The relationship between the kinetics of villous columnar epithelial cells and the expansion of colonies of indigenous bacteria from the narrow apical portions of intestinal villi was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically investigated in the small intestine of bromodeoxyuridine administred Wistar rats. As a result, the lifespan of villous columnar epithelial cells was slightly shorter in the distal ileum than in other portions of small intestine, accompanying the minimum height of the intestinal villi of the distal ileum in the small intestine. The migration speed of villous columnar epithelial cells was significantly decreased toward the distal small intestine. The migration speed in the distal ileum was about one-fourth of that in the duodenum. The migration speed of the villous columnar epithelial cells was greater and their lifespans were shorter in the sites with wide expansion of the indigenous bacterial colony from the narrow apical portions of the intestinal villi than that in sites with no or less expansion. Additionally, the expansion of the indigenous bacterial colony from narrow villous apices also immediately shortened the heights of the intestinal villi. These findings suggest that the migration speed of villous columnar epithelial cells might contribute to the regulation of the settlement of bacteria at the villous apices and the inevitable proliferation of indigenous bacteria at the intervillous spaces in the rat small intestine.
To monitor changes in NO production over time in the fetal placenta of rats, we used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with the Fe-N-(dithiocarboxy) sarcosine (Fe-DTCS) complex as an NO-trapping reagent. The expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms was examined in parallel using quantitative RT-PCR. NO production was first detected on day 13.5 of gestation. NO levels reached a peak on day 15.5, then decreased significantly during the last few days of gestation. The pattern of expression of NOS II mRNA was in good agreement with changes in NO levels, whereas NOS III mRNA expression did not change markedly during gestation. Thus, it appears that NO levels in the placenta are NOS II-dependent and differ at different gestational stages.
To determine the effect of diabetes on reproductive performance, two kinds of diabetes mice, i.e., KK/TaJcl mice with Type-II diabetes and Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice with Type-I diabetes, were used in this study. Particular attention was paid to uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and placental growth factor (PlGF). The number of fetuses, the fetal and placental weights in both diabetes mice were significantly decreased when compared to controls. Surprisingly, uNK cells in both diabetes mice persisted in the metrial gland even at the term of pregnancy. Although PlGF expression in both diabetes mice was significantly decreased, PlGF protein did not change. These results show that diabetes condition affects reproductive performance, particularly uNK cell behavior, but not PlGF production.
Nine isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, comprising an enrofloxacin (ERFX)-resistant isolate, five nalidixic acid-resistant isolates and three susceptible isolates, from diseased cattle were subjected to sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes. An ERFX-resistant isolate was shown to have two amino acid substitutions in GyrA (S83F and D87G) and one substitution in ParC (S80I). Three mutations in the QRDRs of GyrA were found in the NA-resistant isolates: S83Y in two isolates, S83F in two isolates and D87G in one isolate.
To investigate the expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) associated with oncogenesis, samples of serum and tumor tissue were obtained from 25 dogs with tumors. The serum levels of COMP in dogs with tumors were significantly higher than in 38 normal controls and correlated with the concentrations of tumor tissue extracts. Positive bands to COMP antibody were detected on immunoblots of tumor extracts. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated positive signals of COMP and its mRNA in the cytoplasm of tumor cells from mammary gland tumors, but not in the normal mammary gland. Positive immunohistochemistry results were also obtained for COMP in mast cell tumor and melanoma cells. Oncogenesis might augment production of COMP and the serum level of COMP in dogs.
PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis (PARR) is a new diagnostic method for lymphoid neoplasia. In PARR using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (PARR-FFPE), control DNA amplification was successful in only three of five samples. The formalin fixation times of the three samples were shorter than those of the others. Analysis of the formalin fixation time and DNA amplification controls suggested that a formalin fixation time of less than one week is appropriate. Additionally, application of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for PARR provided clearer results than conventional PARR in 16 unfixed tissues and three FFPE tissues. These results show that PARR-FFPE is viable for tissues with an appropriate formalin fixation time and that application of FFPE and SSCP for PARR are useful for diagnosis and retrospective study of canine lymphoid neoplasia.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are released in the brain to regulate behavioral and physiological stress responses. To elucidate the respective roles of these peptides under certain stressors, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular infusions of either AVP V1a receptor antagonist, [Pmp1, Tyr (Me)2]- Arg8-Vasopressin (Pmp, Tyr-AVP) or CRH receptor antagonist, alpha-helical CRF 9-41 (αhCRF) on stress responses induced by frustrating condition in sheep. Four ovariectomized Corriedale ewes were assigned to the experiment. In a "frustrating" condition (FC), food was withheld for 60 minutes from only the experimental ewe while this ewe was in the presence of the other ewes that were given food. As "non-frustrating" control condition (C), food was withheld for 60 minutes from all ewes, thereby controlling for the nonspecific effects of lack of food. FC induced a significant rise in the plasma cortisol concentration (p < 0.05) and increased the pawing number and rectal temperature compared with that in C (p < 0.1). The effects of either Pmp, Tyr-AVP or αhCRF on these stress responses were analyzed. The rise in cortisol restored nearly to the control level by infusion of Pmp, Tyr-AVP or αhCRF. The pawing number restored nearly to the control level by αhCRF. The hyperthermia restored nearly to the control level by Pmp, Tyr-AVP. These data suggest that both endogenous CRH and AVP might be concerned with inducing physiological and behavioral stress responses to frustrating condition in sheep.
Although the inhibitory effect of maternal antibodies on active immunization of neonates has been extensively documented, much less attention has been devoted on the exact level of these antibodies which can induce this effect and the extent of such effect. Firstly, laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH).Then, maternal anti-DNP antibodies in chicks derived from these hens were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chicks with high levels of maternal anti-DNP showed immune suppression, while chicks with low levels of maternal anti-DNP showed normal immune response when they immunized with the same antigen at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Then, different doses of purified maternal anti-DNP were transferred to fertile eggs at 16 days of embryogenesis by in ovo injection and all chicks were immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Chicks received 1 mg of anti-DNP showed normal immune response, chicks received 3 mg of anti-DNP showed weak immune response, and chicks received 5 and 8 mg of anti-DNP showed immune suppression. Chicks received 8 mg of anti-DNP were immunized with DNP-KLH at 4 and 7 weeks of age. Their immune response was significantly lower than that of chicks of no-maternal anti-DNP. These results suggested that high levels of maternal antibodies interfere or suppress the immune response of active immunization not only at early period but also at the period in which the maternal antibodies at very low levels.
In the present study, 30 cows were used to evaluate the changes in the peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulation of dairy cows with digital dermatitis (DD) following hoof trimming and antibiotic treatment. The cows were divided into two groups; 18 cows (DD group) had DD on both hind feet, and 12 cows (control group) had four feet with no clinical abnormalities. The DD group was further divided into two groups based on the treatment; the antibiotic group (8 cows) was treated with only 2% lincomycin liquid spray once daily for 3 days, and the trimmed group (10 cows) received trimming of hooves as well as treatment with 2% lincomycin liquid spray. The plasma cortisol concentration was significantly higher in both DD groups before treatment than in the control group, and it decreased significantly after hoof trimming in the trimmed group. The number of CD3+, CD4+, WC1+ and CD21+ cells in both DD groups before treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group. The number of CD3+, CD4+, WC1+ and CD21+ cells in the trimmed group increased after treatment. These results indicated that cows with DD suffer from stress and reduced number of T and B cells. Treatment of DD with both hoof trimming and 2% lincomycin liquid spray was effective for reducing the stress and bringing the immune cell number back to the normal range.
