Murine coronavirus (CoV) is a beta-CoV that infects mice by binding to carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1. Intraperitoneal infection with the murine CoV strain JHM (JHMV) induces acute mild hepatitis in mice. While both innate and acquired immune responses play a significant role in the protection against murine CoV infection in mice, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and interferon-γ are essential for viral clearance in JHMV-induced hepatitis. In addition, CoVs are characterized by high diversity, caused by mutations, recombination, and gene gain/loss. 25V16G is an immune-escape JHMV variant, which lacks a dominant CTL epitope. By evading immune responses, 25V16G establishes persistent infections, leading to granulomatous serositis in interferon-γ-deficient mice. These examples of CoV-associated pathogenesis in mice might provide useful information on other CoV infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The incidence of systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was high in Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), as 150 of 235 birds from 5 breeding colonies (63.8%) tested positive for it. The incidence was statistically significantly higher in one colony. The liver was the most frequently affected organ (150 cases), followed by the spleen and then the kidneys. The degree of amyloid deposition was high in the liver and spleen and low in the kidneys. The histological distribution of amyloid deposits was similar in all finch species. Species-specific or colony-specific predisposing factors for systemic AA amyloidosis in Bengalese finches remain to be elucidated. As far as we know, this is the first report of amyloidosis in Bengalese finches.
The Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry reference method (JSCC method) is used to measure alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity only in Japan. Other countries use the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) reference method to measure ALP activity. Since April 2020, human medical institutions in Japan have been gradually switching to the IFCC method. However, it is unclear whether the supply of reagents required for the JSCC method will be steady in the future. Additionally, the comparison of the performances and accuracies of these two methods for measuring ALP values remains uncertain in several animal species. In this investigation, we measured canine ALP activity using both methods and developed a formula to interconvert the two resulting values. The regression formula for ALP values measured using the modified JSCC (x) and IFCC (y) methods was determined as log10 y=0.960 log10 x−0.395 (r=0.997). However, the correlation between values based on JSCC and IFCC methods can change depending on the composition of ALP isozymes. Therefore, the developed formula can currently serve as a provisional strategy in calculating ALP levels. Nevertheless, this formula might avoid confusion in the clinical field during the transition from the JSCC to the IFCC method when both measurement values co-exist.
We evaluated whether the dietary roughage-to-concentrate ratio affects ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in response to a one-time morning fast. Four healthy rumen-cannulated Holstein steers 4–5 months old were used. Cattle were subjected to 2 weeks of adaptation (high-roughage or high-concentrate diet), and morning feed restriction was performed on the day after the adaptation period ended (Day 0). Thereafter, each diet was reintroduced on the evening of Day 0. Our results showed that the 1-hr mean ruminal pH from 0800 to 1900 on Day 0 was higher, and that from 1700 to 1900 on Day 1 was lower (P<0.05) than pH on 1 day before fasting (Day −1) in cattle fed both diets. On Day 0, total VFA levels decreased after morning fasting and were lower (P<0.05) than those on Day −1 irrespective of evening refeeding. Furthermore, blood non-esterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels on Day 0 increased and decreased, respectively, compared to Day −1 in cattle fed both diets. These results indicate that even a one-time feed restriction can disrupt ruminal fermentation, and the changes can persist to the next day after fasting.
Computed tomographic (CT) angiography, the gold standard for diagnosing portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in humans, is poorly documented in dogs. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed dogs with PVT diagnosed by CT angiography. Medical records of 13 client-owned dogs diagnosed with PVT by CT angiography were reviewed. All dogs had chronic PVT, and the most frequent clinical sign was vomiting (5/13), with pancreatitis the most frequent concurrent disease (6/13). All dogs tested for plasma D-dimer concentration (12/12) revealed elevated levels. On CT angiography, a thrombus was detected as a non-contrast enhancement structure in the portal vessel of 13 dogs. There was no evidence of complete obstruction of the portal vein in any of the dogs. The median luminal filling of the portal vein was 60.4%. The thrombus extension was variable among dogs, with a median of 34.9 mm. CT angiography identified the thrombus in the main portal vein of 12/13 dogs and multiple thrombus formation other than the main portal vein in 9/13 dogs. CT angiography provided specific information such as detecting the presence, location, and number of PVT in dogs. Therefore, CT angiography might be useful for the diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of PVT in dogs.
