The olfactory receptor organs and their primary centers are classified into several types. The receptor organs are divided into fish-type olfactory epithelium (OE), mammal-type OE, middle chamber epithelium (MCE), lower chamber epithelium (LCE), recess epithelium, septal olfactory organ of Masera (SO), mammal-type vomeronasal organ (VNO) and snake-type VNO. The fish-type OE is observed in flatfish and lungfish, while the mammal-type OE is observed in amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The MCE and LCE are unique to Xenopus and turtles, respectively. The recess epithelium is unique to lungfish. The SO is observed only in mammals. The mammal-type VNO is widely observed in amphibians, lizards and mammals, while the snake-type VNO is unique to snakes. The VNO itself is absent in turtles and birds. The mammal-type OE, MCE, LCE and recess epithelium seem to be descendants of the fish-type OE that is derived from the putative primitive OE. The VNO may be derived from the recess epithelium or fish-type OE and differentiate into the mammal-type VNO and snake-type VNO. The primary olfactory centers are divided into mammal-type main olfactory bulbs (MOB), fish-type MOB and mammal-type accessory olfactory bulbs (AOB). The mammal-type MOB first appears in amphibians and succeeds to reptiles, birds and mammals. The fish-type MOB, which is unique to fish, may be the ancestor of the mammal-type MOB. The mammal-type AOB is observed in amphibians, lizards, snakes and mammals and may be the remnant of the fish-type MOB.
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that contaminate various feedstuffs and agricultural crops. The contamination of food by mycotoxins can occur before production, during storage, processing, transportation or marketing of the food products. High temperature, moisture content and water activity are among the predisposing factors that facilitate the production of mycotoxins in food. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone are all considered the major mycotoxins produced in food and feedstuffs. In Africa, mycotoxin contamination is considered to be a major problem with implications that affect human and animal health and economy. Aflatoxin-related hepatic diseases are reported in many African countries. Ochratoxin and fumonisin toxicity in humans and animals is widespread in Africa. The available, updated information on the incidence of mycotoxin contamination, decontamination and its public health importance in Africa is lacking. The aim of this review is to highlight, update and discuss the available information on the incidence of mycotoxins in African countries. The public health implications and the recommended strategies for control of mycotoxins in food and agricultural crops are also discussed.
The epithelial cell composition was investigated in the follicle-associated intestinal crypt (FAIC) of rat Peyer’s patches. The epithelium of the FAIC mainly consisted of columnar epithelial cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells. The characteristics of secretory granules in Paneth cells and goblet cells of both the FAIC and ordinary intestinal crypts (IC) were almost the same in periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction, Alcian blue (AB) staining and the immunohistochemical detection of lysozymes and soluble phospholipase A2. Both goblet cells and Paneth cells were markedly less frequent on the follicular sides than on the anti-follicular sides of the FAIC. Goblet cells were also markedly less frequent in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) than in the ordinary intestinal villi (IV). Indigenous bacteria were more frequently adhered to FAE than to follicle-associated intestinal villi or IV. These findings suggest that the host defense against indigenous bacteria is inhibited on the follicular sides of FAIC, which might contribute to the preferential settlement of indigenous bacteria on the FAE; they also suggest that differentiation into secretory cells is inhibited in the epithelium of the follicular sides of FAIC, so that differentiation into M cells might be admitted in the FAE of rat Peyer’s patches. Furthermore, intermediate cells possessing characteristics of both Paneth cells and goblet cells were rarely found in the FAIC, but not in the IC. This finding suggests that the manner of differentiation into Paneth cells in the FAIC differs from that in the IC.
The causal relationship between severe allergic conditions and successful pregnancy remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate reproductive performance in an experimental mouse model of atopic disease (AD), and the appearance of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells that have crucial roles in placental formation was examined. In the NC/Nga pregnant mice with moderate skin allergic lesions and an 8.6-fold elevation of plasma IgE, significant differences were not detected in the reproductive indices of the number of normal fetuses, abortion rate and placental size. There were few uNK cells in the placenta of AD mice, and they showed a significant decrease regarding the immature subtype as compared with controls. These findings revealed that AD disturbs uNK cell differentiation and provides disadvantageous effects on placental formation, although it does not arrest the pregnancy process. It may be possible that specific immunological conditions behind AD operate favorably to recover the reproductive performance.
