The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat stromal-vascular cells (SVCs) being cultured in a medium with (Pro-Hyp group) or without Pro-Hyp (control group). The results showed that there was no significant difference in proliferation rate of SVCs, lipid droplet (LD) diameter or intracellular concentration of triglycerides between two groups. However, the diameter range of LDs in the Pro-Hyp group tended to be smaller than that in the control group. Transmission electron microscopy showed a tendency for increase in the area of mitochondria and decrease in the number of mitochondria in the Pro-Hyp-treated SVCs. The mRNA expression levels of white adipose tissue differentiation markers (Cbp, Fabp and Serpina3k) were significantly lower, but those of the brown adipose tissue differentiation markers (Dio2, Ucp1 and Ucp3) were significantly higher in the Pro-Hyp group than in the control group. Our results suggested that Pro-Hyp can facilitate SVCs to differentiate into “brite/beige” adipocytes.
The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp. colony numbers using selective agar plates and confirmed that the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. significantly increased during the first 7 days after birth. In conclusion, Lactobacillus spp. colonized the intestinal tract of calves during the first 7 days after birth.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair machinery, specifically non-homologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), is crucial for developing next-generation radiotherapies and common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. The localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications of core NHEJ factors, might play vital roles for regulation of NHEJ activity. The human Ku heterodimer (Ku70/Ku80) is a core NHEJ factor in the NHEJ pathway and is involved in sensing of DSBs. Companion animals, such as canines, have been proposed to be an excellent model for cancer research, including development of chemotherapeutics. However, the post-translational modifications, localization and complex formation of canine Ku70 have not been clarified. Here, we show that canine Ku70 localizes in the nuclei of interphase cells and that it is recruited quickly at laser-microirradiated DSB sites. Structurally, two DNA-PK phosphorylation sites (S6 and S51), an ubiquitination site (K114), two canonical sumoylation consensus motifs, a CDK phosphorylation motif, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the human Ku70 are evolutionarily conserved in canine and mouse species, while the acetylation sites in human Ku70 are partially conserved. Intriguingly, the primary candidate nucleophile (K31) required for 5’dRP/AP lyase activity of human and mouse Ku70 is not conserved in canines, suggesting that canine Ku does not possess this activity. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of Ku-dependent NHEJ in a canine model and form a platform for the development of next-generation common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers.
A 12-year-old, 3.6-kg, spayed female domestic shorthaired cat had a 2-month history of anorexia and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed an exophytic mass originating from the jejunum with very poor central and poor peripheral contrast enhancement. On day 14, surgical resection of the jejunum and mass with 5-cm margins and an end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Histopathological examination revealed the mass was a transmural, invasive cancer showing exophytic growth and originating from the small intestinal muscle layer. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor cells revealed diffuse positivity for KIT protein and negativity for desmin and S-100. The mass was diagnosed as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Ultrasonographic findings indicated the tumor probably metastasized to the liver and omentum, as seen in humans and dogs. The owner rejected further treatment at the last visit on day 192. To our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal tumor and metastasis in feline GIST and its imaging features.
We examine the expression of tight junction and adherence junction proteins in the colorectal mucosa of miniature dachshunds (MDs) with inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs). Colorectal mucosa samples were endoscopically obtained from 8 MDs with ICRPs and 8 control dogs for immunoblotting. Paraffin-embedded tissues of surgically resected inflamed lesions from another 5 MDs with ICRPs and full-thickness colorectal specimens from 5 healthy beagles were obtained for immunohistochemistry. The expression patterns of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7 and -8, E-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed in the non-inflamed mucosa and inflamed mucosa of ICRPs and colorectal mucosa of control dogs by immunoblotting. The localization of these proteins in the inflamed lesions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of each of claudin, E-cadherin and β-catenin were not significantly different between control dogs and non-inflamed colonic mucosa from MDs with ICRPs. In contrast, only E-cadherin and β-catenin were detected in the inflamed lesions of MDs with ICRPs. By immunohistochemistry, claudin-2, -3, -4, -5 and -7, E-cadherin and β-catenin were expressed in the colorectal epithelium within the inflamed mucosa, but not in granulation tissue. Distributions of claudin-2, -3, -4, -5, and -7, E-cadherin and β-catenin in the colonic epithelium were not different between MDs with ICRPs and control dogs. These results indicated that no significant alteration was detected in several tight junction or adherence junction proteins expression in the colorectal epithelium of ICRPs.
