throughout the neuropil, mainly located in the frontal cortex. Moreover, significant lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were detected in both BoHV-5 infected WT and TLR3/7/9 deficient mice, compared with non-infected animals. Our study showed that BDNF down regulation was associated with brain inflammation, reactive microgliosis and neuronal loss after bovine alpha-herpesvirus 5 infection in mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that combined TLR3/7/9 deficiency does not alter those parameters.
The occurrence of multiple metabolic and inflammatory diseases in dairy cows is higher during the periparturient period, which may be triggered by bacterial components, but not a viable bacterium. This study aimed to determine the association of endometritis and ovarian follicular cyst (OFC) with mastitis in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein dairy cows were clinically examined for endometritis and OFC approximately 30–50 days after calving. Blood and milk samples were collected for the determination of milk somatic cell count (SCC); milk interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations; and plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) concentrations. Of the 98 dairy cows included in this study, 12 were diagnosed with endometritis and 37 cows were identified as OFC-positive, whereas the remaining 49 cows were healthy (without endometritis or OFC). The average and maximum SCCs and plasma Hp and LBP concentrations were not significantly different between the healthy cows and those with endometritis or OFC. However, when the maximum SCC was classified as <300, 300–1,000, or >1,000 × 103 cells/ml, the percentage of cows with the maximum SCC <300 × 103 cells/ml was significantly lower in the endometritis and OFC-positive groups than in the healthy group. These results suggested that cows with endometritis and OFC during the postpartum period exhibit high SCC, indicating that some bacterial components can be transferred between organs.
The necrotic enteritis toxin B-like (NetB) toxin secreted by Clostridium perfringens is a key virulence agent in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease that causes significant economic loss to the poultry industry worldwide. NetB was purified from Clostridium perfringens type G (CNEOP004) that was isolated from chickens with necrotic enteritis in Japan. EC50 of this purified NetB toward chicken liver-derived LMH cells was 0.63 µg/ml. In vivo pathogenicity of NetB to chicks produced characteristic lesions of necrotic enteritis. Analysis of the localization of the NetB monomer and oligomer molecules on LMH cells showed that both molecules of the toxin were localized in non-lipid raft regions. Moreover, removal of cholesterol with the cholesterol depletion assay carried out in LMH cells detected both oligomers and monomers of the NetB molecule. These data suggest that the NetB toxin may recognize membrane molecules different from cholesterol in non-raft region. Furthermore, NetB-binding molecules on LMH cell membranes using the toxin overlay assay with immunoblotting showed that protein molecules of different molecular sizes were bound to NetB on non-lipid raft fractions. Further studies are necessary to characterize these protein molecules to examine their specific association with NetB binding and oligomerization.
This study was designed to evaluate the modified Goetz-one-stage repair technique for reconstruction of third-degree perineal lacerations (TDPLs) in female camels. Fifteen female dromedary camels with TDPL were surgically reconstructed using the modified Goetz one-stage repair using the three-line closure technique. The surgical outcomes, the interval between repair and breeding, and the postoperative conception of the operated female camels were recorded and analyzed. During the 12-month postoperative follow-up period, TDPLs in 14 female camels (93.33%) healed completely by the first intention with mild inflammatory edema and infection in 2 female camels. One camel (6.67%) had a rectovaginal fistula, which was successfully repaired with suturing through the vaginal approach. Of the 15 female camels, 13 (86.67%) subsequently became pregnant through natural mating within 3 to 6 months postoperatively; however, 2 (13.33%) were one was immature and the other was barren which referred for gynecological treatment. The modified Goetz one-stage repair technique was successful in 14 of the 15 female camels after a single surgery, with a low incidence of postoperative complications. This technique is efficient for the repair of TDPLs in female camels, with promising results for subsequent fertility.