The efficacy of 5 antimalarial drugs was evaluated on P. gallinaceum infected broilers. One hundred and forty-seven 19-day-old broilers were divided into 7 groups of 21 chicks each. Group 1 was the unmedicated, uninfected control. Groups 2–6 were infected and medicated with artesunate, chloroquine, doxycycline, primaquine and an artesunate-primaquine combination, respectively. Group 7 was the unmedicated, infected control. Infectivity, mortality, parasitemia, schizonts in tissues and body weight gain were monitored. The results revealed that the two most effective drugs for treating P. gallinaceum at the asexual erythrocyte stage were chloroquine and doxycycline. Tissue schizonts of P. gallinaceum in all the medicated groups were significantly fewer than the unmedicated, infected control (P<0.05). The mortality rate of all the medicated groups was significantly lower than the unmedicated, infected control (P<0.05).
The present study was carried out to analyze the prognosis of 163 cats with lymphoma classified anatomically and cytomorphologically. Anatomically, alimentary lymphoma was the most common form and showed significantly shorter survival than mediastinal and nasal lymphomas in cats. Cytomorphologically, there was no predominant subtype in feline lymphomas. Immunoblastic type (18%), centroblastic type (16%), globule leukocyte type (15%), lymphocytic type (12%), lymphoblastic type (12%), pleomorphic medium and large cell type (10%) and anaplastic large cell type (7%) were relatively common subtypes. Most of the cats with globule leukocyte lymphoma had the alimentary form. Comparing median survival time among classifications, cats with globule leukocyte lymphoma showed significantly shorter survival than those with high-grade and other low-grade lymphomas. Furthermore, cats with high-grade lymphomas showed significantly shorter survival than cats with other low-grade lymphomas. The present study indicated the clinical significance of anatomical and cytomorphological evaluation in feline lymphomas.
This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection.
The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r2=0.61, P<0.0001). Plasma NT-proBNP concentration >764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs.
Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied.
Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1–5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard diet without probiotic served as the corresponding control. Ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the 15-day experimental period. Ruminal fluid was collected via a fistula at a defined time predose and on days 7 and 14 to assess volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactic acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, as well as the bacterial community. The probiotic at either dose improved the reduced 24-hr mean ruminal pH in calves. The circadian patterns of the 1 hr mean ruminal pH were identical between the probiotic doses. In both probiotic groups, ruminal lactic acid concentrations remained significantly lower than that of the control. Probiotic did not affect ruminal VFA concentrations. L. plantarum and C. butyricum were not detected in the rumen of calves given the high-dose probiotic, whereas Enterococcus spp. remained unchanged. These results suggest that calves given a probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6–6.8), presumably due to the effects of the probiotic on stabilizing rumen-predominant bacteria, which consume greater lactate in the rumen.
Nimustine (ACNU) is an alkylating agent of the nitrosourea and can be an antineoplastic agent in dogs. But, there has been no report on its dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in dogs. This study was a phase I dose-escalation clinical trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and DLT of ACNU in tumor-bearing dogs. The starting dosage was 25 mg/m2, and subsequent dosages were administered in increments of 5 mg/m2 in cohort of 3 dogs. Eight dogs were included, the MTD was determined to be 25 mg/m2, DLT was neutropenia, and the optimal interval was considered to be 21 days. The data herein provide a basis for the subsequent phase II trial of ACNU in dogs.
Appropriate and effective anesthesia is critical, because it has a strong influence on laboratory animals, and its affect greatly impacts the experimental data. Inhalational anesthesia by endotracheal intubation is currently prevailing in general anesthesia and is prefered over injection anesthesia, especially for large laboratory animals, because it is a safe and easy control agent. However, it is not common for small laboratory animals, because of the high degree of technical skills required. We assessed the capability of use for mice of the endotracheal intubation by using the endoscope system “TESALA AE-C1” and inhalational anesthesia using a ventilator. Endotracheal intubation was successfully performed on all 10 C57BL/6 mice injected with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 comprised of medetomidine, midazoram and butorphanol, at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg + 4.0 mg/kg + 5.0 mg/kg body weight/mouse, respectively. After the intubated mice were connected with the inhalational anesthesia circuit and the ventilator, vital signs were measured until 15 min after the connection. The data with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 showed stable and normal values, which indicated that this new endotracheal intubation method was simple, reliable and safe, which mean that this anesthesia is favorable in regard to the animal’s welfare.
The anesthetic effect of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol (Me-Mi-Bu) was evaluated in healthy cynomolgus monkeys. The Me-Mi-Bu combination was intramuscularly administered as follows: Dose 1, Me 0.015 mg/kg-Mi 0.1 mg/kg-Bu 0.15 mg/kg; Dose 2, Me 0.02 mg/kg-Mi 0.15 mg/kg-Bu 0.2 mg/kg; and Dose 3, Me 0.04 mg/kg-Mi 0.3 mg/kg-Bu 0.4 mg/kg. The combination rapidly induced immobilization, and lateral recumbency was reached within 15 min. The duration of anesthesia for each dose administered was follows: Dose 1, 47 ± 27 min; Dose 2, 113 ± 31 min; and Dose 3, 190 ± 24 min. The anesthetic effect of the combination was abolished by the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. No marked changes in the levels of hematologic or serum biochemical parameters were noted in cynomolgus monkeys administered the combination plus atipamezole. Taken together, these results suggest that the Me-Mi-Bu combination exhibits reversible anesthetic effect and may be useful for studies involving cynomolgus monkeys.
Trypanosoma congolense is a major livestock pathogen in Africa, causing large economic losses with serious effects on animal health. Reliable serodiagnostic tests are therefore urgently needed to control T. congolense infection. In this study, we have identified one T. congolense protein as a new candidate serodiagnostic antigen. The 46.4 kDa protein (TcP46, Gene ID: TcIL3000.0.25950) is expressed 5.36 times higher in metacyclic forms than epimastigote forms. The complete nucleotide sequences of TcP46 contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp. Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TcP46 gene were tandemly-arranged in the T. congolense genome. The recombinant TcP46 (rTcP46) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the native TcP46 protein is expressed in the cytoplasm during all life-cycle stages of the parasite. Moreover, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on rTcP46 detected the specific antibodies as early as 8 days post-infection from mice experimentally infected with T. congolense. No cross-reactivity was observed in the rTcP46-based ELISA against serum samples from cattle experimentally infected with Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. These results suggest that rTcP46 could be used as a serodiagnostic antigen for T. congolense infection.
The potential contamination of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. However, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. Rabbits are considered popular pet animals in Japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum in pet rabbits in Japan as an indicator of the possible oocyst contamination in the environment surrounding human beings. Serum samples of 337 rabbits were examined by different serological methods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure the titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. Samples revealed to be seropositive by ELISA were further analyzed by a latex agglutination test, Western blotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The rates of seropositivity for T. gondii were 0.89% (3/337) and 0.29% (1/337) in IgG and IgM ELISA, respectively. SAG1 and SAG2 were detected as major antigens by the positive rabbit sera in Western blotting associated with strong staining observed by IFA in T. gondii tachyzoites. Regarding N. caninum, none of the serum samples showed a specific reaction in both Western blotting and the IFA. The results of this study indicate low seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in pet rabbits in Japan, suggesting low oocyst contamination in the human environment.
In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning.
A 5-year-old castrated Japanese domestic cat was presented with persistent vomiting. Ultrasound examinations revealed many masses only in the liver, and the fine needle aspiration was performed. Cytologically, polygonal or oval shaped tumor cells forming rosette and cord-like patterns were demonstrated, and then, the hepatic lesions were diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma tentatively. The cat died one month after admission and was necropsied. Histopathologically, the tumor cells of the hepatic mass were arranged in typical rosette and cord-like structures. They were considerably uniform in size with hyperchromatic round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Most of tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin A, and some were positive for gastrin. The findings indicate the possibility that the present case was a gastrin-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma.
A 10-year-old Japanese Black cow presented with a swelling of the right femur, and a hard, large mass occupied the pelvic cavity. The mass strongly adhered to the visceral surface of the ischium and had posteriorly invaded among the right femoral muscles. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic osteoblasts and exhibited osteoid and immature trabecular bone production. In the region where the mass adhered to the ischium, neoplastic cells were continuously proliferating into the medullary cavity. Tumor emboli were observed in the small vessels of the femoral muscles and lungs. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as an osteosarcoma and considered to have arisen from the ischium.
A 6-year-old female rabbit was presented to a veterinary clinic, and the result of ultrasound examination suggested a tumor in the uterine tube. Subsequently, both ovaries and uterus were surgically removed. In gross, a single large cyst in the right ovary and enlargement of the left uterine tube were observed. Histological examination revealed that the cyst had developed in the hilus of the ovary and was lined by single-layered cuboidal cells. In the left uterine tube, a tumor composed of epithelial cells arranged in tubular structures and pleomorphic cells between the tubular structures was observed. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial cells of the cyst were positive for pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 18, CD10, E-cadherin, calretinin and estrogen receptor; the tumor cells of the left uterine tube were positive for pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, vimentin, calretinin and estrogen receptor. From these results, the cyst was diagnosed as cystic rete ovarii, and the tumor was diagnosed as adenoma of the uterine tube. This case is the first to demonstrate cystic rete ovarii and uterine tube adenoma in rabbits.
A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma.
Raised lesions were present on the left nasal vestibule of a 20-month-old Japanese Brown heifer. The largest mass which caused partial nasal obstruction was removed surgically. Corynebacterium ulcerans was identified in the mass. 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase beta subunit genes were 100% and 98% identical to other C. ulcerans strains. Histologically, multiple foci of eosinophilic granuloma with Splendore-Hoeppli material were seen. Rod-shaped Gram-positive organisms were detected with metachromatic granules, producing diphtheria toxin with 5, 30 and 48 amino acid differences to another C. ulcerans strain, C. diphtheriae or C. pseudotuberculosis, respectively. The toxin is highly cytotoxic and may be responsible for the formation of abundant Splendore-Hoeppli material. The lesion was therefore judged to be an allergic reaction to bacterial antigens or diphtheria toxin.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lidocaine (LIDO) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or their combination (LIDO–DEX), administered by constant-rate infusion (CRI), on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Seven healthy mongrel dogs were used with a 2-week washout interval between treatments in this study. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC of sevoflurane was determined after 90 min equilibration period in the dogs (SEV-MACBASAL). Then, sevoflurane MAC was determined again in the dogs after 45 min equilibration period of one of the following treatments: an intravenous loading dose of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACLIDO); an intravenous loading dose of dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg followed by 2 µg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACDEX); or their combination (SEV-MACLIDO-DEX). These SEV-MACs were determined in duplicate. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tuckey test when appropriate. The SEV-MACBASAL was 1.82 ± 0.06%, SEV-MACLIDO was 1.38 ± 0.08%, SEV-MACDEX was 1.22 ± 0.10%, and SEV-MACLIDO-DEX was 0.78 ± 0.06%. The CRI administration of lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination produced a significant reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by 26.1 ± 9.0% (P<0.0001), 43.7 ± 11.8% (P<0.0002) and 54.4 ± 9.8% (P<0.0001), respectively. The MAC reduction was significantly greater after the CRI combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine when compared with lidocaine CRI (P<0.0001) or dexmedetomidine CRI treatments (P<0.025).
Regenerative therapy has begun to be clinically applied in humans and dogs to treat neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we show the therapeutic potential of transplantation of cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into mice with SCI. Canine BMSC transplantation therapy was performed, immediately after the spinal cord was injured. Canine BMSC therapy enhanced functional recovery of the hind limbs in mice with SCI. Nestin-positive cells were observed only in the lesion of mice with SCI that received BMSCs. These results suggest that canine BMSCs promote functional recovery in mice with SCI and that migration of nestin-positive cells may contribute to the efficacy of the BMSC treatment.
Phosphate-buffered sucrose (PBSc) solution is effective for short-term hypothermic preservation of tissue during feline kidney transplantation. A high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (35,000 Da, PEG35) reportedly enhanced the protective effects against cold-induced tubular injuries in animal kidney transplantation models. We investigated the ability of PBSc solution containing PEG35 to preserve cultured feline kidney cells using in vitro WST-8 cell proliferation assays. PEG35 significantly improved cell viability during 24 hr of cold preservation. PBSc containing 20 g/l PEG35 achieved an effect almost equal to that of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, the gold standard preservation solution used in human clinical kidney transplantation, for up to 24 hr of preservation. Our results suggest that PBSc containing PEG35 provides an excellent medium for graft cold storage during feline kidney transplantation.
A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.