Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.
Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens, ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA, was previously constructed as a vaccine candidate for porcine pleuropneumonia. This strain was a live attenuated (∆lon∆cpxR∆asd)Salmonella as a delivery host and contained a vector containing asd. An immunological study of lymphocyte proliferation, T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the splenocytes of a mouse model was carried out after stimulation with the candidate Salmonella Typhimurium by intranasal inoculation. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 of the inoculated mice were significantly increased, and the T- and B-cell populations were also elevated. Collectively, the candidate may efficiently induce the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.
A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two monoclonal antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide with an amino-acid sequence related to the C-terminus of bovine myoglobin and the whole molecule of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-denatured bovine myoglobin was adapted for detecting bovine myoglobin in contaminated feeds. The ELISA employed bovine meat extract of a known myoglobin concentration as a calibration standard and had an limit of detection (LOD) of 3.54 ng/ml and an limit of quantification (LOQ) of 11.0 ng/ml corresponding to 0.022% and 0.067% (wt/wt) bovine meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) mixed in 20-fold-diluted feed extracts, respectively. A cut-off threshold of 20.6 ng/ml bovine myoglobin was set to simplify ELISA and facilitate quick assessment of test results without a tedious calibration process. The ELISA was able to detect bovine MBM in artificially prepared model feeds, mixed botanical feeds, mixed botanical feeds with skimmed milk, fish meal, pork meal and pork/chicken meal at 0.1% (wt/wt). It was also able to detect sheep MBM in test feeds, but showed no reactivity to swine MBM, chicken MBM, skimmed milk or gelatine of bovine origin. The advantages of this method are the quick and easy extraction protocol of proteins from test feeds, using 100 mM sodium sulphide and 0.6% sodium dodecyl sulphate in the extraction solution and the effective detection of bovine and sheep MBM at 0.1% (wt/wt).
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key factor in the development of chronic inflammation and is deeply involved in age-related and metabolic diseases development. These diseases have become a serious problem in cats. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is associated with aging and metabolism through maintaining inflammation via NF-κB. In addition, fibroblasts are considered an important factor in the development of chronic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of cat SIRT1 (cSIRT1) on NF-κB in cat fibroblast cells. The up-regulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression by p65 subunit of NF-κB and lipopolysaccharide was suppressed by cSIRT1 in cat fibroblast cells. Our findings show that cSIRT1 is involved in the suppression of inflammation in cat fibroblast cells.
By using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), the cross-sectional structures of the entire iridocorneal angle (ICA) which are unable to assess with gonioscopic examination were evaluated objectively and quantitatively in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs. The ICAs of normotensive eyes in healthy dogs with normal open angle (NOR), a predisposition to primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG) (PREDIS) and suffering from unilateral PCAG (UNI), as well as the ICAs of hypertensive eyes with acute and chronic PCAG (ACG and CRG), were assessed. The opening of the ciliary cleft in PREDIS was smaller than that in NOR. In UNI, the opening and area of the ciliary cleft were significantly decreased compared with those of NOR and PREDIS. ACG had widespread structural abnormalities including marked decrease in the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus, and a thinner sclera than those in normotensive eyes, whereas the ICA collapsed in CRG with the thinnest sclera. Medical therapy-responsive glaucomatous cases had wider ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus than unresponsive ones. These findings suggest that the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus of the ICA are key structures contributing to not only the pathophysiology of canine glaucoma but also the responsiveness to medical therapy in glaucomatous eyes, and cross-sectional entire structures of the ICA should be evaluated quantitatively with UBM when diagnosing and managing canine glaucoma.
The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (P<0.01) and 7 days (P<0.05) after OAHT than in the control group at 3 and 7 days after starting collection of blood samples. Therefore, it was shown that OAHT improved the antioxidant capacity of the horses.
Idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA) is a very common inflammatory arthropathy in the dog. Canine IPA is diagnosed mainly by detecting increased number of leukocytes in the synovial fluid (SF), which is easily influenced by glucocorticoid therapy. We obtained 31 SF samples from 24 IPA dogs prior to (n=19) and/or after (n=12) 1 to 10 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy. The SF total protein concentrations of IPA dogs were significantly higher than those of dogs with non-arthritis diseases (n=34) and healthy controls (n=10). Our data revealed that the SF total protein concentrations are not influenced by several weeks of glucocorticoid therapy. Hence, the SF total protein concentration is applicable as a diagnostic marker of canine IPA even when the patients are receiving glucocorticoid therapy.
Little information is available regarding triple-phase computed tomography (CT) of canine pancreatic insulinoma. A few case reports with small numbers of cases have indicated that hyper-attenuation in the arterial phase was a common finding on multi-phasic CT in dogs with insulinoma. Our purpose was to clarify the characteristic findings of dogs with insulinoma on triple-phase CT. Nine dogs with insulinoma that underwent triple-phase CT were included in the present study. Attenuation patterns in the arterial phase indicated hypo-attenuation in 4 cases and hyper-attenuation in 2 cases. In the remaining 3 cases, 1 case showed hypo-attenuation and 1 case showed hyper-attenuation in the pancreatic phase, and 1 case presented hyper-attenuation in the later phase. Altogether, 5 cases showed hypo and 4 cases showed hyper-attenuation in at least one phase. The enhancement pattern was homogenous in 7 cases and heterogeneous in 2 cases. Tumor margins were well-defined in 5 cases and ill-defined in 4 cases. Capsule formation was present in 5 cases and absent in 4 cases. In conclusion, it is important to note that hypo-attenuation was as common as hyper-attenuation in dogs with insulinoma in triple-phase CT in at least one phase. Additionally, mass lesions were most conspicuous not only in the arterial phase but in the pancreatic and later phases in some cases. Therefore, it is important to perform triple-phase CT and notice about variable findings for the detection of canine pancreatic insulinoma.
The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval0.5) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (P<0.001). The 95% prediction interval indicated that cows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of <0.9 mmol/l or <7.5 mg/dl, respectively). These findings indicate that hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc.
A 2-month-old male Japanese Black calf was presented with a 30-day history of progressive ataxia. Antemortem examination using computed tomography (CT) revealed narrowing of the disc spaces due to destruction of intervertebral structures between the first and second thoracic vertebrae and between the second and third thoracic vertebrae. Osteolysis was evident as irregular hypoattenuating lesions within the opposing end plates of the first, second and third thoracic vertebrae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected as the causative bacteria, and discospondylitis was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bovine case report describing the application of CT for the diagnosis of discospondylitis.
Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the “bipotential” gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XYPOS) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XYPOS mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XYPOS on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XYPOS mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XYPOS gonads occurred 2–3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XYB6 gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XYPOS, respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XYPOS. Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XYPOS testes and a male-related gene in the XYPOS ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development.
Two-day-old rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of methotrexate (MTX) 5 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, and their rostral migratory streams (RMS) were examined time-dependently. MTX treatment increased pyknotic and TUNEL-positive cells and decreased mitotic and phospho-Histone H3-positive cells at almost all time points in the vertical arm, elbow and horizontal arm regions of the RMS. There were more TUNEL-positive cells ratio in the MTX 150 mg/kg group than in the MTX 5 mg/kg group. Treatment with MTX 150 mg/kg decreased the cellularity in the vertical arm region on Postnatal day (PD) 4, but that with the MTX 5 mg/kg did not. TUNEL-positive cells ratio was the highest in the vertical arm region, followed by elbow and horizontal regions in both MTX-treated groups. TUNEL-positive cells ratio in the vertical arm and elbow regions reached their peaks on PD 4 in both MTX-treated groups, and both MTX-treatments significantly decreased Phospho-Histone H3-positive cells ratio on PDs 2.5 and 3 in the vertical arm, elbow and horizontal arm regions. The phospho-Histone H3-positive cells ratio in the vertical arm region recovered on PD4 in the MTX 150 mg/kg group. These findings suggested that RMS required a great amount of folic acid on PD 2 and that the folic acid-requirement differed depending on the anatomical region of the RMS. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the effect of MTX on the RMS and the necessity of the folic acid metabolism on RMS development in newborn rats.
