It is well known that some caspases in apoptosis is involved in determinant of terminal differentiation and maturation of various cells. Our previous study ultrastructurally clarified the differentiation into M cells from immature microvillous epithelial cells and the redifferentiation from M cells to microvillous epithelial cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of rat Peyer's patch. In this study, the difference of epithelial apoptosis between the FAE of Peyer's patch and intestinal villi was immunohistochemically investigated in rat jejunoileum. As a result, cleaved caspase-3 was limited to several epithelial cells at the tip of FAE, whereas almost all of the epithelial cells were cleaved caspase-3 positive in intestinal villi. Cleaved caspase-9 was detected only in a few exfoliating or exfoliated epithelial cells of both FAE and intestinal villi. Nuclear DNA-fragmentation was detected only in several epithelial cells of the tip of FAE, while it was expressed from the middle regions in the intestinal villi. The DNase I expression of the epithelial cytoplasm was much weaker in FAE than in intestinal villi. Bcl-x expression was restricted in the apical cytoplasms of epithelial cells in the FAE, whereas it was restricted in whole cytoplasms in villous epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the progression of the apoptotic process in the epithelial cells of FAE is later than in the intestinal villi, so that the possibility of epithelial differentiation might be remained in the FAE, unlike in the intestinal villi.
Microglia are evenly distributed throughout the brain parenchyma. They respond rapidly to a variety of alterations in the microenvironment of the brain and act as sensors for pathological events in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the age-dependent changes in the immunoreactivity and protein level of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), a microglial marker, in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus. Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia were detected in the hippocampal CA1 region of the postnatal month 1 (PM 1) group. Iba-1 positive microglia were morphologically inactive between the PM 1 and PM 12 stages. Some Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia were present in the active form in the hippocampal CA1 region of the PM 18 and PM 24 groups. The Iba-1 protein levels in hippocampal CA1 homogenates were decreased in the PM 1 through PM 6 groups and increased in an age-dependent manner thereafter. These results suggest that Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia in the active form were detected in the hippocampal CA1 region in the PM 18 and PM 24 groups. This result may be associated with an age-dependent susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases associated with the hippocampus.
We investigated the expression of aquaporin (AQP) subtypes (AQP1-AQP9) in the rat pituitary gland by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Specific amplification by RT-PCR was observed in AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP5 but not in the others. AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. No positive reaction to AQP3 was observed by immunohistochemistry, in spite of the detection of mRNA. AQP4 was localized in the supporting cells of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. AQP5 was expressed in parts of the marginal cells in Rathke's residual pouch. These observations suggest that several subtypes of the AQP family are involved in regulation of water homeostasis in the rat pituitary gland.
This work was done to identify a fowl adenovirus (FAV) binding protein in the gizzard, a known target organ for certain strains of FAV serotype 1. By using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), a putative FAV binding protein of approximately 200 kDa expressed in the gizzard was detected.
Contagious equine metritis (CEM) is a highly contagious bacterial venereal disease of horses caused by Taylorella equigenitalis. CEM-PCR is a semi-nested PCR method for detecting this bacterium. Although this technique is regarded as a sensitive diagnostic method for CEM, there are risks of it generating false positive and false negative results. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid (CEM-POS) as reaction control to assure adequate PCR reaction and prevent false positive results caused by contamination of the reaction control in routine CEM-PCR examinations. CEM-POS was constructed by insertion of rpoB fragments from Rhodococcus equi into CEM-1P, which is a recombinant plasmid that includes a T. equigenitalis-specific sequence region. In CEM-PCR, the size of the PCR product from CEM-POS was clearly different from the true positive PCR product. In addition, CEM-POS retained high stability under convenient storage conditions of 4°C. These results suggest CEM-POS to be a useful tool as a reaction control in routine CEM-PCR examinations.
