Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 82 , Issue 12
December
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
Anatomy
  • Andhika Yudha PRAWIRA, Savitri NOVELINA, Wartika Rosa FARIDA, Huda Sha ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1729-1733
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 14, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) was believed to be an exclusive protein found in the brown adipose tissue of small rodents and humans; however, recent studies show that the expression of UCP-1 protein has been found in the sebaceous glands of the mouse tail and human skin. There are a few reports about the presence of UCP-1 in the sebaceous glands of other rodents, such as the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica), a wild spiny rodent commonly found in Indonesia with a large sebaceous gland. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of UCP-1 in the sebaceous glands on the skin of the Sunda porcupine. The skin from three regions (thoracodorsal, lumbosacral and apex caudal) of eight adult Sunda porcupines was used to detect UCP-1-immunopositive cells through immunohistochemistry. All three regions were found immunopositive to anti-UCP-1 antibody in the sebaceous gland of quill and hair follicles, and the epidermal layer in quill and hair follicles with various intensities. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that the thoracodorsal and apex caudal region was the most intense immunoreaction followed by the lumbosacral region. These findings proved that the presence of UCP-1 was also identified in the sebaceous glands of other rodent (Hystrix javanica) and regions of the body, which has not been reported previously.

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  • Kentaro HIRONAKA, Saki IMAI, Atsushi KASHIMURA, Hirokazu MATSUMOTO, To ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1816-1820
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 16, 2020
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    A rare dysraphic caudal spinal anomaly, or caudal agenesis, comprising a tethered spinal cord, was found in a tailless Holstein calf that presented ataxia and paresis with analgesia of the hind limbs. The gently and slimly tapered conus medullaris was poorly formed between S2 and S3 which indicated that it was lying more caudally. The caudal end of the filum terminale adhered to the inner periosteum of the vertebral arch at S4, which is compatible with tethering of the spinal cord. The dysraphic changes from the secondary neurulation error and the longitudinal deranged cord morphology that may have been caused by the caudad traction due to tethering were confirmed. This represents the first bovine case with definitive morphological confirmation.

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Biochemistry
  • Doo Hyun KIM, Hiroyuki SADAKANE, Yuka NISHIKIORI, Manami MATSUMURA, Ma ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1734-1741
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Previous studies suggest a negative relationship between hepatic oxidative stress and productivity in beef cattle. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is involved in the disappearance of reactive oxygen species, suggesting the defensive role of UCP2 against oxidative stress. The present study examined the relationship between oxidative stress and expression levels of UCP2/Ucp2 in cultured human and mouse liver-derived cells. We also explored factors regulating bovine Ucp2 transcription. As oxidative stress inducers, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, and cumene hydroperoxide (CmHP) were used. Expression levels of hemoxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a representative gene induced by oxidative stress, were not affected by any oxidative stress inducers in HepG2 human liver-derived cells. The levels of UCP2 mRNA were also unaffected by the oxidative stress inducers. Treatment with CmHP increased expression of Hmox1 in Hepa1-6 mouse liver-derived cells, but Ucp2 expression was not changed. Stimulus screening for regulator of transcription (SSRT) revealed that expression of p50 or p65, transcription factors conferring response to oxidative stress, did not stimulate bovine Ucp2 transcrition in HepG2 cells. SSRT also showed 11 molecules that induced Ucp2 transcription more than 4-fold; among them, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related transcription factors such as XBP1, c-JUN, JUNB, and C/EBPβ were identified. However, treatment with ER stress inducers did not increase Ucp2 expression in HepG2 and Hepa1-6 cells. The present results suggest that 1) neither oxidative stress nor ER stress induces Ucp2 expression in liver-derived cells, and 2) Ucp2 transcription is stimulated by several transcription factors.

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Clinical Pathology
  • Sakurako NEO, Eri MAKIISHI, Ayumi FUJIMOTO, Masaharu HISASUE
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1821-1827
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2020
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    Long-term culture of canine artificial hepatocytes has not been established. We hypothesized that human placental hydrolysate (hPH) may support the long-term culture of differentiated hepatocyte-like cells. Canine bone marrow cells were cultured using modified hepatocyte growth medium supplemented with hPH. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical analysis for albumin, qualitative RT-PCR for cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Cytokeratin 7 (CK7), CD90, CD44, and CD34, and functional analyses of CYP450 activity and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake were performed. Cultured hepatocyte-like cells were able to maintain hepatocyte characteristics, including morphology, albumin synthesis, CYP450 activity, and LDL uptake for 80 days. Thus, hPH may be a potential facilitator for the long-term culture of hepatocyte-like cells. Clinicopathologically, this culture protocol of artificial hepatocytes will contribute to liver function evaluation.

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Immunology
  • Hajime NAGAHATA, Ayumi MORIYAMA, Chika SAWADA, Yukiko ASAI, Chihiro KO ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1742-1749
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aimed to evaluate innate immune responses of mammary glands induced by intramammary infusion of Bifidobacterium breve in dairy cows. Somatic cell counts in quarters of cows showed a marked increase following B. breve infusion on days 1 and 2. Opsonized-stimulated chemiluminescence response in quarter milk was significantly (P<0.05) increased by B. breve infusion on days 1 to 3 compared to that of pre-infusion. Lactoferrin concentrations in B. breve-infused quarter milk increased significantly (P<0.05) on days 2 to 4 and 6 compared to those of pre-infusion. IgG and IgA concentrations in B. breve-infused quarters significantly (P<0.05) increased on days 2 to 4 for IgG and days 3, 4, 6 and 8 for IgA compared to those of pre-infusion. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 mRNA levels in somatic cells from B. breve-infused quarters were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated on day 1 compared to those on days 0 and 14. Conversely, IL-6 mRNA levels in somatic cells from B. breve-infused quarters on days 0, 1 and 14 and NF-κB mRNA levels on day 0 were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated compared to those of control. IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 concentrations increased on days 1, 3 and 7 after B. breve infusion in quarters. Intramammary infusion of B. breve (3 × 109 cfu) induces a massive influx of leukocytes and enhances innate immune response in mammary glands. This event may contribute to the enhancing host defense in the mammary gland.

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Internal Medicine
  • Woojae CHOI, Younghye RO, Leegon HONG, Sunmin AHN, Heejin KIM, Changhy ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1750-1756
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 09, 2020
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    Attempts to increase production and improve farm environments have been made for several years. Rumen motility (RM) is one of the biological parameters that provides essential information of individuals in ruminants, and it is usually evaluated by auscultation. The study was aimed to examine RM using the 3-axis accelerometer (3XA) in cattle. The manufactured 3XA were placed in the reticulum (3XA-R) and implanted in the subcutaneous layer of the brisket (3XA-SC), respectively, and the accelerations were compared following intramuscular injection of xylazine (0.05 mg/kg) or saline in experiment 1 and of xylazine (0.05 mg/kg) or atropine (0.04 mg/kg) in experiment 2. In experiment 3, the dose-dependent decrease of RM was evaluated following xylazine administration (0, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) in the 3XA-R equipped cows via a 3 × 3 Latin square method. In experiment 1, saline-treated animals showed a continuous fluctuation while the frequency and amplitude of 3XA-R in xylazine-injected cows were reduced after administration. The acceleration of 3XA-SC was changed after administration, but not abruptly. Among the motion parameters, V2 was calculated only using X- and Z-axis acceleration in consideration of the cylindrical shape, and it showed the apparent difference between pre- and post-xylazine administration. In experiment 2, the V2 of 3XA-R was decreased after atropine administration while that of 3XA-SC was maintained. In experiment 3, a dose-dependent V2 decrement of 3XA-R after xylazine administration was observed and lasted for 40 and 80 min in doses of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, The 3XA detected the decrease in RM efficiently and processed the data wirelessly without interference from body movement. This technology will help detect problems early and prevent a decline in cattle productivity.

