It is well recognized that bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neuron-like cells when supplemented with growth factors and/or chemical treatments. We demonstrated that primary MSCs obtained from adult rats could spontaneously differentiate into neural precursor cells after long-term culture. During the outset of in vitro culture, less than 0.1% of adult rat primary MSCs expressed nestin, the common protein of neural precursors. These MSCs didn't show neuronal morphology nor express neuronal antigens. In contrast, after continuous maintenance for 6 weeks, a significant subpopulation of MSCs formed cellular clumps and expressed nestin (32.3 ± 6.3%). Less than 0.1% of cells expressing immature neuron marker βIII-tubulin could be detected in these prolonged cultured MSCs. After serum deprivation and growth factor supplement, these nestin-positive cells could express neuron-like morphology and neuron-specific markers NF-H, βIII-tubulin, tau, and neurotransmitter GABA. In contrast, the MSCs without prolonged culture didn't show neuronal morphology nor neuronal markers even after serum withdrawal and growth factors stimulation. These results demonstrated that neural precursors could be obtained from long-term cultured MSCs, and suggested that MSCs should be useful as a potential source for treatment of neurological disease.
Porcine edema disease (ED) is caused by Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). ED has become frequent in pig farms, and the use of antimicrobials has resulted in the development of antimicrobial-resistant STEC. Accordingly, the use of materials other than antimicrobials is requested for the prevention of ED. Oral administration of a heat-killed and dried cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12) to weaning pigs was previously demonstrated to decrease animal mortality in a STEC-contaminated farm at 0.05% (w/w) dose level. In this study, pigs experimentally infected with STEC were used as a model for ED to evaluate the low dose level of EC-12 to prevent ED. Fifteen 21-day-old pigs were divided into 5 groups: STEC challenge with the basal diet, STEC challenge with EC-12 supplemented at 0.005, 0.01, or 0.05% (w/w) to the basal diet, and no STEC challenge with the basal diet. The challenge was carried out when the animals were 25, 26, and 27 days old using STEC contained in capsules resistant against gastric digestion. All pigs were euthanized at 32 days of age. The daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and palpebral edema were improved by supplementation with 0.05% EC-12, but not by the low dose levels. Accordingly, 0.05% level of supplementation was needed for EC-12 to improve clinical symptoms in weaning piglets infected by STEC.
The shape and neuronal number of the inferior olivary complex (IOC) were determined in the water buffalo (Buballus bubalis). The configuration and interrelations of the IOC compartments were ascertained by investigating serial sections through the whole rostro-caudal extent of the IOC. Nissl-stained celloidin sections of six water buffalo's brainstems were used. The IOC in the water buffalo consisted of three major nuclei and four small cell groups. The medial accessory olivary nucleus (MAO) had the longest rostro-caudal extent as well as the highest number of neurons (98,000 ± 3,000). Although the total area of the principal olivary nucleus (PO) was smaller than the area of the dorsal accessory olivary nucleus (DAO), the PO had the second largest neuronal number. The total number of neurons on both sides of the IOC was 210,000 ± 7,000 cells. The average neuronal density was 3,000 cells/mm3. Although the size of the PO relatively increases while the size of MAO decreases with the development of the cerebellar hemispheres, the IOC in most mammals maintains a similar structure except for the higher primates and marsupials. The water buffalo IOC showed morphological similarities to the almost all mammalian IOC including rats as follow; the main part of the MAO consists of three subgroups (a, b and c), the DAO is Boomerang-shaped while the PO is a simple U-shaped structure.
The geographical variation of the gray-bellied squirrel (Callosciurus caniceps) was examined using osteometry of skull in Southeast Asia. From the principal component analysis (PCA), the plots of the northern localities from Nan to Kanchanaburi and those of the southern localities from Narathiwat to Kuala Lumpur in male were completely separated. In female, the plots of the locality from Uttradit to Kanchanaburi and those of the locality from Pattani to Negri Sembilan were completely separated. We called these northern localities and southern localities which are distinguished by the PCA as N group and S group. The size and shape of the skulls of these squirrels indicated the differences between N group and S group from t-test and U-test. These results may be influenced by the two transitions of the phytogeography around the southernmost locality in N group and the northernmost locality in S group in the peninsular Thailand and Malay Peninsula. Localities which are located between N and S groups were called the Middle (M) group. From the PCA among N, S groups and each locality of M group, the plots of localities such as Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Trang in both sexes of M group could not be separated from those of N and S groups. We suggest that the sympatric distribution of N and S groups and the hybrid of N and S populations may be seen in these localities of M group.
The innervation pattern of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) nerves in the quail internal carotid artery (ICA) and cerebral arterial tree was investigated and compared with that of acetylcholinesterase-positive (AChE-P) nerves. The supply of VIP-IR nerves to the two arterial systems was distinctly richer than that of AChE-P nerves. It was focused mainly on the walls from the distal ICA to the caudal half of the anterior ramus (AR) through the cerebral carotid artery (CCA). Indeed, double staining clearly showed that numerous VIP+/AChE-axons were distributed over these arterial regions where VIP+/AChE+ or AChE+/VIP- axons were sporadic or often lacking. The finding that nerve bundles accompanying the ICA within the carotid canal contained abundant VIP+/AChE- nerve cells suggests that cerebrovascular VIP-IR nerves in the quail have their major source at these neurons and enter the cranial cavity through the CCA. Another significant finding was that a small number of nerve cells, which were mostly stained for AChE alone and occasionally for VIP alone or both, occurred in the major arteries located more rostral than the middle AR. Thus, the quail cerebral arterial tree, at least the rostral segment of the anterior circulation, is multiply innervated by these three distinct categories of the extracranial and intracranial VIP-IR and AChE-P neurons.
Our previous study clarified that the apical regions of both the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches and the intestinal villi are the only adhesion sites of indigenous bacteria in rat jejuno-ileum. To survey the ligands against bacterial lectins, sugar expression patterns on epithelial cells were lectin-histochemically investigated using 21 lectins in the jejuno-ileal Peyer's patches of rats. As a result, (D-glcNAc)2-4, detected by Solanum tuberosum (STL) and by Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL), and β-D-gal(1-3)-D-galNAc detected by Peanut agglutinin (PNA), were strongly expressed on the brush borders of the apical regions of the FAE and the intestinal villi. On the other hand, neither sugar was expressed on the brush borders of the basal regions of both FAE and intestinal villi. The positive intensities for the lectins correlated with the progression of epithelial apoptosis in the FAE and in the intestinal villi. Moreover, the double staining with lectin histochemical method and the in situ nick end-labeling method could simultaneously detect the strong expression of both sugars and nuclear DNA fragmentation in epithelial cells at the late apoptotic stage. Other sugar expression patterns in the intestinal villi were similar with those in the FAE. There were no lectins specific for M cells in the FAE. From these findings, the possible sugars of ligands against some indigenous bacterial lectins, expressing specially on the apoptotic epithelial cells, might be narrowed down in rat jejuno-ileum.
Heated and hydrated naturally occurring dolomite showed very strong antiviral activity. Infectivity of avian and human influenza, avian infectious bronchitis (coronavirus), Newcastle disease (paramyxovirus) and avian laryngotracheitis (herpesvirus) viruses dropped at least 1,000 fold following contact with the dolomite for five minutes at 4°C. Dolomite is expected to be useful to inhibit the incidence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
The acoustic mode is the most reasonable means for social animals such as dolphins to maintain contact in the underwater habitat, and has been developed since they moved to the sea. This study investigates variations in dolphin vocalizations under the following conditions in a captive environment: 1) before feeding (Pre-feeding), 2) during feeding (Feeding), 3) during free time without the presence of people (Free), 4) during interaction with people located upon a float (Float), 5) during interaction with people in the water (Water). During the experiments, a total of 2642 whistles were extracted from sonogram data using a spectrogram. About 44% of the total whistles were observed during Pre-feeding (1171/2642), and the number recorded during Free, when people were absent, was the smallest. The acoustic contours of dolphin whistles differed in different situations: convex, wave, and trill whistles were made repeatedly during Pre-feeding, thereby being more common at this time than at other times. The situation of Feeding saw an increased number of Upsweeps, which might be related to the use of echolocation. The lower frequencies were recorded during Pre-feeding, reflecting the emotion related to the dolphin's hunger. The results of this study indicate that dolphins increase their vocalization during interaction with people, suggesting that interactions with dolphins provide an effective treatment for human health problems, which is discussed with a reference article in this study. Vocal data obtained during contact with humans might serve as an important index for the dolphin-assisted therapy.
Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulating food intake and energy expenditure, has been shown to directly modulate human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions or indirectly through the action of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Bovine PMN have considerable different characteristics from human PMN. For example, it does not respond to N-formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-phenylalanine, a well known human PMN activator. In the present study, we tested the effects of leptin and TNF-α on superoxide production and degranulation of bovine peripheral PMN, in which both long isoform of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and TNF receptor 1 were expressed. Human leptin, human TNF-α, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan particles (OZP) did not stimulate degranulation responses, while zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) did. Neither leptin nor TNF-α enhanced the ZAS-induced degranulation responses. TNF-α, PMA, OZP and ZAS increased superoxide production in different magnitudes, whereas leptin did not. TNF-α, but not leptin, enhanced OZP- and ZAS-induced superoxide production, possibly, in part due to facilitating translocation of p47phox, a component of NADPH oxidase. These results indicate that, unlike in human PMN, leptin does not have any direct effect on degranulation and superoxide production in bovine PMN, although TNF-α influences superoxide production.
Two experiments were used to examine the potential role of IFN-γ in chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). First, chickens were infected with REV and/or MDV at 5 days of age and examined from 3 to 50 days post-infection (dpi). In REV+MDV co-infection chickens, IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated a 3-fold increase at 7 dpi compared to the controls, while REV alone caused a 5-fold increase, the IFN-γ levels peaked, and then gradually decreased. IFN-γ levels significantly decreased in MDV infection at 3 dpi and 15 dpi. Second, experiments were designed to determine the effects of different viruses and ConA on IFN-γ production. For REV- or MDV- infected chickens, the IFN-γ levels decreased slightly after adding ConA. This is the first report of IFN-γ production in SPF chickens infected with REV and MDV measured by directly quantitative method.
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and bovine conglutinin (BKg) belong to the collectin family, which is involved in first-line host defense against various infectious agents. We have previously reported that human MBL inhibited type A influenza viral hemagglutination, infection and spreading to adjacent cells without complement activation. In this study, we investigated the direct antiviral activities of bovine MBL, rabbit MBL and BKg. All collectins used in this study inhibited viral infectivity and hemagglutination at concentrations of 0.02-0.3 μg/ml. They also demonstrated inhibitory activity against viral spreading. Like human MBL, bovine MBL and BKg showed antiviral activities at their physiological concentrations. These results suggest that mammalian MBLs and BKg may inhibit the spread of influenza A virus through the bloodstream.
The left ventricular (LV) Tei index (index of myocardial performance) has been demonstrated to be clinically useful in estimating comprehensive LV function, including the systolic and diastolic performances, in various human cardiac diseases. The purposes of this study were to validate the correlation between the LV Tei index and LV function obtained by cardiac catheterization in healthy dogs, and to evaluate the LV Tei index in dogs with naturally occurring mitral regurgitation (MR). In healthy dogs, the LV Tei index was significantly correlated with the LV peak +dP/dt (r = -0.89) and LV peak -dP/dt (r=0.87). The LV Tei index significantly increased in dogs with MR compared with normal dogs and significantly increased with progressively more severe clinical signs due to heart failure. The elevation of the LV Tei index in dogs with symptomatic MR appears to be associated with shortening of ejection time. The LV Tei index significantly increased with age and was not correlated with heart rate and body weight in normal dogs. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the LV Tei index was measurable in dogs and not influenced by heart rate and body weight. The LV Tei index significantly increased with the progression of clinical signs in MR dogs. In particular, the elevation of the LV Tei index in dogs with symptomatic MR due to shortening of ejection time may suggest LV systolic dysfunction and the decrement of forward stroke volume.