A total of 153 isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium derived from food-producing animals in Japan between 2002 and 2005 were investigated for antimicrobial resistance and phage types related to definitive phage type 104 (DT104). The predominant resistance type was resistance to ampicillin, dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline in bovine (45.2%, 48/104) and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline in porcine isolates (58.7%, 27/48). DT104-related phage type was found in 32 of 104 bovine isolates, two of 48 porcine isolates, and one of eight isolates from poultry, showing that the proportion of the phage type in S. Typhimurium isolates from cattle and pigs significantly (P<0.01) decreased from 71.9% and 31.4% in 1999-2001 to 30.8% and 4.1% in 2002-2005, respectively.
Rabbits were immunized with inactivated influenza virus via the subarachnoidal (SA) or subcutaneous (SC) route, and the antibody titers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were assayed. There were no nervous signs or morphological lesions related to SA immunization. In the SC group, the antibody titer was elevated in serum, but not elevated in CSF. In the SA group, the antibody titer was significantly elevated in serum and even in CSF, and their antibody titers were much greater than in the SC group. The present results suggest that intrathecal immunization is more effective than SC immunization at inducing a protective immune response against the transneural spread of viruses.
An eleven-year-old female Japanese mongrel cat was referred to the Tottori University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for assessment of acute paresis and dyspnea. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed a hydropericardium. The mitral valve leaflets were thickened, the separation of the right and left leaflets was not complete. Treatments with intravenous fluids of lactate Ringer solution, furosemide, urokinase, antibiotics were initiated, but did not improve the respiratory failure. The cat died 10 days later. From pathological and microbiological examinations, this was an unusual case diagnosed as acquired mitral stenosis associated with congenital malformation of the mitral valve complex, and accompanied by secondary infectious myocarditis with Streptococcus canis.
A 3-year-old female pug presented with general seizure following a partial seizure. During the remaining 48 months till death, the dog showed various neurological signs such as disturbance of consciousness, myoclonus and various types of partial seizure after each occurrence of the seizure clusters, and the dog eventually exhibited inability to stand and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging findings revealed atrophy of the brain over the course of the disease. On histopathological analysis, the dog was diagnosed with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. This case of a canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis observed over the long term is valuable.
Characterization of CD34+ cells in canine bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood was performed by flow cytometric analysis. The ratio of CD34+CD45hi cells, which are absent in human blood, was high in the CD34+ cell fraction, but 98% of these was suggested B-cells. The remaining CD34+CD45lo cells may comprise canine hematopoietic progenitor cells, and these cells accounted for 0.23 ± 0.07% of the fraction in cord blood, 0.30 ± 0.07% in bone marrow, and 0.02 ± 0.01% in peripheral blood.
Despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both animals and humans, diethyl ether is an agent long used in Japan in the anaesthesia jar method of rat anaesthetises. However, in response to a recent report from the Science Council of Japan condemning diethyl ether as acceptable practice, we searched for an alternative rat anaesthesia method that provided data continuous with pre-existing regular toxicology studies already conducted under diethyl ether anaesthesia. For this, we examined two candidates; 30% isoflurane diluted with propylene glycol and pentobarbitone. Whereas isoflurane is considered to be one of the representatives of modern volatile anaesthetics, the method of propylene glycol-diluted 30% isoflurane used in this study was our modification of a recently reported method revealed to have several advantages as an inhalation anaesthesia. Intraperitoneal pentobarbitone has long been accepted as a humane method in laboratory animal anaesthesiology. These 2 modalities were scrutinized in terms of consistency of haematology and blood chemistry with previous results using ether. We found that pentobarbitone required a much longer induction time than diethyl ether, which is suspected to be the cause of fluctuations in several haematological and blood chemical results. Conversely, only calcium ion concentration showed a slight difference from traditional results in the case of 30% isoflurane. Additionally, serum prolactin and corticosterone levels indicated that 30% isoflurane induced less stress than ether, confirming that 30% isoflurane can both provide results consistent with diethyl ether, while at the same time remove its disadvantages. As such 30% isoflurane appears to be a strong alternative anaesthetic agent for future regular toxicology studies in Japan.