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  • Yuichi MIYAGAWA, Ryota AKABANE, Mizuki OGAWA, Masayoshi NAGAKAWA, Hiro ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1828-1834
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 10, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Serum cystatin C levels (CysC) are used in human medicine to document progressive kidney failure. Although CysC are not thought to be useful for the diagnosis of kidney dysfunction in dogs, there has been no specific consideration of body weight as a confounding issue. The aim of this study was to assess that the utility of CysC for the diagnosis of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in smaller vs. larger dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, serum creatinine (Cre) and CysC correlate directly with body weight; we found that dogs weighing <20 kg had significantly lower CysC than those weighing ≥20 kg (0.27 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.05 mg/l, respectively, P<0.001). In dogs weighing <20 kg, CysC had superior diagnostic accuracy for the detection of mildly decreased plasma iohexol clearance (PCio) (<1.8 ml/min/kg) compared with Cre (sensitivity 100% vs. 80.9% and specificity 100% vs. 85.7%); this was not true for dogs weighing ≥20 kg. Additionally, using a cut-off PCio of <1.8 ml/min/kg, the area under receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) of CysC was significantly higher than that of Cre in dogs weighing <20 kg (P<0.05); this was not true for dogs weighing ≥20 kg (P=0.695). In conclusion, CysC is a useful marker for the detection of a mild decreasing GFR compared with Cre in dogs weighing <20 kg.

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Laboratory Animal Science
  • Mizuho TASHIRO, Yuki HOSOKAWA, Hiromi AMAO, Atsushi TOHEI
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1757-1762
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Hypothermia during anesthetic events is a common adverse effect of anesthesia in laboratory animals. In particular, small rodents such as mice is susceptible to hypothermia during anesthetic events. Therefore, the animals will need additional thermal support by external heating devices during and after anesthesia. In general, the time of recovery from anesthesia is typically longer in case of injectable anesthesia rather than inhalant anesthesia. However, the durations of thermal support have been almost limited to 1 hr from administration of anesthesia in general. Our study objectives are two-fold: 1) to compare the levels of hypothermia induced by injectable anesthesia with medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (MMB) and inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane (ISO); 2) to find the adequate durations of thermal support for preventing hypothermia induced by their anesthesia in mice. Adult male ICR mice were anesthetized during 40 min without and with the thermal support for 1 (both anesthetic groups), 2, 3, and 5 hr (in MMB group). Without thermal support, the decrease of body temperature in MMB group were more severe than that in ISO group. The durations of thermal support completely prevented hypothermia at 5 hr-support in MMB group and that at 1 hr-support in ISO group. However, the other short durations did not prevent hypothermia at 1, 2 and 3 hr-support in MMB group. These results suggest that the mice should be received thermal support over 5 hr after injection of MMB anesthesia to prevent hypothermia.

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Pathology
  • Manabu YAMADA, Kentaro MASUJIN, Ken-ichiro KAMEYAMA, Reiko YAMAZOE, Ta ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1835-1845
    Published: 2020
    Released: January 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: November 06, 2020
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    We experimentally infected pigs with the African swine fever virus (ASFV) Armenia 07 strain (genotype II) to analyze the effect of different dose injections on clinical manifestations, virus-shedding patterns, histopathology, and transmission dynamics by direct contact. Each three pigs and four pigs were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 fifty percent hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)/ml, 101 HAD50/ml and 106 HAD50/ml of ASFV Armenia 07 strain, respectively. Each two of three pigs injected with 0.1 HAD50/ml and 101 HAD50/ml died by 10 days post inoculation. All pigs had a gross lesion of splenomegaly. Perigastric and renal lymph nodes were enlarged and resembled blood clots in nine of ten pigs. It was revealed that 0.1 HAD50/ml of this ASFV was sufficient to infect healthy pigs by intramuscular injection and caused sub-acute lethal disease. For the transmission study, two 8-week-old pigs were injected intramuscularly with 103 HAD50/ml of the same virus. Each of the experimentally inoculated pigs was co-housed with two 8-week-old naive pigs. All contact pigs exhibited clinical manifestations at 6 or 7 days after the experimentally inoculated pigs developed pyrexia. These findings suggest that this strain may spread slowly within a herd. Histologically, lymph nodes resembled blood clots were formed by severe blood absorption and followed hemorrhage result of disruption of the lymphoid sinus filling with absorbed red blood cells. The severity of the gross and histological lesions depended on duration after infection, regardless of the difference of injection doses in this study.

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Surgery
  • Ai HORI, Kenjirou MIYOSHI, Wakako SEO, Ako KAKUTA, Kiwamu HANAZONO, Te ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1763-1768
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    We describe a 5-year-old castrated male dog suspected hypoglycemic encephalopathy that was evaluated by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The dog experienced hypoglycemia after prolonged generalized and continued partial seizures. In the acute phase, DWI showed hyperintensity in the left temporal lobe. After about a month, DWI maintained hyperintensity, and left middle cerebral artery dilation was noted on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). In the chronic phase, the left temporal lobe lesion was replaced by cerebrospinal fluid. In humans, it was reported that cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) with hypoglycemic encephalopathy presents hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex on DWI and increased vascularity of the middle cerebral artery branches on MRA. In conclusion, DWI has detected CLN in a dog suspected hypoglycemic encephalopathy.

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  • Masamine TAKANOSU, Yuki HATTORI
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1769-1772
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 06, 2020
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    Two Scottish Fold mixed cats are described in this report. Case 1 is a mixed Scottish Fold and Munchkin cat. Extremities of this cat resembled the Munchkin cat, while the ear pinna were folded forward like the Scottish Fold cat. Case 2 is a mixed Scottish Fold and American Curl cat. The ear pinna were curled caudally like the American Curl. Severe exostosis in the hind leg was observed in radiographs taken around one year of age in both cats. Both cats were dominant homozygous for c.1024G>T of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene, responsible for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cat. Cross breeding with Scottish Fold cats could produce unknown phenotypes, and should be avoided.

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Theriogenology
  • Tadatoshi OHTAKI, Haruna FUJIWARA, Gen WATANABE, Mamiko ONO, Kazuyoshi ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1773-1780
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    The effect of estrus induction by cabergoline on gonadotropin and steroid hormone responses was examined in anestrous bitches. Eleven beagles were used in the study; seven were included in the estrus induction group and four were included in the spontaneous estrus group. Cabergoline was orally administered to the estrus induction group at 5 µg/kg once daily for four weeks, or until hemorrhagic discharge was detected. The inter-estrus interval in the estrus induction group was significantly shorter than the previous estrus interval. Bitches that showed proestrus within four weeks of treatment showed increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency and, subsequently, increased estradiol (E2) levels. Prolactin (PRL) levels declined promptly after treatment, except in one bitch that did not show proestrus during the cabergoline treatment period. There was a significant correlation between the time to proestrus induction and the reduction in PRL levels. A positive correlation was found between the LH levels two weeks after cabergoline administration and PRL reduction. This study demonstrates that an abrupt reduction in PRL is likely to be important for initiation of estrus in bitches. A reduction in PRL indirectly leads to an increase in LH pulse frequency, which regulates follicular development in bitches. However, if the period from the end of the previous estrus to the cabergoline treatment is short, it may take some time to show proestrus without increasing E2 levels, even if the LH level increases after cabergoline administration.

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Virology
  • Chun-Zhi REN, Wen-Yue HU, Jun-Cheng LI, Ying-Hong XIE, Ni-Na JIA, Jun ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1781-1792
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection leads to severe inflammatory responses and tissue damage, and many natural herbs exhibit protective effects against viral infection by modulating the inflammatory response. An ethyl acetate fraction of flavonoids from Polygonum hydropiper L. (FEA) was prepared through ethanol extraction and ethyl acetate fractional extraction. An inflammatory model was established in RAW264.7 cells with PRV infection to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of FEA by measuring cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, and mRNA expression of inflammatory factors, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Its functional mechanism was investigated by analyzing the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of key proteins in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that PRV induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells, and the responses were similar to that in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. FEA significantly suppressed NO synthesis and down-regulated both expression and secretion of COX-2, iNOS, and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05 or P<0.01). FEA also reduced NF-κB p65 translocation into the nucleus and decreased MAPK phosphorylation, indicating that the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway may be closely related to the inflammatory response during viral infection. The findings suggested the potential pharmaceutical application of FEA as a natural product that can treat viral infections due to its ability to mitigate inflammatory responses.

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  • Satoru TAKAHASHI, Md. Amirul HASAN, Mariko ITO, Miyuki KOMURA, Chisato ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1793-1797
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Rotavirus A (RVA), bovine torovirus (BToV), bovine enterovirus (BEV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) at a bovine farm in Ibaraki prefecture were monitored by one-step multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with the aim of confirming the reduction of “viral pathogen indicators”. A total of 960 bovine fecal samples were collected from calves less than 2 month-old within the period from October 2016 to October 2018 every 2 months at the bovine farm. In each sampling, 40 samples were taken from calves 3 week-old or less, and 40 samples from calves over 3 week-old, in principle. At the end of September 2017, the farm introduced improvement of hygiene protocols on boots by exchanging boots and appropriate usage of a footbath at the entrance of calf sheds. In the comparison of the virus detection by RT-PCR, prevalence of all 4 viruses was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in calves 3 week-old or less after the improvement. The mortality of calves less than 2 month-old was also significantly reduced after the improvement of hygiene protocols. These data suggest that the proper control of boots at calf sheds is important, perhaps even vital, for rearing hygiene measures at bovine farms so as to attain substantial decrease in the prevalence of pathogens.

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  • Nívia Carolina Lopes ROSADO, Marcus Rebouças SANTOS, Laura Morais Nasc ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1798-1801
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small two-segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus that has been identified in diarrheic feces of a large range of animal hosts, including humans. For this reason, PBV has been recognized as an opportunistic agent of gastrointestinal disease. Even under these circumstances, there is a lack of studies regarding this pathogen. Not outstanding, in Brazil, the single description of the PBV occurrence in pigs was provided in the 1980s. Hence, this study aimed to verify the PBV occurrence in Brazilian swine farms and to perform molecular characterization of the identified strains. High genetic variability was found in the analyzed sequences. Further studies comprehending the infection of swine by PBV in Brazilian herds should be performed to provide more accurate information on its epidemiology and to discuss the role of the virus in gastrointestinal diseases.

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Wildlife Science
  • Bernardo Nascimento ANTUNES, Diego DA COSTA, Michelli Westphal DE ATAI ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1802-1807
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to assess the unilateral prefemoral coelioscopic-assisted approach for ovariosalpingectomy in a d`Orbigny slider (Trachemys dorbigni) using a digital otoscope. Twenty healthy turtles were randomly assigned to one of two groups, for right (GR; n=10) or left (GL; n=10) prefemoral access, for coelioscopic-assisted ovariosalpingectomy. Anesthesia and surgery times, body weight, and ovary/oviduct weight data were recorded. Anesthesia and surgery times did not differ significantly between the groups. Wound closure was the most time-consuming surgical step. Ovary and body weights significantly affected the exposure time of the ipsilateral and contralateral ovaries, respectively. Two intraoperative complications were reported. All the animals recovered uneventfully. The digital otoscope can be safely and effectively used for coelioscopic-assisted single-access, unilateral prefemoral ovariosalpingectomy in d`Orbigny slider.

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  • Pajitra HENGTRAKUL, Pasinee SUDLAPA, Nattawan CHAISURAT, Sasawat SODSA ...
    2020 Volume 82 Issue 12 Pages 1808-1815
    Published: 2020
    Released: December 26, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection is one of the most common diseases in young elephants, causing severe fatal hemorrhagic disease. Subclinical infection was previously described; however, information about the factors associated with virus shedding and reactivation were scarce. To identify the biological and environmental factors related with EEHV detection, blood and oral swab samples were collected from nine captive Asian elephants in Thailand for one year and tested for EEHV presence using real-time PCR. Data including hematological values, management, environmental temperature, and serum cortisol levels were also recorded and analyzed. Results showed that the viral detection frequency ranged from 0–25%. The highest detection frequency was found in the two youngest elephants, aged less than 15 years. Three types of viruses, EEHV1, EEHV4, and EEHV5, were found in this study, which also detected mixed infection in five elephants. Additionally, the study found that sample type, changes in hematological values, management and health issues, and serum cortisol levels were not associated with herpesvirus detection in the elephants. However, EEHV detection percentage was significantly increased in the summer (mid-Feb to mid-May), possibly due to body fitness reduction from food source limitation and low nutrient content. To obtain a broad aspect of EEHV management, long-term EEHV monitoring is highly recommended in every captive elephant herd.

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