Nineteen cases of histiocytic sarcomas in Pembroke Welsh Corgi were examined histopathologically. Focal or multiple masses were detected in the lung or in regional lymph nodes, or in both lung and nodes. All neoplastic lesions had common histological features characterized by the proliferation of pleomorphic histiocytic cells combined with various inflammatory cells. Most of the pleomorphic neoplastic cells were immunopositive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and Iba-1. The median survival time for all dogs was 133 days. In the present study, several prognostic factors, such as gender, age, single or multiple lesions, lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis, surgical resection status and additional chemotherapy, were examined, although none of these factors approached statistical significance. Histiocytic sarcoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with pulmonary masses, especially in the canine breed.
The common marmoset is widely used in neuroscience and regenerative medicine research. However, information concerning common marmoset disorders, particularly infectious diseases, is scarce. Here, we report a case of a female common marmoset that died suddenly due to gas gangrene. The animal presented with gaseous abdominal distention at postmortem, and Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from several tissues. Vacuoles, a Gram-positive bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis were observed microscopically in the muscles, liver and lungs. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed nontraumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in this common marmoset.
Immature T cell neoplasms in three young Holstein cattle with neoplastic involvement of the thymus are described. Case 1, with a precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia (calf form of leukosis), was an 86-day-old female calf. The leukemia was characterized by replacement of the bone marrow and spleen by leukemia cells, but preservation of epithelial frameworks throughout the thymus. The other two neoplasms were thymic γδ T cell lymphomas, which were observed in a 246-day-old steer (case 2) and a 16-month-old heifer (case 3). Histological examination revealed obliteration of the normal thymic architecture and stromal fibrosis, with the spleen and liver far less severely affected than in case 1. There were cytological differences bewteen the tumors in case 1 and cases 2 and 3. Additionally, WC1 and CD8 were expressed only in the latter. Thus, the leukemia and these lymphomas should be regarded as independent disease entities on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical characteristics.
Diaveridine (DVD) is used in combination with sulphachloropyrazine (SPZ) as an effective antibacterial agent and antiprotozoal agent, respectively, in humans and animals. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of SPZ and DVD in the food-producing animals, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine and quantify sulphachloropyrazine (SPZ) and diaveridine (DVD) suspension residues from broilers is reported. Thirty healthy chickens were orally administered with sulphachloropyrazine-diaveridine (SPZ-DVD) suspension in water of 300 mg/l (SPZ) per day for seven successive days. Six chickens per day were slaughtered at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after the last administration. This procedure permitted SPZ and DVD to be separated from muscle tissue, liver, kidneys and skin with fat after extraction with acetonitrile and acetone under slightly acidic conditions. From the detected residuals in different tissues, we found that SPZ was quickly eliminated in liver and muscle, and slowly eliminated in kidney and skin with fat. DVD was quickly eliminated in liver and slowly eliminated in kidney. The withdrawal period of SPZ was 3.26, 3.72, 4.39 and 5.43 days in muscle, liver, kidney and skin with fat, respectively. The withdrawal period of DVD was 4.77, 4.94, 6.74 and 4.58 days in muscle, liver, kidney and skin with fat, respectively. Therefore, the suggested withdrawal period for SPZ-DVD suspension should be 7 days after dosing for seven successive days.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known as a causative agent of zoonosis and food poisoning. Pigs and some species of wild animals, including wild boar, are known to be a reservoir of HEV. In this study, we investigated the situation regarding HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Serum, liver and feces samples from 68 animals were collected, and the presence or absence of HEV genomic RNA and HEV antibodies were analyzed. The viral genome was detected in samples from 7 (10.3%) animals, with all HEVs classified as genotype 3, subtype 3b. HEV antibodies were detected in samples from 28 (41%) animals. This report demonstrates for the first time the high prevalence of HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture.