This study investigated the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus sakei HS-1 (HK-LS HS-1) on the health and fecal bacteriological change of suckling Japanese Black calves as a supplement in milk replacers. Twelve calves were separated from dams to calf-hatch after calving for milk replacers feeding. They were randomly assigned to an HK-LS HS-1 supplement or a control without HK-LS HS-1 group in milk replacers. HK-LS HS-1 was administered from separation day to 3 weeks. Blood and fecal samples were examined. Two calves with a haptoglobin concentration of >500 µg/ml on day 0 were excluded from the experiment, and 10 calves were finally included. Glucose and vitamin A levels on day 7 were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the supplement group than in the control group. No significant differences were observed in haptoglobin or serum amyloid A between the groups. The number of Escherichia coli in feces was lower in the control group than in the supplement group on day 21 (P=0.06). No difference was observed in the number of bifidobacteria, but that of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the supplement group on day 21. The number of medications administered was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the supplement group (5.2 ± 3.9) than in the control group (10.6 ± 5.9) during the experimental period. The results indicated that HK-LS HS-1 is potentially beneficial for improving intestinal microbes and reducing the number of medical treatments.
We investigated changes in peripheral blood metabolites, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, potential antioxidant capacity, and glutathione peroxidase [GPX]), and hepatic gene expression related to oxidative stress in Holstein cows with and without subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) during the periparturient period. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were categorized into SARA (n=9) or non-SARA (n=9) groups depending on whether they developed SARA; reticulo-ruminal pH was <5.6 for more than 3 hr per day, during the 2 weeks after parturition. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected 3 weeks prepartum and 2 and 6 weeks postpartum, with an additional blood sample collected 0 and 4 weeks postpartum. Blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) increased significantly (P<0.05) after parturition in both groups. GPX activity decreased gradually after parturition in the SARA group. In the SARA group, gene expression of GPX 1 and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3) decreased significantly (P<0.05), and expression of metallothionein 2A increased significantly (P<0.05) after parturition in the SARA group. Superoxide dismutase 1 and MGST3 decreased significantly (P<0.05) 2 weeks postpartum in the non-SARA group. Gene expression related to oxidative stress was negatively correlated with AST, NEFA and total ketone body levels. Therefore, the hepatic gene expression related to oxidative stress might change associated with a negative energy balance, and might relate the high oxidative stress in the SARA group during periparturient period.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of maintenance enteral electrolytic solutions administered naso-ruminally in continuous flow in adult goats subjected to water and food restriction. Six adult non-pregnant and non-lactating female goats, aged between two and five years old, were used in a crossover (6 × 2) study. Solution 1 (SEE1) comprised: 4.5 g sodium chloride (NaCl); 1 g potassium chloride (KCl); 0.5 g magnesium chloride (MgCl); 1 g calcium chloride in 1,000 ml of water (measured osmolarity: 202 mOsm/l). Solution 2 (SEE2) comprised: 4.5 g of NaCl; 1 g of KCl; 0.5 g of MgCl; 2 g of calcium acetate in 1,000 ml of water (measured osmolarity: 212 mOsm/l). The solutions were administered naso-ruminally at a dose rate of 15 ml/kg/hr, for 12 hr. The animals were evaluated at times T-24, T0, T4, T8, T12, and T24. Both enteral electrolytic solutions were effective in expanding blood volume. SEE1 showed a low-intensity acidifying potential, while SEE2 showed behavior of a neutral enteral electrolytic solution.
A 2-day-old Japanese Black male calf that presented with opisthotonos with spastic extension of all four limbs and nystagmus was presented. Evaluation of cranial neurology revealed a horizontal slow nystagmus and absence of menace response in the left eye. Necropsy revealed a mass located between the posterior margin of the cerebrum and anterior margin of the cerebellum, and continuously with the cerebellar lesion. The brainstem was severely compressed by those lesions. Original structures of the cerebellum were mostly replaced by grayish-white and brownish tissues. Those lesions were diagnosed as presumed cerebellar medulloblastoma by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. As neuron-specific enolase in the cerebrospinal fluid which is a biomarker for neuronal damage was increased compared with healthy calves.
The aim of present study was to evaluate the precision of plasma haptoglobin (HPT), serum iron (Fe) and plasma transferrin (Tf) concentrations as biomarkers of the severity of acute mastitis (AM) in cows. Fourteen Holstein Friesian cows with AM were divided into severe (n=8) and mild groups (n=6) based on systemic and local inflammation, and 12 healthy cows were also enrolled as controls. As a result, significant changes were observed in plasma HPT and serum Fe concentrations. The proposed cut-off points for plasma HPT and serum Fe concentrations for the severity of AM in cows based on receiver operating characteristic analyses were >10.3 µg/ml and <49.0 µg/dl, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma Tf concentration.
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) in miniature dachshunds (MDs) are speculated to be a breed-specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein (LRG) has been identified as a novel biomarker of human IBD. The aim of this study was to examine LRG gene expression in the polypoid lesions of ICRPs. Polypoid lesion specimens were collected from 24 MDs with ICRPs. Nonpolypoid colonic mucosa was collected from 18 MDs with ICRPs and 10 controls. The gene expression of LRG, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-22 was examined. The expression of LRG gene was significantly increased in the polypoid lesions of ICRPs and correlated with that of the four cytokines. In conclusion, the LRG gene was expressed within the polypoid lesions of ICRPs and might be associated with local cytokine expression.
The aim of study was to investigate the relationships among serum diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, postnatal days and the plasma copper (Cu) concentration, using calves with or without diarrhea. In healthy calves, the serum DAO activity was significantly higher at 2 postnatal days than at ≥7 postnatal days, and no significant changes were observed after 7 postnatal days. In addition, no significant correlation was found between serum DAO activity and plasma Cu concentration at all postnatal days in healthy calves. Although, the serum DAO activity in 14 diarrheic calves (66.78 ± 14.37 IU/ml) was lower than that in 19 healthy calves (170.33 ± 97.83 IU/ml, P<0.01), plasma Cu concentrations in all calves remained within the normal range.
A 3-month-old male Scottish Fold kitten with pleural fluid and low ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) was brought to our small animal hospital. Since RNA from the type I feline coronavirus (FCoV) were detected in drained pleural fluid, the cat was tentatively diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Following the administration of itraconazole and prednisolone, the A/G ratio increased, and the pleural fluid mostly disappeared. The fecal FCoV levels temporarily decreased. However, the cat showed neurological manifestations and was eventually euthanized due to status epilepticus after 38 days of treatment. In conclusion, itraconazole partly exerted a beneficial effect in a cat with FIP. However, further investigation of a possible role of itraconazole in FIP treatment is warranted.
A 76-day-old Japanese Black calf presented with severe stridor, resenting palpation of the laryngeal region. Endoscopic examination revealed an expansile process restricting the esophageal and tracheal lumina caudal to the arytenoid cartilage, hyperemia and edema of the pharyngeal mucosa, right arytenoid cartilage swelling and displacement, and marked airway obstruction. The absence of an endotracheal wall abnormality impeded a definitive diagnosis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a mass (CT value: 40–45 HU) caudal to the arytenoid cartilage, causing tracheal stenosis and esophageal displacement. The presence of gas in the mass suggested the presence of an abscess. Diagnosis of deep retropharyngeal lesions by conventional endoscopic and ultrasonographic examinations may be challenging; CT can then provide more comprehensive diagnostic information on a lesion.
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are intracellular protozoan parasites that cause reproductive disorders in ruminants and humans. Information on the risk factors of T. gondii and N. caninum infections in goats is very limited in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology and identify the risk factors of these two infections in goats. A total of 630 caprine sera were collected from 42 dairy goat farms and the owners were interviewed by a structured questionnaire. The apparent seroprevalences of T. gondii in farm- and individual- levels were respectively 88.1% and 32.22%, while those of N. caninum were 19.05% and 2.54%, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene was identified in 7 feed samples and 8 from the water samples whereas N. caninum was not found. Wooden flooring was the main risk factor for T. gondii infection while the frequency of visits by staff to other farms and the breed of goat were risk factors for N. caninum. The improvement of flooring materials or thorough cleaning, periodic disinfection and maintenance of dryness on the floor are highly recommended for the prevention of T. gondii infection in farmed goats. In addition, unnecessary visits to other farms should be limited to prevent the spread of N. caninum. These factors should be highlighted for the prevention of T. gondii and N. caninum in goats, particularly when raised in intensive housing system with flooring on height.
Dourine is a deadly protozoan disease in equids caused by infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum. Neurological signs in the later stage of infection may be caused by peripheral polyneuritis and related axonal degeneration. This neuritis involves T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and macrophages, and is observed in cases without obvious neurological signs. However, the pathogenesis of neuritis remains unclear. We identified M2 macrophages and CD8 T cells as the predominant phenotypes in neuritis of dourine-affected horses with or without neurological signs. In contrast, the populations of M1 macrophages and CD4 T cells were small. This result indicates that inflammation was chronic and suggests that dourine-associated neuritis occurs at the early stage of infection.
A 97-day-old male Japanese domestic cat was diagnosed as congenital hypothyroidism. During the treatment, continuous hypercalcemia was detected. Although fluid therapy was performed, the cat died at the age of 1785 days. At autopsy, both parathyroid glands were enlarged, and elastic arterial walls were increased in thickness and hardness. Histopathological examination revealed hyperplasia of both parathyroid glands and interstitial fibrosis of bilateral kidneys. Severe calcification of the tunica media and tunica externa in systemic elastic and muscular arteries were also observed. These calcifications were considered to be due to renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. In the present case, hypothyroidism might have caused hyperparathyroidism through renal failure. In veterinary medicine, this is the first reported case of hypothyroidism accompanied with hyperparathyroidism.
Periostin plays a critical role in tissue regeneration and homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in periostin levels in the hearts of rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of periostin and alpha-smooth muscle actin were significantly increased at day 14 post-immunization. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that periostin was expressed in macrophages and fibroblasts in the hearts of EAM-induced rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that increased periostin expression in macrophages and fibroblasts promotes cardiac fibrosis in EAM-induced rats, potentially by enhancing immune cell infiltration. Therefore, periostin should be further investigated as a candidate therapeutic target for myocarditis.
Interleukin (IL)-19 is a cytokine clustered in the IL-20 cytokine superfamily with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory aspects depending on the etiology of inflammatory disease. The function of IL-19 has been evaluated in cutaneous and inflammatory bowel diseases, but has not been studied in liver diseases. Here, we examined the effect of IL-19 on acute liver failure (ALF) using two mouse models of ALF: lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-induced model and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced model. In the LPS/GalN-induced ALF model, which is mainly caused by the innate immune response of liver macrophages, IL-19 knockout (KO) mice showed increased plasma level of liver deviation enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In histopathology of liver sections, IL-19 KO mice exacerbated liver injury with marked hemorrhagic lesions and hepatocellular death in the liver compared with WT mice. In this model, mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5 were increased in liver tissue from IL-19 KO mice compared with WT mice. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of IL-19 and its receptor subunit were induced in liver tissue by LPS/GalN administration. However, there is no difference in liver injury between WT and IL-19KO in the ConA-induced ALF model induced by CD4+ T cell activation. These data suggest that IL-19 has a protective effect against inflammation-mediated liver injury, which is dependent on the etiology.