An epidemiological study of Babesia canis in dogs in Nigeria was performed. Four hundred blood samples collected from dogs in Nigeria were investigated using nested PCR and sequence analysis. On nested PCR screening, nine samples (2.3%) produced a band corresponding to a 698-bp fragment indicative of B. canis infection. Sequence analysis of the PCR products identified eight samples (2.0%) as B. canisrossi and the ninth (0.3%) as B. canisvogeli. This is the first report of the prevalence of B. canisrossi and B. canisvogeli in dogs in Nigeria.
Boldenone and its precursor Boldione are illegally used for anabolic purposes in humans, horses and cattle. To develop more effective policies and programs to maximize food security, Italian Public Health Services investigate all indicators capable of assisting the recognition of treated animals, and prioritize research and the formulation of action strategies for the promotion of healthy eating. Thus, an experimental administration of boldenone and boldione at anabolic dosages in veal calves was carried out to evaluate the changes in target organs by qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological analysis. The lesions resembled the effects already observed after the administration of androgen hormones to cattle. Main findings were represented by prostate hypersecretion, increased rate of apoptotic cells and decreased rate of Ki67 positive cells in the germ cell line of treated animals, particularly in boldione group and finally some new features like hypertrophy of the prostate urothelial cells.
The prognosis for canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (CCMT) is thought to be correlated with histopathological grading. However, the wide variety of histopathologic types of grade II is one of the most troublesome and difficult points for prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine the prognostic value of surgical margin, ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein expression in grade II tumor. Surgically resected specimens of solitary grade II CCMT from 48 dogs with follow-up periods over 360 days (median was 1080 days) were used in this study. The expression of cyclin D1 and ki-67 proteins was determined by morphometrically using slides stained immunocytochemically, and the correlations among the results, survival rate, and recurrence and/or metastasis rate of each dog were analyzed statistically. The recurrence and/or metastasis and mortality rate in the incomplete surgical excision group within 30 months postoperatively were higher than that of the complete surgical excision group. In the incomplete surgical excision group, dogs with low positive staining of ki-67 had a significantly better survival, but the recurrence and metastasis rate and ki-67 positivity failed to show a significant correlation. Only a small number of cases showed cyclin D1-positive tumor cells, but most of them had a poor outcome with a high recurrence rate. In grade II CCMT, incomplete excision induced a relatively high metastasis rate and poor prognosis. Ki-67 positivity is a marker for the estimation of overall survival in incomplete surgical excision cases. Cyclin D1 positivity was low and may not have a prognostic role.
Of 197 cases of canine oral malignant melanoma, 29 cases with myxoid, cartilage, and osteoid formation were studied pathologically and immunohistochemically. Tumor tissues were classified into spindle cell type (13 cases), epithelioid cell type (1 case), and mixed type (15 cases). Myxoid matrixes (29 tumors) were formed mainly in the tissues of spindle cell type and were positive for Alcian blue (pH 2.5). Cartilaginous matrixes (12 tumors) were formed in the myxoid tumor tissues. The morphology of atrophied neoplastic cells, which were embedded in the cartilage cavities, significantly differed from that of spindle cells proliferating in surroundings. There were reticular areas in the process of transitioning from myxoid to cartilaginous matrixes. Osteoid matrixes were not continuous with myxoid or cartilaginous matrixes, and arose as eosinophilic trabeculae in the dense collagenous connective tissues. A calcified bone trabecula was present among the osteoid trabeculae in a case. Melanin-producing melanocytes were proliferating in the collagenous matrixes, while amelanotic cells were in the osteoid matrixes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated proliferating neoplastic cells as melanocytes. All cells in/out of these three matrixes were positive for Melan-A, S-100 protein, NSE, and vimentin. From these results, it is suggested that cartilage and osteoid matrixes are produced by dedifferentiated melanocytes.
A rare lymphoma that developed in the cecum of a domestic pet rabbit (6 years old, male, crossbred) was examined pathologically. The tumor consisted of proliferating neoplastic lymphoid cells, which were strongly stained with anti-CD79α monoclonal antibody. Electron microscopy revealed the tumor cells were composed of rough endoplasmic reticula and/or dilated rough endoplasmic reticula filled with moderately electron-dense material. These findings indicated the present case was rare digestive tract lymphoma originated from B-lymphocytic lineage in the cecum.