Arterial blood gas analysis is an important diagnostic and monitoring tool for respiratory abnormalities. In human medicine, lung complications often occur as a result of liver disease. Although pulmonary complications of liver disease have not been reported in dogs, we have frequently encountered hypoxemia in dogs with liver disorders, especially extrahepatic biliary obstruction. In addition, respiratory disorders account for 20% of perioperative fatalities in dogs. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the respiratory status in dogs with hepatobiliary disease by arterial blood gas analysis. PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured. Alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), the indicator of gas exchange efficiency, was calculated. Compared to healthy dogs (control group), hepatobiliary disease dogs had significantly lower PaO2 and higher AaDO2. Hypoxemia (PaO2 of ≤80 mmHg) was observed in 28/71 dogs with hepatobiliary disease. AaDO2 was higher (≥30 mmHg) than the control group range (11.6 to 26.4 mmHg) in 32/71 hepatobiliary disease dogs. By classifying type of hepatobiliary disease, dogs with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and chronic hepatitis showed significantly lower PaO2 and higher AaDO2 than in a control group. Dogs with chronic hepatitis also had significantly lower PaCO2. The present study shows that dogs with hepatobiliary disease have respiratory abnormalities more than healthy dogs. Preanesthetic or routine arterial blood gas analysis is likely beneficial to detect the respiratory abnormalities in dogs with hepatobiliary disease, especially extrahepatic biliary obstruction and chronic hepatitis.
Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered.
This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression.
This study demonstrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography for large-sized splenic hemangiosarcoma. Radiography and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a large-sized soft-tissue mass in the cranial abdomen. Computed tomography showed hypoattenuating mass. The mass was located in contact with liver, spleen and stomach, and the origin of the mass remained ambiguous. The mass was T2-hyperintense and T1-hypointense with mild contrast enhancement. MRI allowed a differentiation between large-sized tumor and neighboring normal structure, and the mass was consequently identified as arising from spleen. These results suggested that MRI might be a useful tool to visualize large-sized splenic tumors and improve the accuracy of diagnosis.
A three-dimensional internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) can clarify the anatomical arrangement of internal structures of equine ovaries. In this study, morphological changes of the equine ovary over the first 12 months of life were investigated by 3D-ISM in 59 fillies and by histological analysis in 2 fillies. The weight and volume of the paired ovaries initially decreased from 0 to 1 months to 2 to 3 months of age and then significantly increased at 8 to 12 months of age. The ovulation fossa was first observed around the 3rd month and became evident after the 6th month. The number of follicles with a diameter of ≥10 mm and the diameter of the largest follicle increased gradually after 6 months of age. On a volume basis, the medulla accounted for nearly 90% of the whole ovary at 0 to 1 months of age, but significantly decreased from 2 to 3 months of age. The volume of the cortex increased progressively after birth and reached approximately 60% of the total volume at 8 to 12 months of age. This significant development of the cortex coincided with the increased number and size of large follicles observed from 6 months of age. These results suggest that the development of the cortex plays a role in the maturation of the follicles and the equine ovary undergoes substantial morphological changes postnatally until puberty.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous, single-stranded, non-coding small RNA molecules, about 19–25 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the translation level and influence many physiological process, such apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and occurrence and development of diseases. In this study, we constructed a library from the ovine luteal phase ovary by using next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique) and identified 267 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics. One of the novel miRNAs (ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p), which expressed in the sheep ovary and testis, was confirmed by real time PCR and northern blot. Ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p was 21 nucleotides in length and located on chromosome 12, and it had 100% similarity to hsa-miR-214-3p, mmu-miR-214-3p, dre-miR-214and ssc-miR-214. Meanwhile, the pre-miRNA was 82 nucleotides in length and had a standard hairpin stem-loop structure. From the consistency of the sequence and structure, we speculated that ovis_aries_ovary-m0033_3p had a function similar to hsa-miR-214-3p, which is involved in the fine regulation of cell survival, embryonic development, breeding activities and resistance to ovarian cancer, so we defined it as oar-miR-214-3p. These experimental results will enrich the miRNA database for ovis aries and provide the basis for researching the regulation mechanism of miRNA in relation to breeding activities of seasonal breeding animals.