The objective of study is to determine the thickness of bronchial walls of clinically diagnosed asthmatic cats using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) compared to that of healthy cats. The bronchial walls and pulmonary arteries were measured in healthy 16 cats and clinically asthmatic 4 cats. The bronchial walls and pulmonary arteries were measured under general anesthesia with positive pressure inspiration using HRCT. In healthy and asthmatic cats, bronchial lumen to the artery ratio (BA ratio), the ratio of bronchial wall thickness to bronchial diameter (TD ratio) and ratio of bronchial wall thickness to pulmonary artery (TA ratio) were measured. The mean BA ratio, TD ratio and TA ratio in healthy cats were 0.86 ± 0.12, 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.05, respectively. Under the same condition, the mean BA ratio, TD ratio and TA ratio in asthmatic cats were 0.93 ± 0.21, 0.22 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.06. The TD ratio and TA ratio in asthmatic cats were significantly higher than healthy cats (P<0.001). BA ratio was not significantly different in both groups (P>0.05). The evaluation of bronchial wall thickness by HRCT could be useful for diagnosis of disease of bronchial wall thickening, such as feline asthma.
To evaluate the effects of single-dose enrofloxacin (ERFX) on fever and blood properties in 68 Thoroughbred racehorses after long-distance transportation, horses were assigned to receive ERFX (5 mg/kg, IV; ERFX group; n=52) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 ml, IV; control group; n=16) ≤1 hr before transportation. Horses were transported 1,122 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 21 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed before and after transportation. Rectal temperatures, white blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentration of ERFX group were significantly lower than control group (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, these results show ERFX administration just before transportation is effective at preventing transportation-associated fever in adult Thoroughbred racehorses.
The rabbit left anterior descending coronary artery is not macroscopically apparent; this often leads to failure in creation of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. In order to devise a simple method with good reproducibility and high success rate for use as a rabbit AMI model, a new surgical technique was developed, in which the obtuse marginal (OM) branch of the left circumflex coronary artery was coagulated with an electric knife using a left parasternal approach. Four weeks after OM branch coagulation, an electrocardiogram (ECG), blood biochemistry analysis, echocardiographic measurements and pathologic analysis were performed. The left parasternal approach provided the surgeon clear visualization of the targeted blood vessel to accurately identify the proper site to occlude. The successful development of AMI was confirmed by ST segment elevation on the ECG, by high levels of AMI-related markers in blood samples, by cardiac functional damage reflected on echocardiographic images and by changes in pathological sections. Furthermore, an acceptable success rate and low mortality were achieved. Hence, this surgical technique was suggested to be a highly reliable and reproducible method to induce AMI in rabbits for the assessment of new therapeutic interventions or regenerative approaches.
The present study investigated the effects of Vernonia cinerea (VC) on the reproductive function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1, normal control rats; group 2, diabetic untreated rats; group 3, diabetic rats treated with VC (10 mg/kg); and group 4, diabetic rats treated with VC (40 mg/kg). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 30 consecutive days. Body weight, blood glucose, food intake, epididymal sperm parameters, testicular microstructure and serum testosterone levels were evaluated. VC treatment significantly restored the sperm motility and testosterone concentration, and decreased the testicular histopathological changes in DM rats. Moreover, high-dose VC exhibited an antidibetic activity and significantly improved the sperm count. In conclusion, we found, for the first time, that administration of VC significantly restored the testicular function and testosterone concentration in diabetic male rats.
Diabetes is a metabolic health disorder and an important risk factor for stroke. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is a multifunctional protein modulating cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and glucose metabolism. This study investigated whether diabetes modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and were underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) 4 weeks after streptozotocin injection. Brain tissues were collected 24 hr after MCAO and stained using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in right cerebral cortex. Infarct volume during MCAO injury was severely increased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. We identified the decrease in PEA-15 in animals that underwent MCAO using proteomic approach. PEA-15 expression during MCAO was strongly decreased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. Western blots analysis confirmed that diabetes exacerbated the decrease in PEA-15 expression after MCAO. Moreover, decrease in expression of phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) was greater in diabetic than in non-diabetic animals. These results suggested that a diabetic condition may aggravate brain damage through decreasing expression of PEA-15 and phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in ischemic brain injury.
Aortic rupture is a well recognized cause of sudden death in thoroughbred horses. Some microscopic lesions, such as those caused by cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis, can lead to aortic rupture. However, these microscopic lesions are also observed in normal horses. On the other hand, a previous study of aortic rupture suggested that underlying elastin and collagen deposition disorders might be associated with aortic rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the structural components of the tunica media of the aortic arch, which is composed of elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells and mucopolysaccharides (MPS), in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses. The percentage area of elastin was greatest in the young horses and subsequently decreased with aging. The percentage area of collagen increased with aging, and the elderly horses (aged ≥20) exhibited significantly higher percentage areas of collagen than the young horses. The percentage area of smooth muscle cells did not change with age. The percentage area of MPS was inversely proportional to the percentage area of elastin. The fetuses exhibited a markedly larger percentage area of MPS than the mature horses. We concluded that the medial changes seen in the aortic arch, which included a reduction in the amount of elastin and increases in the amounts of collagen and MPS, were age-related variations.
A 29-year-old stallion presented with bilateral blindness following the chronic purulent nasal drainage. The mass occupied the right caudal nasal cavity and right paranasal sinuses including maxillary, palatine and sphenoidal sinuses, and the right-side turbinal and paranasal septal bones, and cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were destructively replaced by the mass growth. The right optic nerve was invaded and involved by the mass, and the left optic nerve and optic chiasm were compressed by the mass which was extended and invaded the skull base. Histologically, the optic nerves and optic chiasm were degenerated, and the mass was diagnosed as lymphoma which was morphologically and immunohistochemically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Based on these findings, the cause of the blindness in the stallion was concluded to be due to the degeneration of the optic nerves and chiasm associated with lymphoma occurring in the nasal and paranasal cavities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the equine blindness with optic nerve degeneration accompanied by lymphoma.
In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection.
A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids.
The atypical cutaneous tumor of a 9-year-old mixed breed female dog was examined. The tumor was well-demarcated and histologically composed of a trichoblastic area, tricholemmal area and apocrine glandular area. Neoplastic cells in trichoblastic area and tricholemmal area had PAS-positive granules in the cytoplasm and were positive for pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 5/6, 14 and 19 and p63. Neoplastic cells in trichoblastic area were also positive for cytokeratin 15 and CD34. Neoplastic cells in apocrine glandular area were positive for pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 7, 18 and 19. Myoepithelial cell proliferation with osteocartilaginous metaplasia was observed in this area. Since neoplastic cells showed multiphenotypic differentiation for hair follicles and apocrine glands, the present case was diagnosed as a cutaneous mixed tumor.
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K+-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K+-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K+-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta. The expression of SGLT1 mRNA in the ileum was higher than that of the aorta. Phloridzin significantly inhibited NADH/NAD ratio and phosphocreatine (PCr) content in the ileum; however, application of pyruvate recovered the inhibition of contraction and PCr content, but had no effect on ratio of NADH/NAD. High K+ increased 2-(N (7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) uptake in ileal smooth muscle cells, and phloridzin inhibited the increase in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that phloridzin inhibits high K+-induced contraction because of the inhibition of energy metabolism via the inhibition of SGLT1.
We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of liver, kidney and skin at a 2-day withdrawal period in ten male and ten female White Leghorn chickens fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 93.0% to 102.7% and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤7.82 ng/g for the skin and ≤0.64 ng/g for the kidney, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results revealed that the analytical method is developed for residue ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.
The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis.
Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP), used in traditional Chinese medicine, is a well-known yang-invigorating agent with multifunctional bioactivities. We previously showed, through an acute exercise challenge, that short-term CCP supplementation improved physical activities and fatigue-associated biochemical indices. Questions about the long-term effects of CCP treatment on exercise performance and physical fatigue, as well as safety, with intensive exercise training need further research. ICR-strain mice were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (SC); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (ET); and (3) ET with CCP treatment at 4,108 mg/kg/day (ET+CCP). We assessed the physical performance, body compositions, and serum levels of lactate, ammonia, glucose and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute exercise challenge. The ET and ET+CCP groups had significantly increased grip strength and endurance swimming time, and decreased serum lactate and ammonia levels after the acute exercise challenge than the SC group. Moreover, serum ammonia and CK levels in the ET+CCP group were significantly decreased when compared to that of the ET only group. In regard to the body composition, the ET+CCP group inhibits the decrease in fat tissue, and related biochemical changes induced by the high intensity endurance training CCP supplementation combined with high-intensity endurance exercise could significantly improve the physiological adaptions related to fatigue or energy consumption and maintain the fat composition when compared to treatment with training only. Therefore, CCP may potentially improve the physiological adaptions in intensive exercise training.
In this study, we attempted to isolate Escherichia coli from healthy adults in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and characterized its antimicrobial resistance profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, phylogenetic grouping and virulence gene profile. A total of 103 E. coli isolates were obtained, and most of them were antimicrobial resistant such to streptomycin (80.6%), tetracycline (67.0%), ampicillin (65.0%), sulfamethoxsazole/trimethoprim (48.5%), nalidixic acid (43.7%), chloramphenicol (34.0%), cefotaxime (15.5%), ciprofloxacin (15.5%), kanamycin (12.6%), ceftazidime (10.7%), fosfomycin (4.9%) and gentamicin (2.9%). However, all these E. coli strains were susceptible to imipenem. Surprisingly, of 103 strains, 74 (71.8%) and 43 (41.7%) strains showed resistance to more than 3 and 5 classes of antimicrobials, respectively. Furthermore, 10 E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and positive for blaCTX-M genes (7 for blaCTX-M-9 and 3 for blaCTX-M-1), while five were additionally positive for blaTEM genes. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 7 and 3 strains of E. coli carry blaCTX-M genes on their large plasmid and chromosome, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis exhibited that majority of the E. coli strains was grouped into A (44.7%), followed by B1 (23.3%), B2 (18.4%) and D (13.6%). Virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli, such as astA, EAF, eaeA, elt and eagg were also detected in ESBL-producing E. coli as well as antimicrobial resistant strains. These data suggest that commensal E. coli of healthy human could be a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance determinants and some of them might be harmful to human.
Companion animals are considered as one of the reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria that can be cross-transmitted to humans. However, limited information is available on the possibility of AR bacteria originating from companion animals being transmitted secondarily from owners to non-owners sharing the same space. To address this issue, the present study investigated clonal relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from dog owners and non-owners in the same college classroom or household. Anal samples (n=48) were obtained from 14 owners and 34 non-owners; 31 E. coli isolates were collected (nine from owners and 22 from non-owners). Of 31 E. coli, 20 isolates (64.5%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 16 isolates (51.6%) were determined as multi-drug resistant E. coli. Six isolates (19.4%) harbored integrase genes (five harbored class I integrase gene and one harbored class 2 integrase gene, respectively). Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis identified three different E. coli clonal sets among isolates, indicating that cross-transmission of AR E. coli can easily occur between owners and non-owners. The findings emphasize a potential risk of spread of AR bacteria originating from pets within human communities, once they are transferred to humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the exact risk and identify the risk factors of secondarily transmission by investigating larger numbers of isolates from pets, their owners and non-owners in a community.
Eradication of schistosomiasis japonica in Yamanashi Prefecture was officially declared in 1996, and all surveillance and health campaign were finished by the end of 2001. Schistosomiasis control had been carried out by strong collaboration among local Government, local people and academia, thought which knowledge and experiences of the disease control were accumulated among the local people. It is 20th anniversary of the disease eradication in Yamanashi. We planned to analyze the current situation whether the local people still keep the knowledge of schistosomiasis or not. There was no more knowledge kept in the middle school students, to whom the local Government did not educate about schistosomiasis. Among adult individuals, elderly people who have experienced endemic condition still know about it at almost comparable level as in the past. However, younger people who learned it in the primary school but no experience of the disease transmission started losing the knowledge. Those situations of the adult local people were compared with the veterinarian group. It was confirmed that the veterinarian group had correct and proper knowledge of schistosomiasis japonica not only in elderly groups, but also in younger age group. Considering that methods for control and prevention of infectious diseases are common to some extent, their knowledge and experiences would be applicable for other infectious diseases in future. Therefore, the knowledge would be worth keeping in the local people. Taken together, individuals with specialty, such as veterinarians, are expected to play roles in public health for promotion of health and welfare.
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) consisting of CdtA, CdtB and CdtC has been reported to be a possible virulence factor of campylobacters including Campylobacter upsaliensis. In our previous study, the cdtB gene-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay for detection and differentiation of 7 Campylobacter species yielded 3 different RFLP patterns (Cu-I to Cu-III). In this study, entire cdt (Cucdt) genes of each pattern were sequenced to see whether there are any differences in cdt genes, its amino acid sequences and biological activity of CuCDT. We found that all 3 representative strains harbor the entire Cucdt genes and homology between prototype and newly determined Cucdt genes was 94 to 98% with cdtA, 93 to 94% with cdtB and 92 to 93% with cdtC, while that between amino acids of CuCDT was 95 to 99% with CdtA, 97 to 98% with CdtB and 92 to 93% with CdtC. Furthermore, CDT activity produced by C. upsaliensis strains was examined by cytotoxicity assay with HeLa cells. Interestingly, C. upsaliensis produced 64 to 2,340 times higher CDT titer in comparison to other campylobacters did. In addition, Cu-III showed 64 times higher CDT titer than Cu-II, although CDT production level was almost the same by western blotting. These data suggest that CDT produced by C. upsaliensis might contribute more to human diseases in comparison to that produced by other campylobacters and Cu-III CDT seems to be more toxic to HeLa cells in comparison to Cu-I and Cu-II CDTs.
The purpose of this study was to establish an optimized protocol for the production of alginate-encapsulated canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cASCs) and evaluate their suitability for clinical use, including viability, proliferation and in vivo cell retention. Alginate microbeads were formed by vibrational technology and the production of injectable microbeads was performed using various parameters with standard methodology. Microbead toxicity was tested in an animal model. Encapsulated cASCs were evaluated for viability and proliferation in vitro. HEK-293 cells, with or without microencapsulation, were injected into the subcutaneous tissue of mice and were tracked using in vivo bioluminescent imaging to evaluate the retention of transplanted cells. The optimized injectable microbeads were of uniform size and approximately 250 µm in diameter. There was no strong evidence of in vivo toxicity for the alginate beads. The cells remained viable after encapsulation, and there was evidence of in vitro proliferation within the microcapsules. In vivo bioluminescent imaging showed that alginate encapsulation improved the retention of transplanted cells and the encapsulated cells remained viable in vivo for 7 days. Encapsulation enhances the retention of viable cells in vivo and might represent a potential strategy to increase the therapeutic potency and efficacy of stem cells.
Maropitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, may provide analgesic effects by blocking pharmacological action of substance P. Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used for pain control in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of maropitant and carprofen on the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs. Six healthy adult beagle dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane four times with a minimum of 7-day washout period. On each occasion, maropitant (1 mg/kg) alone, carprofen (4 mg/kg) alone, a combination of maropitant (1 mg/kg) and carprofen (4 mg/kg), or saline (0.1 ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered at 1 hr prior to the first electrical stimulation for the sevoflurane MAC-BAR determination. The sevoflurane MAC-BAR was significantly reduced by maropitant alone (2.88 ± 0.73%, P=0.010), carprofen alone (2.96 ± 0.38%, P=0.016) and the combination (2.81 ± 0.51%, P=0.0003), compared with saline (3.37 ± 0.56%). There was no significant difference in the percentage of MAC-BAR reductions between maropitant alone, carprofen alone and the combination. The administration of maropitant alone and carprofen alone produced clinically significant sparing effects on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR in dogs. However, the combination of maropitant and carprofen did not produce any additive effect on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR reduction. Anesthetic premedication with a combination of maropitant and carprofen may not provide any further sparing effect on anesthetic requirement in dogs.
A 10-month-old female Japanese black heifer presenting with sudden loss of appetite was diagnosed with extreme extension of the gallbladder. Laparotomy reaching from the right part of the 10th rib to the right flank showed an extended gallbladder greater than 50 cm in diameter. Cholecystectomy was performed as follows: 1) complete removal of the gallbladder distally from the base; 2) flushing via a catheter inserted into the common bile duct; and 3) covering of the hole opened in the common bile duct with a double-suturing method using the mucous membrane and muscular layers of the remaining gallbladder structures. Serum levels of total bilirubin gradually decreased from 7.5 mg/dl preoperatively to 4.7 mg/dl, 1.6 mg/dl and 0.6 mg/dl at 3, 8 and 34 days postoperatively, respectively. The heifer showed 1 month of clinical improvements, grew normally and finally became pregnant. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first clinical report to describe cholecystectomy in cattle.
A 9-month-old filly donkey was referred for a comminuted diaphyseal fracture of the right tibia. Surgical osteosynthesis, with multiple lag screws and a neutralization plate, was performed for anatomical reconstruction. Despite a good gait condition, delayed bone consolidation and a bone gap were evident on follow up radiographic evaluations. Due to delayed healing, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was injected on the surface of the tibia. Increased bone consolidation was evident on radiographs one month after the PRP injection. Progressive filling of both the fracture lines and bone gap continued during the six-month follow up. Clinical outcome was excellent. Autologous PRP should be considered as a practical adjuvant therapy in bone healing process in donkeys.
Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administration in the tumor bed, followed by a series of eight biphasic electric pulses. The treatment was well tolerated, and the rats were disease-free after 10 and 14 months. Therefore, adjuvant ECT resulted in good local control of mammary carcinoma and can potentially be used for adjuvant treatment of pet rats with cutaneous and adnexal tumors.
The main factors affecting the outcome of Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) mastitis were examined through a survey of diagnostic data and interviews relating to the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis in 83 quarters from 82 Holstein cows between August 2012 and April 2014. Ultimately, one cow was sold during the examination, and 82 quarters from 81 cows were used for analysis on prognosis. T. pyogenes mastitis occurred year round in both lactating and dry cows. The incidence of T. pyogenes mastitis did not significantly differ by month or show seasonality in either lactating or dry cows. Therefore, the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis also differed from that of summer mastitis. The 1-month survival rate of infected cows was 64.6% (53/82), and the recovery rate of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis was 14.6% (12/82). Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with survival and culling of infected cows as objective variables and with recovery and non-recovery of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis as objective variables. The severe cases were significantly culled (odds ratio, 16.30) compared to mild cases, and the status of quarters didn’t recover (odds ratio, 6.50). The results suggest that mild to moderate symptom severity at the time of onset are the main factors affecting outcomes in cows and recovery of quarters infected with T. pyogenes mastitis. Further, high level of NAGase activity also suggested the potential use as an indicator of culling of cows with T. pyogenes mastitis.
In order to determine blood lactate concentrations (bLac) and their validity as a diagnostic marker in bovine uterine torsion, blood samples were taken from 54 Holstein cows with uterine torsion before the correction of torsion. bLac in a group of cows with and without uterine necrosis were 15.0 and 3.0 mmol/l, respectively (P<0.01). Moreover, bLac in a group of dead or culled dams and in that of survived dams were 10.2 and 3.1 mmol/l, respectively (P<0.01). Furthermore, the proposed diagnostic cutoffs for bLac based on ROC analysis for detection of uterine necrosis and poor prognosis in dams were set at >5.0 and >6.5 mmol/l, respectively. These findings suggest that in dairy cows with uterine torsion, an increase in bLac is a diagnostic predictor of uterine necrosis as well as poor prognosis in dams.
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) has been reported in many countries, but equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) has been isolated only once in Japan. In 2015, symptoms of ECE were found, and EHV-3 was isolated in two stallions. Valacyclovir, an anti-herpesvirus agent, was administered orally. The stallions rested from mating for more than two weeks, causing enormous financial losses because of their high fees. This is the first study in which valacyclovir was administered for ECE. Though valacyclovir treatment did not shorten the duration of healing, the affected area did not expand after administration of valacyclovir. Valacyclovir therefore seems to be effective for suppression of EHV-3 infection. Further investigation about the administration protocol might be required.
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.
In the spring of 2015, two stallions reared in Farms A and B in Hokkaido in Japan showed symptoms of equine coital exanthema. Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) was isolated from penis swab samples of both stallions, and the isolates from each stallion in Farms A and B were designated as SS-1 and YS-1 strains, respectively. BamHI restriction profiles of SS-1 and Japanese reference strain Iwate-1 were indistinguishable, but the BamHI-A fragment of YS-1 was larger than those of SS-1 and Iwate-1 by 1.9 kbp because of the lack of two BamHI sites. Nucleotide sequence analyses of glycoprotein G (gG), gB, gC and VP13/14 coding regions revealed that SS-1 and YS-1 had 99.77% to 100% identities to each other. These results suggested that the origins of SS-1 and YS-1 were different. For a sero-epidemiological survey, serum neutralizing tests using SS-1 against 319 sera of horses from eight farms in Hokkaido were conducted. Six of the eight farms were EHV-3 antibody-positive, and positive rates ranged from 2.6% to 17.6%. To determine the infection time of four EHV-3 antibody-positive horses, a retrospective study was conducted. Infection time of the four horses was in the breeding season, and re-infection or reactivation of latently infected EHV-3 might have occurred in one horse. However, these four horses had never shown any clinical symptoms. The results suggested that several EHV-3 strains are distributed in Japan and that infection is maintained widely in horses without clinical symptoms.
Elucidation of the processes regulating the prion protein gene (Prnp) is an important key to understanding the development of prion disorders. In this study, we explored the involvement of DNA methylation in Prnp transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation of embryonic carcinoma P19C6 cells. When P19C6 cells were differentiated into neuronal cells, the expression of Prnp was markedly increased, while CpG methylation was significantly demethylated at the nucleotide region between −599 and −238 from the transcription start site. In addition, when P19C6 cells were applied in a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, RG108, Prnp transcripts were also significantly increased in relation to the decreased methylation statuses. These findings helped to elucidate the DNA methylation-mediated regulation of Prnp expression during neuronal differentiation.
Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain.
Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study.
A survey of helminths and ectoparasites, including epizoits, was conducted in narrow-ridged finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) from Japanese five populations using dead stranded or incidentally caught animals. In total, 13 helminth species were found (6 nematodes, 4 trematodes, 2 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) in 137 porpoises. A new location record of Stenurus nanjingensis and a new host record of Tetrabothrius sp. were obtained. Eight species of helminth were considered common in the Japanese populations of the finless porpoise: Pharurus sunameri, Pharurus asiaeorientalis, Nasitrema spathulatum, Nasitrema sunameri, Halocercus pingi, Halocercus sunameri, Campula oblonga and Synthesium elongatum. No anisakid nematodes were found. N. spathulatum was found only in the western waters of the Seto Inland Sea. Low prevalence of C. oblonga in the Omura Bay was demonstrated. H. pingi was mostly found in very young porpoises before starting to eat prey, indicating prenatal or transmammary infection. However, a congeneric species, H. sunameri, mainly infected weaned porpoises, indicating that these two species possess different transmission pathways. This study provides information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of helminth parasites in finless porpoises off the Japanese coast.
Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. The present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). With that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the Centre-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and histopathology. Thirty-seven (4.2%) kidneys revealed acid-fast bacilli when screened with the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Map was detected by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in thirty (81.1%) of the Ziehl-Neelsen positive kidneys. Subsequent PCR and/or culture from the different organs of the 37 examined animals allowed us to detect 86.4% (32 animals) infected red deer. Our results suggest that renal involvement in Map infected deer may be underdiagnosed and thus the routine examination of this organ and its inclusion in PCR techniques designed for Map detection could substantially improve the diagnostic of paratuberculosis in red deer.
This study aimed at characterizing fecal microbiota of three captive carnivore species of leopard cats Prionailurus bengalensis, Eurasian otters Lutra lutra and raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides. We used DNA barcoding sequencing to analyze 16S rRNA genes of uncultured bacteria in the feces collected in the Seoul Zoo. The sequencing analyses revealed that: 1) Firmicutes was the most dominant phylum for all three animals; 2) bacterial genus-rank compositions were distinct across species of the animals; and 3) bacterial community memberships were different across species of the studied animals. We expect such baseline information is useful for better understanding of these endangered species and future management of their health in zoos.