A ten-year-old Shetland pony gelding showed low appetite, ataxia, peculiar swaying, clouding of consciousness, and ultimately died. At necropsy, multiple coalescing granulomatous foci were detected in the kidneys, and small necrotic lesions were found in the cerebellum. Histologic examination of the renal tissue sections revealed extensive granuloma, and Halicephalobus gingivalis-like nematodes were seen. Similar nematodes were found in the granulomatous or necrotic lesions of the renal lymph nodes and cerebellum, and were also frequently detected in cerebrospinal meningovascular lesions. Morphologic features together with partial ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the nematodes in the lesions revealed that they were H. gingivalis. The present results indicated that H. gingivalis caused granulomatous nephritis and meningoencephalomyelitis in this pony gelding.
Canine brucellosis is a contagious disease with venereal and oral modes of transmission that produces late abortion in females, epididymides and prostates in males. Diagnosis is difficult because of unstable serum antibody titers that vary from individual to individual as well as between different methods used for their detection. The objective of this work was to evaluate the clinical utility of the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for serodiagnosis of dogs suspected of having brucellosis, and results were compared with those obtained for hemoculture (HC) and the rapid screening agglutination with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME RSAT). The all experimentally infected dogs were positive in ICA, HC and 2-ME RSAT from 5 weeks, 7 weeks, and 3 weeks after infection, respectively. Also, among dogs selected from 10 different breed kennels occurred brucellosis, 24.8%, 39.5% and 39.1% of dogs tested were detected as positive with HC, 2-ME RSAT and ICA, respectively. The kappa value between 2-ME RSAT and ICA was 0.89. The results of this study showed that sensitivity and specificity of the ICA are comparable with those obtained using conventional serological and bacteriological test for brucellosis. In conclusion, the ICA kit provides a handy and accurate tool for the rapid serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.
The effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated in isoflurane anesthetized 10 (5 males, 5 females) normal mongrel dogs (8.1-9.8 kg, 6-8 years old). After determination of baseline IOP and hemodynamic parameters (cardiac index, systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance index), EA was applied at 3 acupoints (LI-4, LIV-3 and GB-37) for 20 min. After the EA treatment, IOP was significantly decreased in the both eyes (p<0.05). However, there were not significant differences in hemodynamic parameters between those of before and after EA treatment. From these results, the EA treatment at LI-4, LIV-3 and GB-37 would be considered one of the valuable methods for the IOP treatment in dogs.
The characteristics of recovery from total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane was clinically compared in 149 client-owned dogs that anesthetized for surgical or diagnostic procedures. In all dogs, anesthesia was induced with an intravenous injection of propofol following premedication with acepromazine or diazepam. As a result, 58 dogs anesthetized with propofol-TIVA showed slower but smoother recovery than 91 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane anesthesia. The dogs stood at 34.5 ± 19.3 and 27.7 ± 17.2 min after propofol-TIVA and isoflurane anesthesia, respectively. Adverse effects, including hypersalivation, neurologic excitement (paddling, muscle tremor/twitching, opisthotonos) and vomiting/retching, were observed in similar infrequent incidences during the recovery from both anesthetic protocols. Propofol-TIVA is suggested to be an alternative anesthetic protocol for canine practice.
To investigate the genetic characteristics of phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) genes of variable rabies virus (RV) prevalent in Brazil, the authors genetically characterized the P and M genes from 30 Brazilian RV field isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the P and M genes revealed the presence of six RV variants that consisted primarily of three insectivorous bats, the vampire bat, dog and fox in Brazil. Specific amino acid substitutions corresponding to these phylogenetic lineages were observed, with Asp42 and Glu62 in the P protein found to be characteristic of Brazilian chiroptera- and carnivora-related RVs, respectively. Amino acid sequence motifs predicted to associate with a viral function in the P and M proteins were conserved among Brazilian RV variants.