Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 58 , Issue 6
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Youichiro WATANABE, Toshiya KAMIMURA, Hiroshi SAMESH ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 489-493
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Our purposes were to investigate the effects of acute hypoxemia on maternal and fetal physiological and biochemical responses in Japanese Saanen goat and to compare these responses to those obtained in other species in the previous studies. Five pregnant Japanese Saanen goats at about 120 days of gestation were operated to make fetal chronic preparation models. After a minimum of 4 days of postoperation, hypoxemia was induced by having the ewe breathe a hypoxic gas mixture (10% O2, 3% CO2, in N2) for 30 min. Maternal PO2 decreased from 84 to 40 mmHg, and fetal PO2 decreased from 22 to 16 mmHg. Only the fetal pH was significantly decreased by hypoxemia. Maternal heart rate increased with increases in arterial pressures. On the other hand, fetal heart rate showed bradycardia with a transient increase in blood pressure. During hypoxemia, maternal catecholamines minimally increased, while fetal plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly increased. These changes in Japanese Saanen goats were first revealed by the current study and were compatible with the previous reports with sheep and monkeys. These observations suggest that the Japanese Saanen goats may be an adequate animal model for investigation of fetal physiology.
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  • Makio MIZOBE, Fusao KONDO, Chitoshi TOYOSHIMA, Kazunori KUMAMOTO, Taka ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 495-499
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A rapid method was developed to analyze δ-bilirubin (Bδ), diconjugated bilirubin (DCB), monoconjugated bilirubin (MCB), and unconjugated bilirubin (Bu) by direct injection of sera using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an internal-surface reversed-phase silica support (ISRP) column. Sharp bilirubin peaks were obtained using a simple mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.5 M Tris-HCI buffer (20:80, v/v, pH 7.2). A variable-wavelength detector set at 450 nm, 0.01 absorbance unit full scale (AUFS), and a recorder set at 4 mm/min were used for detection. Peaks for Bδ, DCB, MCB and Bu appeared at 4.4, 6.4, 9.2 and 14.5 min, respectively, in human serum from subject with obstructive jaundice which was used as a bilirubin standard throughout this experiment. The mean recovery rate after direct addition of Bu in swine serum was 91.9% and that of DCB was 95.9%. When sera from icteric cattle, pigs and horses were analyzed using the direct injection technique, four bilirubin peaks were obtained and there was reliable correlation between the sum of the bilirubin peak heights observed on HPLC and the total bilirubin value measured by a standard reference procedure.
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  • Chieh-Hsien TU, Yoshihiro TAKAHASHI, Yuziro KASEDA, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, R ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 501-504
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fifty-six Japanese black cattle affected with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (C-HS) have been referred to Miyazaki University Veterinary Teaching Hospital during the past 12 years, and 44 pedigree records were collected. In pedigree analysis, the parents had no clinical sign, the affected dams had clinically normal calves, and approximately equal numbers of males and females were affected, we therefore considered this syndrome to be an autosomal recessive trait. Quantitative genetic analyses were then made in a restricted area. Segregation analysis by the a priori method in 8 families showed that C-HS was a simple autosomal recessive trait. Furthermore, 36 dams and their 257 offspring (including 8 C-HS affected cattle) were analyzed using population genetics in the same area. The result was the same as in the former analysis.
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  • Masatsugu SUZUKI, Koich KAJI, Masami YAMANAKA, Noriyuki OHTAISHI
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 505-509
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The authors determined gestational age from fetal weight, examined the range in conception dates, and classified the external fetal development process in sika deer of eastern Hokkaido. Gestational age (T) can be estimated from fetal weight (W) with the equation: T = (√^3(W)+2.730)/0.091. Conception date can then be calculated back from date of kill of pregnant female, using gestational age. Though estimated conception dates ranged from 7 October to 17 January, most of them were concentrated between mid October and early November. In late November and after, nine conceptions were observed and six out of the nine late cases occurred in yearling females. This phenomenon is probably due to the excellent nutritional condition of deer in the study areas, which allows yearling females to mature sexually even in early winter. In fetuses, periods of tactile hair development, appearance of white spots, and development of general hairs overlap very little. In addition, these developmental changes occur at specific fetal weights. Based on these external phases, the gestation period can be divided into four stages. These stages will be useful for simple determination of fetal age in various sika deer populations.