In the present study, we examined whether mildly altering dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) contributes to the prevention of milk fever in dairy cows. Thirty multiparous cows and ten primiparous cows (heifer group) were used in this study and the multiparous cows were randomly divided into three groups of ten animals each (anion, non-anion and control groups). The cows in the anion group were given supplemental salts that slightly lowered DCAD. These salts consisted of 115 g of CaCO3, 42 g of CaHPO4, 65 g of MgSO4·7H2O and 80 g of CaCl2·2H2O as a daily dose for each cow, using a catheter from 21 days before the expected date of parturition until parturition. The cows in the non-anion group were given only the same Ca, Mg and ip supplement but no sulfate and chloride salts as that in the anion group. The cows in the control and heifer groups were not given any additional supplement. The incidence of hypocalcemia in the anion group decreased to approximately half of those in the non-anion and control groups, while the heifer group did not develop hypocalcemia at all. In addition, the number of days spent for the treatment of hypocalcemia and the number of drug bottles (calcium borogluconate solution) used for the treatment decreased to less than half in the anion group compared with those in the non-anion and control groups. At parturition, the serum Ca concentration in the control (6.2 ± 1.9 mg/dl, mean ± standard deviation) and non-anion groups (6.4 ± 1.7 mg/dl) were significantly lower than that in the heifer group (8.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl), and the level in the anion group was intermediate (7.3 ± 1.3 mg/dl). The change in ionized Ca concentration was almost the same as that in serum Ca concentration, but only the concentration in the anion group tended to increase slightly from a week before parturition and was significantly higher than that in all other groups three days before parturition. Urinary pH in the anion group was maintained at a mildly acidic level (6.8-7.0) for the last two weeks before parturition, compared with those in the control (7.3-7.5) and non-anion groups (7.9-8.1), and similar to that in the heifer group (6.3-7.3). The urinary Ca excretion was the highest in the anion group among all groups during the prepartum period. There were no specific changes in the excretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in all groups of multiparous cows while the levels of these hormones remained low in the heifer group throughout the experimental period. The data in the present study indicates that the administration of anion salts that slightly lowered DCAD in the preparum period was effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. Safe and mild metabolic acidosis induced by the anion salts could be evaluated by urinary pH (6.8-7.0), and might increase the responsiveness to Ca requirement at parturition through some complex mechanisms unrelated to the excretion of Ca-related hormones. In addition, it was clarified that primiparous cows have a high potential to respond to sudden Ca demand unrelated to hormone excretion, and their Ca metabolism was in some respects similar to that in multiparous cows fed anion salts. Therefore, manipulating mildly DCAD is expected to be an effective, safe and natural method for preventing milk fever in dairy cows.
A 10-year-old Maltese dog was presented with abdominal distention and dyspnea. Cytological examination of pleural and peritoneal effusion was suggestive of malignant effusion of glandular origin. Numerous, multifocal, tan to white nodules were disseminated throughout the surface of the abdominal organs and peritoneum at biopsy. Histologically, the tumors were revealed to be an epithelial type of mesothelioma. Neoplastic cells co-expressed cytokeratin and vimentin. Intravenous administration of cisplatin was chosen as the treatment. During treatment, the dog's overall body condition improved and the clinical signs were relieved without significant side effects. The survival time from diagnosis to sudden death by unknown cause was 153 days.
To evaluate the effects of a new synbiotic consisting of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei (Lcc) and dextran (Dex) on milk production, a total of 58 Holstein dairy cows, which became pregnant and gave birth to calves at regular intervals and lactated steadily and continuously, were selected. The study had a completely randomized design, and the animals were divided into two groups. Group A was fed with a basic diet only, and Group B was fed with a basic diet supplemented with the synbiotic consisting of freeze-dried Lcc and mixed feed containing Dex for one year from August 2004. After supplementation with the synbiotic, milk yields and components of Group B were compared with those of Group A in the August, December of 2004, April and August of 2005. Milk yields of Group B were greater than those of Group A. There were significant differences (p<0.01 or 0.05) between these groups for all values. Furthermore, total amounts of fat, protein and solid non-fat in Group B significantly increased in comparison with those of Group A. In addition, the somatic cell counts of Group A significantly increased in August of 2004 and 2005 in comparison with those of Group B. Thus, the new synbiotic consisting of Lcc and Dex can increase the milk production of Holstein dairy cows throughout the year.
Anti-copper treatments have been investigated to determine whether they suppress angiogenesis and tumor development since Cu is widely accepted as being required for angiogenesis. We examined the effects of treatment with trientine, a copper-chelating agent, on tumor development in a murine xenograft model using fibrosarcoma-derived transplantable QRsp-11 cells and C57BL/6 mice and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. The tumor volumes increased more slowly in trientine-treated mice than in untreated mice. Tumor volumes in the treated mice were significantly smaller than those in the untreated mice at 24 days postinoculation (d.p.i.) of tumor cells. A cluster of pyknotic tumor cells and morphological abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells were observed in the tumors of trientine-treated mice but not in the tumors of untreated mice. The proportions of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumors of treated mice were approximately 3.5-fold higher than those in the tumors of untreated mice at 14 d.p.i. When the cells were treated with trientine in vitro, mouse endothelial cells and bovine primary endothelial cells showed an approximately 10-fold higher sensitivity to trientine than QRsp-11 cells in terms of D37. However, the proportion of apoptotic cells in endothelial cells was significantly lower than that in QRsp-11 cells after treatment with trientine. These results show that apoptosis was induced in tumor cells by treatment with trientine in vivo and in vitro.
DNA from several isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Within the six wild isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis from Norway rats in Hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. In the case of E. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected from Hokkaido, showed the same fingerprinting pattern. These results indicate that there was very little genetic difference among these isolates. Although the fingerprinting pattern of E. multilocularis from St. Lawrence Is. was similar to that of the Hokkaido isolates, some bands were different from those in the Hokkaido isolates. Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido seems to be closely-related genetically to that from St. Lawrence Is.
In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution and seasonality of Leucocytozoon lovati infection in the Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus japonicus); this bird is one of the special natural monuments of Japan that inhabits the Japanese alpine regions. We examined blood samples from birds captured in the Kubiki, Hida, and Akaishi mountain ranges for three years from 2002 to 2005. Seventy-three blood samples from 42 males, 19 females, and 12 birds of unknown sex were used for this study. The rate of infection with L. lovati was 78.1% in the 73 birds examined. We demonstrated that the L. lovati infection was distributed across wide ranges of ptarmigan populations from the northern to the southern alpine zones. There was no sex bias in the prevalence ratio. The prevalence of L. lovati and the level of parasitization of the blood cells tended to increase from spring through summer; in contrast, a decrease was observed from summer through autumn. Although L. lovati infection was observed in a number of local populations inhabiting three mountainous regions, no infected birds were found in Mt. Johnen-dake and Mt. Maejohnen-dake. It is necessary to continue surveying the relationship between the population dynamics of the ptarmigan and the density of the arthropod vector from the perspective of in situ conservation of this endangered species.
A 6-year-old, mixed breed, intact male dog showed signs of left carpal joint swelling and weakness of the forelimbs one month before presentation. The symptoms gradually progressed to bilateral carpal and tarsal joint swelling and tetraparalysis. There were a number of radiographically identified lytic-proliferative bone lesions noted on the axial skeleton. Hypertrophic osteopathy of the metacarpi and all distal long bones was also evident. Because of the deteriorating quality of life and guarded prognosis, the patient was euthanized and a complete necropsy was performed. Renal cell carcinoma, with metastasis to the lung, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and the right adrenal gland, was diagnosed. To our knowledge, renal cell carcinoma with bone metastases and hypertrophic osteopathy has not been reported in dogs.
Cellular drug resistance to antineoplastic drugs is often due to the presence of a drug efflux pump that reduces intracellular drug accumulation and chemosensitivity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene, is considered to function as an ATP-driven membrane drug efflux pump and appears to play an important role in tumor cell resistance. In the present report, we assessed the expression of MDR1 by RT-PCR in three canine mast cell tumor cell lines, TiMC, CoMS and LuMC, originating from a cutaneous tumor, an oral-mucosal tumor and a gastrointestinal tumor, respectively. P-gp expression was also examined by Western blot analysis, while the functional activity of P-gp was assessed by flowcytometric analysis of intracellular rhodamine-123 (Rhd-123) uptake. The results revealed that MDR1 gene and P-gp were both expressed in CoMS and LuMC cells, whereas neither was present in TiMC cells. In CoMS and LuMC cells, intracellular uptake of Rhd-123 increased in the presence of verapamil, a functional modulator of P-gp. In contrast, TiMC cells did not show any changes in the intracellular accumulation of Rhd-123 after the verapamil addition. These findings suggest that the expressions of MDR1 gene and P-gp probably contribute to cellular drug resistance in canine mast cell tumors.
We measured the blood plasma testosterone (T) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the seminal plasma of the ejaculates of 5 normal (2-5 years old) and 5 asthenozoospermic (AZ-) (3-5 years old) Beagles. Sperm ejaculated by AZ-dogs was incubated for 3 hr in Eagle's MEM only (controls) or Eagle's MEM containing 100 units/ml of SOD or catalase. Sperm motility was examined during incubation. The mean (± SE) plasma T level of the AZ-dogs (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in the normal dogs (2.5 ± 0.2 ng/ml) (P<0.005). The mean (± SE) seminal plasma SOD and catalase activities (18.8 ± 1.9 and 0.5 ± 0.1 unit/g protein, respectively) were significantly lower in the AZ-dogs than in the normal dog (43.3 ± 2.5 and 2.2 ± 0.4 unit/g protein, respectively) (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively). The motility of sperm incubated in Eagle's MEM containing SOD or catalase was significantly higher than that of control sperm incubated in only Eagle's MEM after 2 or 3 hr of incubation (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that poor T secretion by the testes and low antioxidant enzyme activities are related to AZ in the dog.