Four dogs with poor semen quality, low seminal plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and low blood plasma testosterone (T) levels were orally administered one vitamin E tablet containing 50 mg α-tocopheryl acetate per dog daily for 4 weeks. The mean values of semen quality were temporarily improved after the start of vitamin E treatment and the values of 4, and 5 weeks after that were significantly different from those before the treatment (P<0.05–0.001). The mean blood plasma T and seminal plasma SOD activity values slightly increased in the 4 dogs after the treatment. The results of the present study indicate that poor semen quality in dogs with low seminal plasma SOD can be improved by vitamin E treatment.
The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japanese PPV3s showed a slight variation, and possibly, there were farms harboring homogeneous or heterogeneous PPV3s. Statistical analyses indicated that the detection of PCV2 was significantly coincidental with each detection of PPV, PPV2 and PPV3, and PPV and PPV4 were also coincidentally detected. The concurrent infection with PCV2 and porcine parvoviruses in the subclinically infected pigs may resemble the infection status of pigs with the clinical manifestations of porcine circovirus associated disease which occurs in 3–5 months old pigs and is thought to be primarily caused by the PCV2 infection.
The cytotoxicity of Ibaraki virus nonstructural protein NS3 was confirmed, and the contribution of glycosylation to this activity was examined by using glycosylation mutants of NS3 generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The expression of NS3 resulted in leakage of lactate dehydrogenase to the culture supernatant, suggesting the cytotoxicity of this protein. The lack of glycosylation impaired the transport of NS3 to the plasma membrane and resulted in reduced cytotoxicity. Combined with the previous observation that NS3 glycosylation was specifically observed in mammalian cells (Urata et al., Virus Research 2014), it was suggested that the alteration of NS3 cytotoxicity through modulating glycosylation is one of the strategies to achieve host specific pathogenisity of Ibaraki virus between mammals and vector arthropods.
Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, which is a zoonotic disease that affects sheep, goats, wild small ruminants and humans. Shandong Province in East China is one of the main producing areas in China for sheep and goats. Here, we conducted epidemiological surveys in different areas in this Province, isolated three orf virus strains, SDLC, SDTA and SDJN, from goat flocks and then analyzed the genetic evolution of these strains. The ORFV011, ORFV059, ORFV109, ORFV110 and ORFV127 genes of these three strains were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ORFV011 of the SDLC and SDTA strains cluster together with the Gansu, Liaoning, Shanxi, Nantou, Hoping and FJ-YX strains, while SDJN clusters with the FJ-GS and FJ-GO strains. ORFV059 of the SDLC and SDTA strains cluster together with the FJ-YX strain, while SDJN clusters with the FJ-GS and FJ-GO strains. ORFV059 and ORFV127 of these three strains were similar to those of the OV-SA00 strain. The results suggested that SDLC, SDTA and SDJN originated from Fujian Province and formed a complex group of viruses in Shandong Province. As the role of ORFV127 gene responsible for the immune evasion of ORFV, the pathogenesis of these three virus strains may similar to that of OV-SA00. These three strains first isolated in Shandong Province are novel ORFV strains, and the data reported here will be helpful for further research about ORFV and its comprehensive prevention and control.
To clarify the pathogenicity of Japanese type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate in experimentally infected pigs, we evaluated clinical signs and monitored viremia for 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lungs were mottled, tanned and reddish in appearance; had lesions predominantly in the cranial, middle and accessory lobes; and failed to collapse at 10 dpi. Although microscopic lesions of lungs were reproduced using the Japanese emerging type 1 PRRSV isolate under experimental conditions, no significant differences were noted between the challenge and control groups regarding mean rectal temperature and daily weight gain. These results provide useful insights into the limited pathogenicity of single infection with the Japanese type 1 PRRSV isolate in piglets, which differ from findings in reported field cases.
Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is a new virus species and its detection is important, since correlation has been reported between FmoPV virus infection and tubulointerstitial nephritis in cats. Here, we report a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR system that can detect the FmoPV L-gene sequence with more than 10-time higher sensitivity than a conventional PCR system, resulting in detection of less than 10 copies of the template DNA. The total FmoPV positive rate of urine samples from veterinary clinics and hospitals in Japan was 15.1% (25/166) using this system. This study demonstrates usefulness of the real-time RT-PCR system for detection of FmoPV for cat urine samples.
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide.