This study was carried out to describe morphologically and morphometrically the hypoglossal dorsal root and its ganglia, using heads of 20 adult Holstein cattle of both sexes. The dorsal root of the hypoglossal nerve (XII) has always an evident dorsal root ganglion (DRG) including the accessory in 30% (6 of heads) or satellite ganglia in 10% (2 of heads). There were statistically significant differences between the lengths (right: 8.64 ± 0.22 mm, left: 7.91 ± 0.31 mm, p<0.01) of peripheral roots of the DRG in male. Statistical significance existed in the lengths (right: 7.01 ± 0.43, left: 8.27 ± 0.47, p<0.05) of the central roots of the DRG in male. Since the histological findings showed that each ganglion placed on the dorsal root of the XII had the general feature of a spinal ganglion, it can be said that the XII has the intracranial peripheral (sensory) fibers and carry directly sensory input to the brain stem. In conclusion, the present study is the first to reveal the morphology of the hypoglossal dorsal root with ganglia in Holstein cattle.
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its typ I (PAC1) receptor expression in adult rat testes. Ethanol (3 g/kg i.p., 15% v/v in saline) was administrated to adult male rats for 10 days. Using northern blot analysis, the present study showed the reduction of PACAP mRNA levels in rat testes by ethanol administration. Also, ethanol decreased the expression level of PAC1 receptor in testes. In particular, in situ hybridization clearly showed the decrease of PAC1 receptor mRNA expression in Leydig cells, which produce testosterone. Furthermore, the serum level of testosterone was significantly decreased in the ethanol-treated group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the decrease of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in rat testes by ethanol exposure may partly contribute to the suppression of male reproductive activity.
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) expression in adult rat testes. Ethanol (3 g/kg i.p., 15% v/v in saline) was administrated to adult male rats for 10 days. Using northern blot analysis, we elucidated the decrease of PACAP mRNA in rat testes by ethanol administration. The level of PACAP mRNA was decreased by 46.5% in testes of the ethanol-treated animals, compared to that of saline-treated animals. In particular, ethanol exposure decreased the expression of PACAP mRNA and protein in developing germ cells, which are sperm cell progenitors. Thus, our findings suggest that the decrease of PACAP in developing germ cells by ethanol administration may contribute to the suppression of male reproductive activity.
To examine the roles of a short form of p53 in the regulation of apoptosis in chicken lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines derived from Marek's disease (MD) and avian leukosis (AL), the expressions of the p53 proteins were analyzed in these cell lines in which apoptosis was chemically induced. In MSB1-O derived from MD, the expression of a 40 kDa protein of p53 was decreased and that of a 32 kDa protein, a short form of p53, was increased during apoptosis induced by actinomycin D. In 1104B1 derived from AL, the expressions of 42 and 32 kDa of p53 were increased during the apoptosis. The short form of p53 was undetectable in these cell lines when apoptosis was blocked by the pretreatment with endonuclease inhibitor, Zn2+, protease inhibitors, TPCK and TLCK, or caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. In the transcriptional level, the expressions of bcl-2 and IAP were decreased in these cell lines during actinomycin D-induced apoptosis, but no change was detected in the expression level of p53. These results suggest that, in these chicken tumors, the short form of p53 could play a role in the initiation of apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic compound, and that the regulation of its expression may be important for the maintenance of transformation status.
Three ostriches (Struthio camelus) were immunized with commercially available live and killed Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines for chickens and the antibody responses to the ND vaccines were evaluated by a virus-neutralization (VN) test. Primary vaccination with the live vaccine, B1, by eye drop was followed with two shots of alum-precipitated killed vaccine via subcutaneous injection in the neck. As a final booster, another live vaccine, Clone 30, was used by eye drop. A VN antibody titer, more than 1:10 was observed for 6 months. This is the first report on the use of a live vaccine by eye drop as a booster in ostriches as well as evaluating responses to ND vaccines using the VN test in this avian species.
Griseoviridin, a known antibiotic produced by Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, was found to be active against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae-the bacterium causing swine dysentery. An in vitro synergism is observed when it is used in combination with viridogrisein-a simultaneously produced antibiotic. In mouse experiments, the effect of griseoviridin alone was less than that of lincomycin-a commercially available swine dysentery medication. However, a 1:1 mixture of griseoviridin and viridogrisein revealed a noticeable synergistic effect. In an evaluation using pigs artificially infected with B. hyodysenteriae, a large difference was not observed between the effect of griseoviridin alone and that in combination with viridogrisein. Nevertheless, griseoviridin alone exhibited a therapeutic effect superior to that of lincomycin.
Lawsonia intracellularis isolated from a Japanese field case of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) was cultivated and partially characterized. The bacterial cells isolated from the intestinal mucosa of a pig suffering from the acute form of PPE were used to inoculate rat small intestine cells (IEC-18) and human epithelial cells (HEp-2). Infected foci, which were stained with L. intracellularis-specific rabbit antiserum, were observed in the cell culture at 5 days post inoculation. The DNA sequence of several genes in the Japanese isolate had high similarity with those of the L. intracellularis type strain, suggesting the genetically close relationship of the two strains. This is the first report describing the cultivation and partial characterization of L. intracellularis originated in Japan.
Brucella canis and Leptospira interrogans are pathogenic bacteria that cause brucellosis and leptospirosis in dogs around the world. Both diseases can be diagnosed serologically, but the direct detection of these organisms in canine semen is needed when it is used for artificial reproduction. We have been attempting the artificial reproduction of guide dogs for greater breeding efficiency and for this purpose have developed a multiplex nested PCR technique for the detection of B. canis and L. interrogans in the semen and cryoprotective agent (CPA). Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity and simplicity of this technique in the detection of these organisms in canine semen and that will be useful in routine diagnosis. Since they have been found to stay alive in canine semen and CPA up to 48 hr, canine semen for breeding purposes should be checked for contamination by the PCR assay.
To examine the PTH/PTHrP receptor in the mammary gland, molecular cloning of bovine PTH/PTHrP receptor and measurement of its mRNA expression were carried out in cows during the periparturient period. The PTH/PTHrP receptor gene was partially cloned, and expression of bovine PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA was detected in various tissues of the cow. In the mammary gland, PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression was constantly low during the periparturient period, whereas PTHrP mRNA expression dramatically increased after parturition. This suggested that expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA in the mammary gland is not affected by lactation in cows.
Equine anxiety trait is considered an important temperament in various situations, including riding, training, and daily care. This study examined the polymorphism of the equine serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene as a candidate genetic element influencing equine anxiety trait. The sequence of the coding region of this gene was highly homologous with those of other mammals, and four single nucleotide polymorphisms were found by comparing the sequences of ten genetically unrelated thoroughbred horses. Radiation hybrid mapping revealed that this gene was located 26.92 cR from neurofibromin 1 on ECA 11. Using two-year-old thoroughbred horses (n=67), the association of these polymorphisms with the anxiety trait was examined, but no significant association was identified between each haplotype of the serotonin transporter gene and the anxiety score.
The aim of this study was to determine whether dobutamine, dopamine, or milrinone (a phosphodiesterase [PDE] III inhibitor) would support cardiac function that had been attenuated by administration of the β-blocker, carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg). Hemodynamic and cardiac parameters including the heart rate (HR), left-ventricular fractional shortening (FS), and arterial pressure were measured in six healthy dogs without cardiac disease. Carvedilol did not affect FS or arterial pressure, but decreased the HR significantly. The positive inotropic and chronotropic responses to dobutamine and dopamine were attenuated by carvedilol, whereas arterial pressure was unaffected. Milrinone did not affect the HR and decreased arterial pressure, whereas FS was significantly greater both in the control and carvedilol-treated groups. Although milrinone affect the negative chronotropic effects of carvedilol, milrinone increased FS and prevented the decrease in arterial pressure. These results suggest that inhibition of PDE III preserves cardiac contractility and hemodynamic function in the presence of carvedilol.
The medical records of 61 dogs with MCT at high risk for metastasis that were treated with prednisone and VBL following excision +/- radiation therapy were reviewed, and median disease-free interval (DFI), median overall survival time (OS) and prognostic factors assessed. Adverse effects, mostly mild, were noted in 26% of patients, usually after the first VBL dose. 6.5% experienced severe neutropenia. The DFI was 1305 days, and the OS was not reached, with 65% alive at 3 years. 100% of dogs with "high-risk" grade II MCT were alive at 3 years. The OS for dogs with grade III MCT was 1374 days. Histologic grade, location (mucous membrane vs. skin) and use of prophylactic nodal irradiation predicted outcome. Prednisone and VBL chemotherapy is well tolerated, and results in good outcomes following surgery in dogs with MCT at high risk for metastasis. High-grade and mucocutaneous tumors had a worse outcome, and the use of prophylactic nodal irradiation appeared to improve outcome in this group of dogs.
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is hindered by insufficient ultrasound penetration through the temporal bone. The use of echo-contrast agents to enhance the Doppler signal is an important step toward the solution of this problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tolerability and diagnostic value of the intravenous echo-contrast agent, Levovist®. Levovist® was administered intravenously in 8 dogs with two doses (0.2 and 0.3 ml/kg) at different concentrations (300 and 400 mg/ml). In right middle cerebral artery (RMCA), the duration and degree of the signal enhancement were measured by TCD. All 32 administrations of Levovist® produced an increase in TCD signal of the RMCA without complications. The first assessable pulse curve could be seen on the screen after 4 to 7 seconds after injection. There was no significant difference of latency period between different concentration and dosage. The signal amplitude was increased homogeneously by more than 30 dB when 0.3 ml/kg with 300 mg/ml concentration of Levovist® and 0.2 and 0.3 ml/kg with 400 mg/ml concentration were administered. There was no significant difference in the duration of optimal contrasting between 0.3 ml/kg with 300 mg/ml concentration of Levovist® and 0.2 and 0.3 ml/kg with 400 mg/ml concentration. The duration of the signal enhancement was 144 to 422 seconds, depending on the degree of concentration and dose of administration. Optimal TCD signal enhancement of RMCA was obtained using 0.3 ml/kg with 300 mg/ml concentration of Levovist® in dogs, which is considered to provide quality visualization.
Acupoints on the Large Intestine Meridian and specific acupoints related with large intestine have been empirically used to treat large intestinal disease. However, the relationship between acupoints related with large intestine and their functions has not been investigated fully. We investigated whether large intestine-related acupoints affect colonic motility in conscious dogs implanted with electrodes at the proximal colon. Manual acupuncture was applied at the following acupoints: 7 main points on the Large Intestine Meridian (LI1, LI2, LI3, LI4, LI5, LI6, and LI11), ST25, BL25 or GV1. Acupuncture at the Large Intestine Meridian acupoints, ST25 and BL25 had no significant effects on the proximal colonic motility. However, acupuncture at GV1 depressed the proximal colonic motility by decreasing the total duration and the frequency of contractile states, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of GV1. This study also revealed that there was no clear correlation between Large Intestine Meridian and the proximal colonic motility in conscious dogs.
The effects of a timolol maleate gel-forming solution (TMGS) on intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP), and pupil size (PS) were evaluated in normotensive dogs. TMGS was administered once daily to six normotensive beagle dogs. TMGS administration reduced IOP and PS. The hypotensive effect persisted for 24 hr after the administration. The mean reduction in IOP was 5.3 mm Hg (P<0.01). The changes in BP and PS were not significant. These results suggest that TMGS can potentially be used in the treatments of glaucoma and ocular hypertension in dogs.
A 1344 bp fragment of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence was used to determine the genetic relationship of Pasteurella pneumotropica isolates from laboratory rodents. A total of 30 nucleotide sequences of P. pneumotropica, including 24 wild strains, 3 reference strains, and 3 nucleotide sequences deposited in GenBank, were examined for heterogeneity of their 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence discriminated 5 types of branching lineages. Of these 5 types, 3 types had significant associations with mice or rats, and 2 had significant associations with the β-hemolytic phenotype. These results suggest that 16S rDNA sequencing of P. pneumotropica isolates demonstrates genetic heterogeneity and phylogenetic discrimination in terms of their hemolytic phenotype and host associations.
A fatal encephalomyelitis was developed after intracerebral and hind limb inoculation of in 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice by the inoculation of fixed rabies virus (CVS-11 strain), intracerebrally and into hind. After the intracerebral inoculation, virus antigens were detected in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at 2 days postinoculation (PI), and later spread centrifugally to thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, spinal cord and spinal ganglia. At 4 days PI, severe apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were observed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. All mice infected intracerebrally were dead without limb paralysis at from 10 to 11 days PI. In contrast, mice infected with virus intramuscularly were persistently observed virus antigens in the myocytes at the site of inoculation from 2 days PI. At 4 days PI, the antigens were demonstrated in the spinal dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord and muscle spindles without their detection in the cerebrum and hippocampus. There were no apoptosis in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, however hind limb paralysis was found in all infected mice. Hind limb paralysis was progressed to quadriparalysis, and mice were dead from 11 to 13 days PI. From 4 days PI, necrosis of neuron was observed in the the spinal and dorsal ganglia with infiltration of lymphocyte. This study suggested that the necrosis of spinal neurons was more important to cause the paralysis of hind limb rather than the severe cerebral infection and apoptosis in C57BL/6J mice infected with CVS-11 strain. The virus primarily replicated in the muscles was ascended the spinal cord via afferent fibers and retrogradely invaded the cerebrum, and with subsequent spread to muscle spindles.
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes. MAP kinases are known to affect GJIC and phosphorylation of connexin (Cx). MAP kinases can also be a regulator of cell proliferation and growth. This study was undertaken to show the relevance between expression patterns of Cxs and MAP kinases in rat mammary epithelial cells (RMECs). In order to characterize the RMECs, they were stained with Peanut lectin, which indicates most alveolar epithelial cells, and Thy-1.1 was used as a marker of luminal epithelial cells or myoepithelial cells, respectively. We studied the expression patterns of major gap junction proteins, Cx 26, 32, and 43 in RMECs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Cx26 gradually decreased from day 2, while Cx32 was expressed constantly from day 1 to 14. Cx43 dramatically increased on day 5 and decreased thereafter. The expression patterns and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK were similar to Cx43, but expression of p38 was like that of Cx32. These results showed that the MAP kinases that comprise ERK1/2, p38, and JNK were involved in regulation of Cxs. Our data suggests that GJIC plays an important role during rat mammary differentiation and that MAP kinases may be closely related functionally to regulate the gap junction.
Organotins are among the most common marine pollutants in the world, as they are widely used as antifouling paint on ships and fishing nets. It has been reported that organotin preferentially accumulates in the central nervous system, especially in the retinal neurons of marine organisms including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of waterborne tributyltin (TBT) on early-stage developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Below the lethal concentrations, TBT specifically increased the number of apoptotic cells in the retina as well as some cells near trigeminal neurons, detected by terminal transferase-mediated nick-end-labeling staining. Apoptosis peaked at 60 hpf and decreased by 72 hpf, which was associated with macrophage accumulation. Furthermore, the effect of TBT was markedly inhibited by antioxidants, ascorbic acid or trolox. These results suggest that TBT preferentially induces apoptosis in the retinal neuron of developing zebrafish. Oxidative stress may be involved in this toxicological response.
The surface glycoprotein G is considered as the major neutralizing and protective antigen of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of G protein of BEFV isolates during the period 1984-2004 outbreaks in Taiwan showed amino acid substitutions in the neutralizing epitopes. All the isolates differ markedly in the neutralizing epitope at the same amino acid positions compared to the currently available killed vaccine strain (Tn73). Tn88128 strain isolated in 1999 showed the maximum variability of 12 amino acids, 5 amino acid in the neutralization epitope and 7 apart from, respectively. Combinations of both Tn88128 (1999) and commercially available vaccine strain (Tn73) were developed and its safety was evaluated in mice, guinea pigs, calves, and pregnant cows. None of the animals showed any adverse effect or clinical signs. Calves were immunized with commercial vaccine (Tn73) and, combined vaccine (Tn73 and Tn88128), respectively, with adjuvants such as Al-gel and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) oil and PBS alone and challenged with Tn88128 strains. Except PBS administered animals, all the vaccinated animals showed protective immune response. However, animals immunized with combined vaccine plus w/o/w adjuvant elicited stronger neutralization antibodies and long lasting immunity compared to other vaccines.