We evaluated changes in cardiovascular and renal functions as well as arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, with remifentanil and dexmedetomidine administration alone or in combination in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Six healthy adult Beagle dogs received one of the following four treatments in a randomized crossover study: saline (C), remifentanil alone at successively increasing doses (R; 0.15, 0.60, and 2.40 µg/kg/min), dexmedetomidine alone (D; 0.5 µg/kg intravenously for initial 10 min followed by a constant rate infusion at 0.5 µg/kg/hr), and a combination of remifentanil and dexmedetomidine at the above-mentioned doses (RD). Sevoflurane doses were adjusted to 1.5 times of minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) equivalent according to MAC-sparing effects with remifentanil and dexmedetomidine as previously reported. Cardiovascular measurements, renal function data, and plasma AVP concentrations were determined before and every 60 min until 180 min after drug administration as per each treatment. In the R, D and RD, heart rate significantly decreased and mean arterial pressure significantly increased from baseline or with C. Cardiac index significantly decreased and systemic vascular resistance index increased with D and RD. Oxygen extraction ratio, renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate were not affected. The plasma AVP concentrations significantly decreased in D and RD, but increased in R. Only in D, the natriuresis was elicited. The combination of remifentanil and dexmedetomidine in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs was acceptable in terms of the hemodynamics, oxygenation, and renal function. Remifentanil may interfere with dexmedetomidine-induced diuresis and inhibition of AVP secretion.
We evaluated the postsurgical outcomes of cutaneous or subcutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs, n=25) in 23 dogs, resected with lateral surgical margins proportional to the widest tumor diameter, including at least one facial plane. The tumor diameter range was 0.3–2.6 cm (median: 0.9 cm), and all were histologically diagnosed as Kiupel’s low-grade MCT. Resection was histologically complete in 20, close (deep margin) in three, and incomplete (deep margin) in two. No dogs developed local recurrence at the site of initial surgery during follow-up of 161–2,219 days (median: 976 days). These results suggest that resection of low-grade, relatively small MCTs with surgical margins proportional to the tumor diameter is a practical procedure with high success rates.
Difficulty in airway management during anesthesia was noted in a 10-year-old, castrated, male Pekingese dog and a 13-year-old male French Bulldog. They showed strong resistance during tracheal tube insertion through the subglottic lumen. Therefore, the airway was secured by using a small endotracheal tube or supraglottic airway device. Computed tomography scan revealed a markedly narrower vertical dimension of the cricoid cartilage compared to that seen in common brachycephalic breeds. Posterior glottis was relatively more accessible for translaryngeal intubation in the present cases. Our findings showed that brachycephalic airway syndrome may be associated with narrow cricoid cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of airway management during anesthesia in dogs with narrow cricoid cartilage.
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the vertical and fore-aft force generation of the hindlimbs in dogs with stifle orthoses. Custom-made orthoses were used on the right stifle joint. Force plate and marker data from four beagle dogs in trials without orthoses, with fixed orthoses, and with unfixed orthoses were collected. The vertical ground reaction force of the right side was increased with fixed orthoses and decreased with unfixed orthoses compared to that of gait without orthoses. When compared to that of gait without orthoses, the fore-aft ground reaction force changed with fixed orthoses but not with unfixed orthoses. It is suggested that the level of constraint of the orthosis affected the ground reaction force pattern.
Fipronil (FPN) is a systemic insecticide that antagonizes the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors in insects. Recently, adverse effects of FPN on mammals have been reported, but most of those were caused by high doses of FPN and additives in the products. We investigated the effects of low-dose pure FPN on the emotional behavior of mice. Nine-week-old male mice conducted behavioral tests 24 hr after FPN administration by gavage at doses of 0.05 or 5 mg/kg based on the no-observed-effect level (NOEL), showed a significant increase in locomotor activity and dose-dependent responses on the time they spent in the central zone in the open field test. Pure FPN below the NOEL dose may affect the emotional behavior of mice.
This study evaluated the virucidal efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) against African swine fever virus (ASFV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), according to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA) guidelines for efficacy testing of veterinary disinfectants. AEW (pH 5.0–6.5) was prepared using a commercially available “Electrolyzed Water Generator” with a free chlorine concentration (FCC) of 5–140 ppm, and its efficiency in reducing the titer of ASFV and AIV was tested in a suspension under low- and high-level organic soiling. Under low-level organic soiling conditions, AEW with FCC ≥40 ppm was effective against ASFV; under high-level organic soiling conditions, AEW with FCC ≥80 ppm was effective against ASFV. Under low-level organic soiling conditions, AEW with FCC ≥60 ppm was effective against AIV; under high-level organic soiling conditions, AEW with FCC ≥100 ppm was effective against AIV. The virucidal effect of AEW seemed dependent on the FCC and the presence of organic soiling. Based on these data, we recommend the following minimum FCCs in AEW treatment for routine disinfection in veterinary field under low- and high-level organic soiling conditions: for ASFV, 50 ppm and 100 ppm; and for AIV, 75 ppm and 125 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, the virucidal effects of AEW against ASFV and AIV emphasize its potential utility as a disinfectant, and we suggest considering organic soiling conditions while using AEW for implementing effective control measures for field applications.
Nasal papules and oral ulcers were observed in calves that were group-housed at a dairy farm. The calves were diagnosed with bovine papular stomatitis (BPS) due to parapoxvirus (PPV) infection based on virologic examinations using polymerase chain reaction to detect PPV. To prevent the spread of BPS, we isolated the affected calves, made procedural changes so that the affected herd was managed after the healthy herd, disinfected the bedding with slaked lime, disinfected the stalls and fences with invert soap, and changed the animals’ feed to soft grass which does not damage the oral cavity. As a result, we succeeded in control the infection quickly.
Monitoring the mortality of wildlife provides basic demographic information to support management plan preparation. The utility of mortality records for conservation measures was investigated in the Japanese serow, focusing on temporal trends and spatial distribution. Using the mortality records of Japanese serow from 2006 to 2018 in Gifu prefecture, cause-specific mortality was categorized into five groups (disease, accident, vehicle collision, parapoxvirus infection, and unknown), and the sex ratios were examined. A state space model was used to analyze the time series for the monthly mortalities, and kernel estimation was used for the spatial distribution of the parapoxvirus infection. Land cover type around the detection point was also reported. Disease, accident, and vehicle collision mortality were similar, and 30% of mortality was of anthropogenic origin. The number of mortality records for males was higher, and the larger home range of males could account for this. The state space model showed moderate increases in monthly mortalities over time and a seasonal variation with the highest level in spring and lowest in winter. Land cover analysis demonstrated a temporal increase in the proportion of human settlement areas, suggesting the change of the Japanese serow habitat. The proximity of Japanese serow to human settlements contributed to increase in mortality records. The point pattern analysis indicated spatial clustering for parapoxvirus infection in the area where an epidemic had occurred in the past. Several measures are recommended; however, mortality records can help develop improved conservation plan.
This study aimed to detect filarial parasites in blood samples of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) collected from Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Positive amplicons were obtained from 26 out of 30 samples by nested PCR targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene and first internal transcribed spacer regions. DNA sequences of Mansonella sp. close to M. ozzardi and Dirofilaria sp. were detected for eight and 11 positive amplicons, respectively. Co-infection was detected for the remaining seven amplicons. Dirofilaria sp. was identified as D. ursi by further genetic analysis of 5S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The results of this study will contribute to further investigations of Japanese black bears for monitoring their risk as a reservoir of possible zoonotic filarial parasites.
The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) faces threat of extinction due to illegal trafficking of its scales for the purpose of traditional medicine in the Asian region. Ex-situ captive breeding and reintroduction programs have been identified to be a key effort in the conservation of the species. The establishment of blood parameters for captive Sunda pangolins are vital to assess the health in these animals during health assessments. The objective of this study is to establish blood parameters for captive Sunda pangolins and compare the blood parameters with the established blood reference ranges for rescued wild Sunda pangolins in Singapore. Blood parameters for hematology and serum biochemistry were established from 13 clinically normal captive Sunda pangolins. Male captive Sunda pangolins were found to have significantly (P<0.05) higher potassium compared to the female captive Sunda pangolins. Captive Sunda pangolins were found to have significantly (P<0.05) lower white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil counts, alanine phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorus and significantly (P<0.05) higher PCV, TP, globulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) when compared with rescued wild Sunda pangolins from the previous study.