The objective of this study was to collect epidemiological data on neoplasms in pet ferrets in Japan. A questionnaire to collect information was made available to Japanese veterinary practitioners through the web site of the Japanese Society of Exotic Pet Medicine. Completed questionnaires were returned from 29 practices, and 945 neoplasms met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Neoplasms were found in every organ system except the respiratory system; the endocrine (418; 44.2%), integumentary (196; 20.7%) and hemolymphatic (184; 19.5%) systems were most commonly affected. The most common tumor types were pancreatic islet cell tumor (211: 22.3%), adrenal gland tumor (207; 21.9%) and lymphoma (152; 16.1%). The age of the affected ferrets ranged from less than 3 months to more than 7 years of age. Tumor incidence was highest in ferrets between 4 and 6 years of age. No sex predilection was found. These results were similar to those recently published in North America. Most Japanese pet ferrets are imported from North America, and their husbandry including diets is similar to that in North America, which may explain the similar tendencies in the incidence of neoplasms in this study and those of findings in North America.
We examined the utility of a bite block-type head immobilization device, hereafter referred to as "head immobilization device", in order to improve the ease of immobilization and accuracy when performing radiotherapy for cranial tumors in animals. The head immobilization apparatus was a rectangular-shaped bite block-type device. We examined 55 cases in 46 dogs that underwent head CT scans between June 2005 and May 2006. The head immobilization device was used for 26 cases (immobilization group) and was not used for 29 cases (control group). Head stability was maintained in the control group by placing a towel under the head. We measured the angle of rotation of the xy, yz and xz planes for each group. The angles of rotation of the xy plane for the control and immobilization groups were 3.69 ± 2.28 (mean ± SD) and 1.39 ± 1.50, respectively. The t-test demonstrated that the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). These results indicate that there was reduced tilting to the left or right. We conclude that use of this head immobilization device was extremely easy and that it improved the accuracy of radiotherapy for cranial tumors in dogs and cats.
We examined whether right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit (RPVC) implantation can overcome the disadvantages of current procedures for pulmonic stenosis (PS). We histologically evaluated the feasibility of RPVC using a homograft in PS model dogs. Eight dogs underwent pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and then 12 weeks later were assigned to PAB (n=4) or PAB+RPVC (n=4) groups. Dogs in the PAB group received no treatment throughout the experimental period, whereas the PAB+RPVC group underwent RPVC. At 1 year after PAB, hearts and conduits were explanted from euthanized dogs and histologically evaluated. The ratios (%) of myocardial fibrosis on right ventricle (RV) epicardial, median and endocardial layers were significantly lower in the PAB+RPVC, than in the PAB group. The ratio of myocardial fibrosis on left ventricular (LV) epicardial and endocardial layers were significantly lower in the PAB+RPVC, than in the PAB group. Neo-intimal thickness in the anastomosis areas of the Denacol and PAB+RPVC groups was 42.77 ± 30.19 and 88.30 ± 27.24 μm, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. Calcification and neo- intima hypertrophy were not obvious in the valve area. Immunohistological staining showed that the internal surface of the anastomosis and intermediate areas were positive for endothelial cells. We concluded that RPVC using a bioprosthetic graft can apparently overcome the disadvantages of current procedures for pulmonic stenosis.
This study evaluated the stability of LAMP reagents when stored at 25°C and 37°C, and also assessed its detection efficiency on different DNA template preparations. Accordingly, LAMP using reagents stored at 25°C and 37°C amplified DNA of in vitro cultured T. b. brucei (GUTat 3.1) from day 1 to day 15 of reagent storage. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in detection sensitivity of LAMP among the reagents stored at 25°C, 37°C and -20°C (recommended storage temperature). LAMP using the reagents stored at above-mentioned temperatures amplified serially diluted DNAs (genomic DNA extracted by phenol-chloroform method, FTA card and hemolysed blood) of T. b. gambiense (IL2343) with high sensitivity. Reactions were conducted on the reagents stored from 1 day to 30 days. LAMP detection sensitivity was poor when fresh blood as DNA template was added directly into reactive solution. Results of this study demonstrated that LAMP has the potential to be used in field conditions for diagnosis of trypanosome infections without being affected by ambient temperatures of tropical and sub-tropical countries where trypanosomosis is endemic.
Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was determined from a total of 203 blood samples collected from Butaleja district, eastern Uganda. All samples were examined by microhematocrit centrifuge test (MHC), PCR and ELISA. ELISA was performed in accordance with the OIE standard procedures using Trypanosoma bruceigambiense procyclic form crude antigens. PCR were utilized to identify the species and the subspecies of trypanosome. The overall prevalence of bovine African trypanosomosis was 8.9% by MHC, and 45.3% by the ELISA. Since substantial number (12 out of 18) of MHC positive samples were negative in the PCR tests, we could not conclude the most epidemic trypanosome species in the studied area. Nevertheless, the PCR results suggests that the most prevalent trypanosome was T. b. brucei (31/203), followed by T. congolense (6/203). In addition, only a few (3/203) mixed infections of T. b. brucei and T. congolense was detected by the PCR. Results obtained from this study indicates that bovine trypanosomosis is endemic in Butaleja district, Uganda.
The detection and distribution of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were studied, by in situ hybridization with a non-radioactive digoxigenin-labeled probe, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissue from 10 pigs naturally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The morphology of host cells was preserved despite the relatively high temperature required during the incubation procedure. Examination of three serial sections from each of the 10 lung samples showed that the three cytokines closely resembled each other in respect of cellular distribution. Three inflammatory cytokines are expressed in response to M. hyopneumoniae infection, with IL-6 localized primarily to peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplastic tissues, and both IL-1 and TNF-α expressed in alveolar macrophages. Although statistically non-significant, IL-1 (r=0.5744, p=0.0883) showed potentially important correlation with histopatholgical lesions. No other potentially clinically important correlations (r>0.30) were observed between any of the other cytokines (TNF-α; r=0.2045, p=0.5603 and IL-6; r=-0.06607, p=0.8651) and histopathological lesion score. The results suggest that inflammatory cytokines are associated with the development of pneumonia in M. hyopneumoniae infection and may contribute to disease severity.
An aged Maltese dog (dog 1) showed gait ataxia for a month and suddenly died after convulsion. An aged Toy Poodle dog (dog 2) showed sudden blindness with unresponsive pupillary light reflexes and sudden death due to acute cardiac failure. Histological examination of the two dogs demonstrated severe granulomatous perivascular inflammation in the white matter throughout the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord. Based on the clinical and pathological findings, these dogs were diagnosed as granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME). In dog 2, the inflammatory changes predominated in the visual system such as the optic nerve, optic tract and optic radiation in the cerebrum (ocular form). Distribution pattern of the inflammatory lesions in the CNS was compared between the two dogs.
We investigated whether raccoons (Procyon lotor) carried leptospires in their kidneys in Japan. Leptospira was isolated from 2 of 71 raccoons captured in Kanagawa Prefecture and 1 of 53 raccoons at a zoological park in Nagasaki Prefecture. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected in 16 of 124 raccoons (12.9%) in Kanagawa and 33 of 53 raccoons (62.3%) in Nagasaki, respectively. The partial nucleotide sequences of their flaB genes suggested that the isolates belonged to L. interrogans. The serovars of the isolates were identified as Copenhageni/Icterohaemorrhagiae (1 strain in Kanagawa) and Hebdomadis (1 strain both in Kanagawa and Nagasaki) by reactivity with the reference antisera and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cross-agglutination-absorption test, respectively. RFLP analysis on the serovars Hebdomadis strains revealed genetic diversity among serovar Hebdomadis. Although it is unclear if the raccoons carried leptospires in their kidneys at the time imported, there is no doubt that imported animals are a new reservoir animal of leptospires in Japan.
From August 2007 until March 2008, we perfomed a detection and epidemiological analysis for Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from pork production chains to improve the quality of meat hygiene conditions in Hue, Vietnam. A total of 306 specimens were examined for Salmonella spp., aerobic bacterial counts and coliform. Seven serovars of Salmonella spp. were detected in retail pork, slaughterhouse carcasses and environmental specimens with the following detection rates: 32.8% of retail pork, 15.5% of slaughterhouse carcasses, 47.4% of floors, 38.1% of weighing bowls, 28.6% of cooking boards and 16.7% of tank water samples. Based on these results, we recommend that exhaustive sterilization, washing, routine bacteriological examinations and treatments at low temperature are performed in slaughterhouses, transportation facilities and retail stores.
To clarify the effect of lidocaine hydrochloride (Lid) on bovine peripheral granulocyte phagocytosis, adhesion molecule expression of leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA expression of cytokines were investigated. Lid was added to blood samples at a final concentration of 0 (only PBS; Cont), 0.2 mg/ml or 2.0 mg/ml. Phagocytosis of granulocytes was significantly decreased by addition of 2.0 mg/ml of Lid. CD18 expression of granulocytes and mononuclear cells were significantly reduced by addition of 2.0 mg/ml of Lid. IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA expressions of mononuclear cells were also significantly reduced by addition of 2.0 mg/ml of Lid other hand. These results suggest that Lid might reduce the protective immunity of cows. On the other hand, reduction of CD18, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA expression also indicates that Lid has an anti-inflammatory effect in cows.
Right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) valved conduit (RPVC) implantation decreases RV systolic pressure in pulmonic stenosis (PS) by forming a bypass route between the RV and the PA. The present study evaluates valved conduits derived from canine aortae in a canine model of PS produced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Pulmonary stenosis was elicited using PAB in 10 conditioned beagles aged 8 months. Twelve weeks after PAB, the dogs were assigned to one group that did not undergo surgical intervention and another that underwent RPVC using denacol-treated canine aortic valved grafts (PAB+RPVC). Twelve weeks later, the rate of change in the RV-PA systolic pressure gradient was significantly decreased in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (60.5 ± 16.7% vs. 108.9 ± 22.9%; p<0.01). In addition, the end-diastolic RV free wall thickness (RVFWd) was significantly reduced in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (8.2 ± 0.2 vs. 9.4 ± 0.7 mm; p<0.05). Thereafter, regurgitation was not evident beyond the conduit valve and the decrease in RV pressure overload induced by RPVC was confirmed. The present results indicate that RPVC can be performed under a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass and adapted to dogs with various types of PS, including "supra valvular" PS or PS accompanied by dysplasia of the pulmonary valve. Therefore, we consider that this method is useful for treating PS in small animals.
Heartworm infection with caval syndrome was detected in a thirteen-year-old male cat. However, removal of the heartworms via a jugular venotomy was infeasible because the size of the jugular vein limited our ability to use flexible alligator forceps. Therefore, a right atriotomy using total venous inflow occlusion was performed to remove the heartworms. The procedure was accomplished successfully, and the cat recovered from its symptoms. The present case suggests that right atriotomy using venous inflow occlusion is practical for removal and prevention of rupture of heartworms.
An 8-year-old female Persian cat with a gait disorder was brought to our hospital. Pelvic limb mobility had gradually reduced over the preceding 3 months, then rapidly deteriorated 2 weeks before consultation. Signs also occurred in the thoracic limbs. With a tentative diagnosis of neural disease, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were performed. T1-weighted imaging showed isointensity in the seventh cervical vertebra, while T2-weighted imaging revealed hypointensity. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging revealed a uniformly enhancing mass. Extirpation of the mass relieved the clinical signs, leading to disappearance of the neurological signs. The histopathological examination suggested osteosarcoma.
PCBs are persistent environmental agents that induce multiple impairments in living beings. In this study we used a transgenic mouse model (MutaTM Mouse), carrying bacterial lacZ genes for mutation assays and for assessment of the genotoxic effect of PCB126 on fetal mice. Mothers of experimental groups were subjected to a single oral dose of PCB126 (125, 250 and 500 μg/kg) on the 10th day of pregnancy, respectively. Fetuses were autopsied on the 18th day of gestation. Cleft palate was observed in 2 out of 11 fetuses from 3 litters in 500 μg/kg treated group. Other external malformations were not observed. The DNA mutation frequencies (MF) of fetuses in each group were 1.15 ± 0.24 × 10-5, 0.90 ± 0.20 × 10-5 and 1.08 ± 0.24 × 10-5 in fetuses of 125, 250 and 500 μg/kg treated groups, respectively. The MF of controls was 0.81 ± 0.22 × 10-5. There were no significant differences among the groups. However, the MF of each treated group was a little highter than that of control group. Possible relationships between PCB and its mutagenic effects in the offspring of mice are discussed.
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) is a virulent pathogen that emerged in the late 1970s, probably originating from feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) or a closely related carnivore parvovirus belonging to the feline parvovirus (FPV) subspecies. In contrast to FPLV, CPV has evolved rapidly since its emergence. The original antigenic type of CPV disappeared more than two decades ago and several new antigenic as well as genetic CPV variants have appeared and spread in the field. Both high mutation rate and positive selection of mutations in the capsid gene appear to be the driving force for such rapid evolution. In addition, genetic recombination has been assessed as a factor in parvovirus evolution. Recently, we provided the first evidence of inter-antigenic type recombination of CPV in nature. Here, an inter-FPV subspecies recombinant was revealed by analyzing the genetic data deposited in databases with several recombination detection programs, and by phylogeny. FPLV strain XJ-1, submitted by Su et al., Harbin, China in 2007 (GenBank accession no. EF988660), was most likely generated by recombination between CPV and FPLV. Its genome was generally composed of the NS1 gene of CPV origin and the VP1 gene of FPLV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between different FPV subspecies in nature. Consequently, recombination should be considered as an element in the generation and evolution of parvoviruses of the FPV subspecies.
Eleven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were reactive against the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), as seen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were obtained. All of these MAbs showed neutralizing activity (1:20,000 to 1:800,000) against the 67N strain of HEV. They also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (1:400 to 1:409,600). Western blotting tests revealed that all of these 11 MAbs were specific for the S protein of HEV. All MAbs with neutralizing activity showed the same fluorescent staining pattern. Ten-day-old mice pups were immunized with MAb, inoculated with the 105 tissue culture-infective dose of HEV at 3 days after immunization, and then examined to determine the viral inhibition. The 1:800-diluted MAb120 inhibited the viral infection in mice pups, though the 1:1,000-diluted MAb120 failed to inhibit the viral infectivity. These MAbs would be a useful tool for rapid and specific diagnosis of HEV and also for antibody-based treatment of the disease.
Ten recent isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were classified according to the growth ability and development of syncytial cytopathic effects (CPE) in Vero cells. Strains P94S, Ac96I, S124C, MD231, MS232, MSA5 and 095Cr were classified as Type 1 and exhibited hardly and did not develop CPE in Vero cells. Strains 007Lm, 009L and 011C were classified as Type 2 as grew well but failed to develop a syncytial CPE in Vero cells. A comparison of the phylogenetic trees of the H and P genes showed that all Type 1 strains belonged to the Asia 1 group and all Type 2 strains belonged to the Asia 2 group. Our findings suggest that the recent Asia 2 isolated of CDV in Japan, but not Asia 1 may grow in Vero cells, and their growth ability may be related with their molecular characteristics.
To establish replication-incompetent Ebola virus (EBOV) lacking its glycoprotein (GP), we attempted to generate a Vero cell line that constitutively expressed GP. We used a retroviral vector to transduce Vero cells with the EBOV GP gene, resulting in a high expression level of GP on the cell surface. The Vero cells expressing EBOV GP complemented the replication cycle of vesicular stomatitis virus, which lacks the essential viral glycoprotein. This cell line might be useful for basic research on EBOV GP as well as for vaccine production.