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  • Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Mari TAKENOSHITA, Yasuo ASAKURA, Satoshi IBARA, Tsuy ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 511-514
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By using conscious chronically instrumented newborn goats, the circulatory effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) (20 mIU/kg/min) was studied, assuming a potential use for AVP to treat circulatory failure in the newborn, and the results were compared with those of dopamine (20 μg/kg/min). The AVP infusion decreased heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) significantly, and increased systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) significantly, but did not change pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) appreciably. The dopamine infusion did not change HR, SAP, and PAWP but increased CO and PAP significantly. Right atrial pressure (RAP) increased significantly in both groups. The pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased significantly in both groups. The systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased significantly in the AVP group, but did not change during experiments in the dopamine group. The calculated PVR/SVR ratios decreased significantly from the baseline value after initiation of the AVP infusion. In contrast, the dopamine infusion increased PVR/SVR ratios significantly throughout the experiments. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a syndrome characterized by right-to-left shunting of blood at the level of the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus. AVP may reduce the shunting of blood by elevating only SAP selectively.
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  • Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Kazuhiro MISUMI, Yoshio MATSUDA, Tsuyomu IKENOUE
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 515-519
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to compare the effects of nicardipine (0.02 mg/kg) and labetalol (0.5 mg/kg) on the uterine blood flow and fetal circulation after intravenous administration in unanesthetized, chronically instrumented pregnant goats. Significant decreases in maternal blood pressure and uterine blood flow were observed in both groups. The maternal heart rate increased significantly after the injection of nicardipine, whereas this change was not observed after the labetalol injection. The fetal heart rate, blood pressure and acid-base status did not change after the injection of either nicardipine or labetalol. These observations in pregnant goats suggest that both nicardipine and labetalol might be useful drugs for the treatment of acutely hypertensive crises in pregnant patients.
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  • Enuh Raharjo JUSA, Yuji INABA, Michihiro KOHNO, Hitosi MASHIMO, Osamu ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 521-527
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus grown on MARC-145 cell cultures was tested for hemagglutination (HA) with erythrocytes from a variety of species at 4°C, room temperature and 37°C. HA was observed at all temperatures with mouse erythrocytes but not with cattle, sheep, goat, horse, swine, guinea pig, mongolian gerbil, goose and chicken erythrocytes. The HA activity was enhanced by treatment of virus materials with Tween 80 followed by treatment with ether. The HA titer and HA pattern of virus materials treated with Tween 80 and ether (TE) were 4- to 8-fold higher and more clear than those of the virus materials without TE treatment. The optimum conditions consisted in pretreatment of virus material with Tween 80 at a final concentration of 0.06-0.125% (v/v) for 15-60 min followed by treatment with ether at a concentration of 50% (v/v) for 5-15 min in ice bath with continuous shaking. The curve of active virus production in intra- and extracellular virus samples resembled that of HA production although it rose somewhat earlier in intracellular virus samples. The HA reaction was inhibited by specific antiserum. HI antibody titers of individual pig sera showed a significant positive correlation with their neutralizing antibody titers.
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  • Akihiro OISHI, Satoko HAMADA, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Shigeru KAMIYA, Koichi ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 529-535
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Epiphyseal ossification in the radius, ulna, metacarpus, proximal phalanx and tuber calcaneus was examined radiographically in Japanese Black beef cattle. The grade of standard ossification was assessed monthly for each epiphysis. Bone maturations could be divided into 8 grades for the distal radius and distal ulna, 7 grades for the distal metacarpus, 5 grades for the proximal phalanx, and 8 grades for the tuber calcaneus, respectively. The closure of the epiphyseal line completed at the earliest (12-14 months of age) on the proximal phalanx, and at the latest (35-37 months of age) on the distal ulna. Changes in gradings were steep at 0 to 5 months of age but became almost constant after 10 months of age in all the epiphyses. There were no significant differences in bone maturation between the cattle with different sex and breeding conditions.
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  • Yasuyuki MOMOI, Hirotomo KATO, Hwa-Young YOUN, Hiroko AIDA, Shigeyoshi ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 537-541
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the blood of horses were measured before and after a long-distance transportation to clarify the pathogenesis of transportation-induced fever. The serum G-CSF level was measured by its ability to stimulate growth in a mouse myeloblastic cell line, NFS-60. Of 26 horses transported for a long distance, 9 had fever more than 39.0°C during or after transportation. After transportation, the serum G-CSF level significantly increased in horses with transportation-induced fever but not in those without fever, and the serum G-CSF level correlated positively with the peak body temperature and with an increase in peripheral white blood cell count. These data indicate that microbial infection, which is closely related to the elevation of the serum G-CSF level, is the causative factor of transportation-induced fever.
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  • Yoshihiko SATO, Hirohiko WADA, Shouhei MATSUURA, Takahiro AOYAGI, Akir ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 543-546
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Due to its importance in public health, the infectivity of Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Typhimurium) originating from the bengalee, a variety of Lonchura striata, was examined in 3-day-old chickens. When chickens were inoculated orally with 104 CFU or 108 CFU of S.Typhimurium isolated from the bengalee and observed for 7 days, Salmonella was found in cloacal swabs from both groups. S.Typhimurium was also recovered from the liver, spleen and cecal contents of all the birds, and the counts in the cecal content were approximately 108 CFU per gram in each bird. Focal necrosis in the liver was observed in both groups. When chickens were inoculated with 104 CFU of S.Typhimurium originating from the bengalee or the chicken and observed for 21 days, more birds were positive for Salmonella in the former group than the latter group during the first week. S.Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen and cecal content of both groups, and the counts of the cecal content were approximately 108 CFU per gram. Focal necrosis in the liver was noted in both groups. The results indicate that S.Typhimurium originating from the bengalee is infective and pathogenic to chickens, and the pathogenicity is almost similar to that of Salmonella derived from the chicken.
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  • Tsuyoshi GEMMA, Toshihiro WATARI, Kiyotake AKIYAMA, Naoko MIYASHITA, Y ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 547-550
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recent outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Tokyo area were investigated on the basis of clinical features and serological test. The affected dogs were clinically classified into two groups; dogs with respiratory and gastrointestinal signs associated with central nervous system (CNS) signs, and those with CNS signs alone. Of 62 dogs examined, 34 belonged to the former and 28 to the latter. In immunoperoxidase assay, anti-Onderstepoort strain of CDV serum reacted at a low level against 2 field isolates of CDV. These results suggested the presence of different types of CDV population in the field.
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  • Atsushi HIRAKAWA, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Kazuhiro MISUMI, Toshiya KAMIMURA, ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 551-553
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We investigated the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs, by treating a dog suffering from venae cavea syndrome (VCS) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) with NO inhalation. The increasing mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) induced by hypoxia was lessened significantly by NO inhalation. High PAP in VCS also declined as a result of NO inhalation. These results suggested that inhaled NO can reverse HPV in dogs and prevent worsening PH during surgical extraction of heartworm in VCS.
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  • Toyoko FUKUTOMI, Takeshi SANEKATA, Hiroomi AKASHI
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 555-557
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Reoviruses designated as OS-320 to OS-324 were isolated from a total of 5 fecal specimens from 3 with diarrhea and 2 apparently healthy pigs aged 3 months. The serotype of these isolates was determined as reovirus type 2 by cross neutralizing tests. Furthermore, the result of hemagglutination test suggested the isolates were different from the other reoviruses. A survey of neutralizing antibody against reoviruses showed type 2 virus was widely prevalent among pigs in Okayama Prefecture. This paper is the first report of the isolation of reovirus type 2 from pigs.
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  • Hiroshi AMANO, Masatoshi SHIBATA, Norikazu KAJIO, Tetsuo MOROZUMI
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 559-561
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pathogenicities of Haemophilus parasuis strains SW124 (serovar 4) and Nagasaki (serovar 5) were examined by contact-exposure of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Ten pigs were divided into three groups. Two of four pigs in the first group were inoculated intranasally (IN) with 2 × 108 CFU of strain SW124, and the other two pigs were mingled with these IN-exposed ones. All the four pigs were subclinically infected in this group. The four pigs of the second group were likewise exposed to strain Nagasaki (two IN-inoculated pigs with 3 × 108 CFU of strain Nagasaki). All four pigs in this group died of Glasser's disease. Two pigs kept as controls showed neither abnormality nor positive H.parasuis isolation.
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  • Hiromi KANASUGI, Takashi HASEGAWA, Tetsurou YAMAMOTO, Shigeru ABE, Hid ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 563-565
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Optimal doses of orally supplemented heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 preparation (FK-23) were evaluated in dogs treated with cyclophosphamide (CY). Leukocyte reconstitution was stimulated by the supplement of 100 mg/kg of FK-23 through an induction of neutrophilia, and the treatment of 10 mg/kg of FK-23 induced mild neutrophilia in dogs tested. However, the reconstitution was not stimulated by the treatment of 200 or 400 mg/kg of the drug. Although the effects of FK-23 appeared to be milder than those of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), there was no significant difference in the leukocyte reconstitution between the two substances. An appropriate dose of FK-23 is 100 mg/kg for augmentation of leukocyte reconstituting capacity in dogs treated with CY.
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  • Kohji MARUO, Tsuyoshi SUGIMOTO, Kaoru SUZUKI, Kinji SHIROTA, Yoshihisa ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 567-569
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Intermediately differentiated mast cell tumors in two dogs were subcutaneously xenotransplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Both tumors primarily grew and were serially transplantable in SCID mice. The histological features of the xenografts were similar to those of original tumors in dogs. Both of these subcutaneous tumors were judged as connective tissue mast cells by toluidine blue stain. One of the two xenografts metastasized to the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, omentum, mesentery, subpleural region and retroperitoneum of the SCID mouse. These canine mast cell tumor xenografts in SCID mice may be valuable tools for investigating the growth and metastatic behaviors of the tumor.
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  • Eiichi YAMADA, Yukio IMAYAMA, Shuuichi KATANO, Fumiyuki NAGASHIMA, Tak ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 571-575
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new extracapsular technique for repair of canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) tie was presented. Eighteen dogs (body weight: 6.0-46 kg) with this problem were used for this study. The advantages of this method were 1) the operation was easily performed. 2) Joint could be stabilized by proper fixation with microadjustment during operation. 3) This method presented less surgical invasion than the intracapsular one, since wide incision was not conducted over peripheral tissue of the stifle joint.
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  • Manabu MOCHIZUKI, Naohiko KAMATA, Teruo ITOH, Gantaro SHIMIZU, Yutaka ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 577-580
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The changes in the endotoxin levels of ruminal fluid and serum in postparturient cows were evaluated. Five cows were fed hay and concentrates on an individual basis (farm A) and the other 5 cows were given complete feed ad libitum (farm B) after parturition. Ruminal pH levels decreased in both groups after parturition. Subsequently, the ruminal endotoxin levels increased with the declining pH on both of the farms. The ruminal endotoxin levels were slightly higher in cows of farm B than those of farm A. Serum endotoxin levels also showed episodic fluctuations, however, there were no parallel changes between the endotoxin levels of the ruminal fluid and sera.
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  • Masayuki TANAKA, Takeshi OBI, Hiroshi TAKUMA, Norihide KOKUMAI, Rika H ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 581-582
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with neutralizing activities directed to the fusion (F) l glycoprotein of the 8597/CV94 strain of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) virus inhibited cell fusion by TRT virus in vitro. In contrast, F1-specific mAbs with no neutralizing activity did not inhibit the cell fusion participating in syncytium formation. These findings indicate that the neutralization epitope is the same as or overlaps the fusion active site.
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  • Kazumasa KONDO, Takashi MAKITA
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 583-585
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A simplified method of immunostaining of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue, for routinely paraformaldehyde or glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide-fixed and epon embedded specimens was established using regenerating rat liver. In the case of 4% paraformaldehyde fixed tissue, only removal of the epoxy resin with 10% Na-ethoxide solution was required to detect BrdU. In glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide-fixed specimens, 10% Na-ethoxide treatment and additional trypsin digestion enabled the detection of BrdU. HCl hydrolysis to denature DNA in the nuclei was not essential for the BrdU immunoreaction. This procedure is one of the most simple methods to detect BrdU with much better resolution. Thus, BrdU incorporated into DNA of S-phase cell is detectable in conventionally prepared specimens for routine electron microscopy.
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  • Toshio TAKAHASHI, Noriyuki NAGAMINE, Mayumi KIJIMA, Shoko SUZUKI, Masa ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 587-589
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Serovars of 1, 046 Erysipelothrix strains isolated from diseased pigs during a period from 1983 to 1993 in Japan were determined by an agar gel double-diffusion precipitation system using typing sera representing all the known serovars, 1 through 23 and type N, of 2 species of Erysipelothrix. A total of 943 strains could be serotyped within the serovars. The remaining 103 strains could not be determined for their serovars and were classified as untypable. Of the 938 (99.5%) strains serologically identified as Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 423 (40.4%) belonged to serovar la, 359 (34.3%) to serovar 2, 65 (6.2%) to serovar 1b, 35 (3.3%) to serovar 6, 19 (1.8%) to serovar 5, 11 (1.1%) to serovar 21, and the remaining 26 to serovars 4, 8, 11, 12, 15, 17, or 19. Only 5 (0.5%) strains isolated from the cases of erysipelas belonged to Erysipelothrix tonsillarum and represented serovars 7 or 23.
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  • Tomohiko FUJISAWA, Tomotari MITSUOKA
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 591-593
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Lactobacillus salivarius group biovars VIa and VIb, which are homofermentative Lactobacillus, were predominantly isolated from canine feces. Identification and biotyping of L.salivarius group biovars VIa and VIb were originally done by Mitsuoka et al. (1976). These strains were tentatively identified as L.salivarius by their phenotypic characteristics. They are, however, more similar to those of some new Lactobacillus species, particularly L.animalis and L.murinus, than those of L.salivarius and have now been identified as L.animalis by DNA-DNA homology.
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  • Hideki KOBAYASHI, Gift MUNTHALI, Masatoshi KAIGA, Tetsuo MOROZUMI, Ken ...
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 595-598
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Field isolated Mycoplasma strains LGl and SFl were isolated from the lung and leg joint fluid of a goat, respectively in Japan in 1991. These strains were closely related and had the following biochemical properties: glucose was metabolized, arginine and urea were not hydrolyzed, tetrazolium was reduced, phosphatase produced, and casein and coagulated serum were digested. Serologically, these strains cross-reacted with three Mycoplasma species [M.mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), M.mycoides subsp. capri, and M.sp.Group 7]. From the above results, the field isolates were considered to be Mmm. In addition, DNA-DNA relatedness between the field isolates and other Mycoplasma species called the "mycoides cluster" was determined, and a recently developed PCR method was also used for mycoplasmal identification. From these results, the field isolates were identified as Mmm LC type.
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  • Takaaki SUGIMURA, Tomoyuki TSUDA, Toshihito SUZUKI, Yousuke MURAKAMI
    1996 Volume 58 Issue 6 Pages 599-601
    Published: June 25, 1996
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Virus-infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was prepared from an inactivated FMD vaccine. The VIA antigen coupled with an adjuvant of aluminium hydroxide gel supplemented vaccine was efficiently eluted by suspending and stirring in high concentration of phosphate buffer solution (0.3M, pH 7.6). The final elute purified by DEAE-Sephadex A50 from the vaccine was concentrated in 1/500-1/1, 000 of the original volume. VIA antigens prepared from two kinds of vaccine (Type O and Asia-1) were antigenicaly identical to one prepared from a cell culture infected with live virus. Two cattle were infected with FMD virus (Type O) and sera were obtained from each cattle every week. The VIA antigens from the inactivated vaccine were compared with the ones from the cell culture infected with live virus in agar gel diffusion tests using sera from cattle infected with live virus. The antibodies against the VIA antigen were detected between the second week and the 13th or 14th week after infection. The VIA antigen from an inactivated vaccine would be very useful in FMD free countries like Japan to avoid the risk of using live FMD viruses.
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