From an evolutionary aspect, dolphins share a very close phylogenetic relationship with pigs. Previously, we characterized porcine cerebral artery responsiveness to intrinsic vasoactive substances. Therefore, here, we investigated dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) cerebral artery responsiveness to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine (His), angiotensin (Ang) II, acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA), and bradykinin (BK) to characterize their related receptor subtypes. We also compared dolphin cerebral artery responsiveness with porcine cerebral artery responsiveness. We found that 5-HT and His induced concentration-dependent contraction of the dolphin cerebral artery. Ketanserin (a 5-HT2 antagonist) and methiothepin (a 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for 5-HT to the right. Although diphenhydramine (an H1 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for His to the right, cimetidine (an H2 antagonist) had no such effect. Ang II and ACh did not produce any vasomotor actions. NA induced concentration-dependent relaxation. Propranolol (a β antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for NA to the right, whereas phentolamine (an α antagonist) had no significant effect. BK induced relaxation followed by contraction in pre-contracted arteries with intact endothelium. HOE140 (a B2 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for BK to the right, whereas des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (a B1 antagonist) had no significant effect. These results suggest that 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and H1 receptor subtypes are important in arterial contraction and that β and B2 receptor subtypes modify these contractions to relaxations. The responsiveness of the dolphin cerebral artery is very similar to that of porcine cerebral artery, supporting their evolutionary linkage.
Rodent-borne pegiviruses were initially identified in serum samples from desert wood-rats in 2013, and subsequently in serum samples from commensal rats in 2014. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of rodent pegiviruses in China are poorly understood. In this study, we screened serum samples collected from wild rats in southern China between 2015 and 2016 for the presence of rat pegivirus (RPgV) by PCR. Among the 314 serum samples from murine rodents (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, and Rattus losea) and house shrews (Suncus murinus), 21.66% (68/314) tested positive for RPgV. Out of these, 23.81% (62/219) of samples from R. norvegicus tested positive, which was significantly higher than that for the other species: 7.69% (1/13), 5.88% (2/34), and 6.25% (3/48) for R. tanezumi, R. losea, and S. murinus, respectively (χ2=18.91, P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of viral sequences in the main rodent clade. Analysis of the 3 near-full-length genome sequences of RPgV obtained in this study showed that these viruses exhibited mean nucleic acid and amino acid identities of 94.1% and 98.5% with Chinese RPgV strains, and 90.3 and 97.1% with an RPgV strain from the USA, respectively. This study provides novel insights into the geographic distribution of rodent pegiviruses in China, and identifies potential animal hosts for future studies of these pegiviruses.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been widely applied in various medical fields including humans and horses. This study aimed to establish an optimal activation method to stably and reproducibly maximize the concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) contained in equine PRP. Autologous PRP was prepared from 11 Thoroughbreds. For the activation test, PRP was activated by either a single freeze-thaw cycle (Fr) or adding calcium and autologous serum containing thrombin (Ca). PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 concentrations in Fr, Ca, nonactivated (No), and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) samples were determined using ELISA and compared. For repetitive freeze-thaw test, PRP was subjected to single (Fr1), double (Fr2), triple (Fr3), or quadruple (Fr4) freeze-thaw cycles and the concentrations of both growth factors in samples were compared similarly. The PDGF-BB concentration in Ca was significantly higher than that in other preparations. The TGF-β1 concentrations in Fr and Ca were significantly higher than those in PPP and No, with no significant differences between Fr and Ca. The concentrations of both factors were significantly increased in PRP treated with multiple cycles of freeze-thaw compared with that in PRP treated with a single cycle. No significant differences were noted among Fr2, Fr3, and Fr4. Our findings suggest that activation by adding calcium and autologous serum is optimal for instant use of PRP and that double freeze-thawing is an easier and optimal activation method for cryopreserved PRP.
This study aimed to evaluate the transection of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in calves with severe metacarpophalangeal flexural deformities (MPFD). The study comprised 17 forelimbs of 10 calves that were diagnosed at the Animal Medical Centre, Rakuno Gakuen University. The calves were treated via transection of the SDFT and DDFT with retention of the suspensory ligament, followed by external fixation according to a post-surgical gait test. The post-procedural prognosis was determined at 14 days post-surgery. Of the 17 limbs, 14 (82%) achieved non-lameness and a good prognosis. Surgical complications were not observed in any treated calves. The transection of SDFT and DDFT is an effective first-line surgical option for calves with severe MPFD.
Ovarian cysts are one of the most common ovarian dysfunctions in dairy cattle, which can lead to a considerable economic loss through its high incidence and can reduce the reproductive performance. Anestrus is the most significant clinical sign observed in dairy cattle suffering from this condition. For diagnosis, most of the veterinarians use a combination of methods, from ultrasonography as an additional approach to trans-rectal palpation and symptomatology when assessing ovarian cysts. Although the Ovsynch treatment seems to be preferred, the pregnancy rate after this treatment is relatively low. Despite such reports on dairy cattle ovarian cysts, the data is insufficient to validate all the characteristics of this condition. This review summarizes what the literature has so far provided from definition to treatment of ovarian cysts in dairy cattle.
Swinhoe’s tree lizard (Diploderma swinhonis) is an arboreal agamid that is native to Taiwan. The species has been introduced to some areas of Japan and is regarded as an invasive alien species. In 2016, a nonnative population of D. swinhonis was discovered in Hyuga City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, but little information was available on the ecology of the population at the time. The main purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the reproductive cycle and maturation of this population. Field research was conducted from 2017 to 2019, and 764 lizards were collected. Euthanized lizards were dissected and the reproductive organs were examined to determine the reproductive period, clutch size, clutch frequency and size at sexual maturity. Females with oviductal eggs or vitellogenic ovarian follicles were observed from May to October. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 8, and clutch frequency was more than twice a year. In males, spermiogenesis started in early May and testicular regression was observed in September. Males with spermatozoa in the epididymides were found from May to November. Minimum snout-vent length at sexual maturity was 50.2 mm in females and 53.0 mm in males. Comparisons of the findings of this study and reports from Taiwan suggest that the nonnative population of D. swinhonis in Hyuga City has a higher fecundity than populations in Taiwan. It is therefore considered necessary to exterminate the population in Hyuga City before this species colonizes other areas.
We describe a case of primary localized histiocytic sarcoma of the lumbar vertebrae in a four-toed hedgehog. The case showed aggressive osteolysis of lumbar vertebrae on radiography, and a soft-tissue mass effacing this region was noted, suggesting a neoplastic lesion. No metastatic lesions were apparent. Antemortem diagnosis was challenging, and necropsy was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with localized histiocytic sarcoma. This report provides documentation of the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual form of histiocytic sarcoma localizing to lumbar vertebrae in a four-toed hedgehog.
We investigated the prevalence of Salmonellaenterica and its antimicrobial resistance from 79 green anoles, the invasive alien species inhabits Haha-jima of the Ogasawara archipelago. Samples were collected during the period between 2009 and 2010. The resistance of S. enterica of these samples against 12 common antimicrobial agents was also determined. Salmonella strains, including serovar Oranienburg and Aberdeen, were detected from the large intestines of 30.4% of 79 green anole samples. And 37.5% of which were resistant to Oxytetracycline. This study suggests that green anoles may play an important role of the infection of S. enterica on this island. Attention is needed from the aspect of public and ecological health.