The placenta produces several growth factors, including placenta growth factor (PlGF), which are essential for placenta growth and fetal growth. Diabetic pregnancy induces the abnormal placental growth and fetal development. This study investigated whether diabetes in pregnant rats induces changes in PlGF expression in the placenta. Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight) on day 0 of pregnancy, blood and tissue samples were collected on day 20 of pregnancy. In the diabetic group, maternal body weight and fetal weight significantly decreased compared to controls. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that expression of PlGF was significantly decreased in placenta by streptozotocin treatment. Immunohistochemical study showed that the positive signal of PlGF in trophoblast cells was decreased in the diabetic group compared to controls. These findings demonstrate the decline of PlGF in the placenta in diabetic pregnancy.
Diabetic disease is known to suppress male reproductive activity in laboratory animals and humans. The present study was designed to evaluate whether streptozotocin-induced diabetes increases apoptotic cell death in rat testes through activation of the JNK and Bax pathway. Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and testis samples were collected after 3 months. Compared with controls, body weight and testicular weight were lower in the diabetic group, and the apoptotic index in testicular germ cells was significantly increased. Expression of phospho-JNK and Bax was significantly increased in the diabetic group, and the level of activated caspase-3 was also increased, compared to that of controls. Our findings suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increases apoptotic cell death in rat testes through phosphorylation of JNK and activation of Bax.
An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain isolated from a field case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan, was closely related to a reference strain of serovar 15, which is a newly proposed serovar according to an analysis of field isolates originating from Australia. The isolate had biological and biochemical properties consistent with A. pleuropneumoniae biovar 1, and reacted strongly to a rabbit antiserum raised against a reference strain of serovar 15 in an agar gel precipitation test. The nucleotide sequence of a hyper variable region in the 16S RNA gene of the isolate was identical to that of the reference strain of serovar 15. The isolate possessed A. pleuropneumoniae-RTX toxin (Apx) II, III, and IV genes, consistent with serovar 15. Its virulence in mice was lower than that of ApxI-bearing strains but higher than that of other ApxIII-bearing strains. This is the first report describing the isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 15-like strain from a country or region other than Australia.
Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, has been shown to be of clinical importance in several diseases in humans. To investigate whether ADA is of any clinical significance in cats, plasma adenosine deaminase (P-ADA) and T cell adenosine deaminase (T-ADA) activities were measured in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) negative and positive cats. The AIDS-related complex (ARC) group showed a significant elevation in P-ADA activity compared to the asymptomatic carrier (AC), and FIV-negative groups (P<0.005). T-ADA activity was significantly elevated in FIV-positive cats compared to the FIV-negative group (P<0.05) and this elevation was attributed to the increase in the ARC group (P<0.01). A correlation was found between P-ADA and T-ADA activities in the FIV-negative group. T-ADA activity and CD4+cell number showed a strong negative correlation in FIV-positive cats (P<0.0005). CD4+ cell numbers were significantly reduced in the ARC group compared to the healthy controls (P<0.005). Our results showed that T-ADA is increased in FIV-positive cats during the ARC stage. These results also suggest that ADA may be an indicator of T cell activation in the ARC stage of FIV infection.
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is one of the most attractive immunotherapies for malignancies in dogs. To examine the differences in DC-mediated immune responses from different types of malignancies in dogs, we vaccinated dogs using autologous DCs pulsed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and cell lysate prepared from squamous cell carcinoma SCC2/88 (SCC-KLH-DC), histiocytic sarcoma CHS-5 (CHS-KLH-DC), or B cell leukemia GL-1 (GL-KLH-DC) in vitro. In vivo inductions of immune responses against these tumor cells were compared by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. The DTH response against SCC2/88 cells were observed in dogs vaccinated with autologous SCC-KLH-DC, while the response was undetectable against CHS-5 and GL-1 cells in dogs vaccinated with autologous CHS-KLH-DC and GL-KLH-DC. Skin biopsies taken from DTH challenge sites were then examined for immunohistochemistry, and recruitment of CD8 and CD4 T cells was detected at the site where SCC2/88 cells were inoculated in dogs vaccinated with SCC-KLH-DC. By contrast, neither CD8 nor CD4 T cell infiltration was found at the DTH challenge site in the dogs vaccinated with CHS-KLH-DC or GL-KLH-DC. These findings may reflect that the efficacy of immune induction by DC vaccination varies among tumor types and that immune responses could be inducible in squamous cell carcinoma. Our results encouraged further investigation of therapeutic vaccination for dogs with advanced squamous cell carcinoma in clinical trials.
An 8-year-old female Golden Retriever had an oral mass and lameness. Multiple osteolysis of the systemic skeleton without monoclonal gammopathy was shown on electrophoresis of serum and urine samples. Cytological and histopathological examinations of the oral mass revealed atypical polymorphic cells similar to myeloid cells, and bone marrow aspiration indicated that these abnormal cells also might have invaded the bone marrow. These cells were negative to peroxidase and non-specific esterase staining, and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for antigen receptor gene rearrangement. The case was diagnosed as atypical lymphoma and treated by multi-drug chemotherapy. On the 142nd day after the first admission, the case had remission and the oral mass and multiple osteolysis were improved.
The aim of the study was to determine parameters reflecting equine anxiety trait by comparing results obtained in a behavior test and an anxiety score assessed by familiar caretakers in response to a questionnaire. In the behavior test, horses were individually led into a novel room by their caretakers and loosely tethered to decrease excessive movement using the common cross-tying technique with two leads and breakable plastic cords. The horses initially remained with their caretaker for 2 min; the caretaker then left and the subject animal was left alone for 2 min. The latency to break the plastic cords, heart rate, the number of steps and pawings were recorded. When the horses were left alone, most parameters changed significantly and some showed sexual differences. A correlation analysis revealed that anxiety score assessed by caretakers showed a negative correlation with the latency to break the plastic cord and a positive correlation with heart rate only when horses were isolated. These two were suggested feasible parameters for assessing the anxiety trait of unfamiliar horses. Both the behavioral results and the anxiety scores also indicated that females were more anxious than males. Our results suggest that it would be a useful strategy for assessing other temperament traits as well to combine behavior tests with a questionnaire survey.
In the course of investigations on anorexia during infection, I found that B6-Ay mice had significantly increased sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethality as compared with isogenic B6 mice. I also found that the sensitivity to the lethal effect of LPS dramatically increased in aged mice (age effect), both B6 and B6-Ay. However, the Ay effect of enhancing sensitivity to LPS-induced lethality was still significant, suggesting that the Ay effect is independent of age. In the absence of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), the Ay effect was still significant, suggesting that the Ay effect is independent of TNFα toxicity. A dose of LPS of 100 μg per mouse caused 15% lethality in B6, 65% in B6-Ay (significantly higher than B6), and 100 % in leptin-deficient B6-ob/ob (significantly higher than B6 and B6-Ay). The results support the hypothesis that endogenous leptin has a protective role against infection, and that a part of this leptin effect is mediated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). In contrast to the results of simple blockade at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), B6-Ay suffered more severe LPS-induced anorexia than did B6; therefore, the pathway involving MC4R is not absolutely required for the LPS-induced anorexia, and the presence of pathways involving other melanocortin receptor types was suggested. Because αMSH is suggested to be an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide, and because melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is expressed in various cutaneous cell types, the Ay effect might be caused via the pathway involving MC1R. Physiologic significance of αMSH-MC1R interaction in host defense against infection is discussed.
The effects of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506 on the mRNA expressions of various cytokines were evaluated in dogs to determine whether the effects of CsA and FK506 in dogs were similar to those in humans. The mRNA expression levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured in PHA-stimulated canine PBMC using real-time RT-PCR after incubation with CsA or FK506 for 5 hr. Both reagents inhibited IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, CsA hardly inhibited the mRNA expression of TNF-α. These findings are important for assessing the indications of CsA treatment in dogs.
We investigated the relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and serum levels of some diagnostic biochemical markers in 118 lactating Holstein cows. Blood sample was collected once from each cow and we measured the plasma vitamin C concentration and the serum levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase. The regression of plasma vitamin C with each serum diagnostic biochemical marker indicated that the vitamin C concentration significantly decreased as glucose, alkaline phosphatase or aspartate aminotransferase level increased and as total cholesterol or albumin concentration decreased. Furthermore, the plasma vitamin C concentration was significantly lower in the cows showing that each of these marker levels was out of its reference interval than in the cows showing that the marker level was within its reference interval. The significant correlations were observed among total cholesterol, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, to which the glucose concentration was not related. These results showed that the plasma vitamin C concentration was low in the cows that had concurrently low levels of total cholesterol and albumin, and high levels of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase. Therefore, a hepatic malfunction possibly decreases plasma vitamin C concentration through suppressing vitamin C production. On the other hand, the high level of glucose possibly decreases plasma vitamin C concentration through suppressing vitamin C recycling.
In this study, a retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the current aspects and predisposing factors of canine sterile panniculitis. Miniature dachshund, neutered, and younger dogs appeared to be predisposed. In addition, histories of previous surgery and injection were associated in 46.5% of the cases, with several types of surgical suture materials used. About 88% of the dogs had multifocal lesions, frequently with signs of systemic illnesses. Whereas systemic immunosuppressive therapy was effective in most dogs, surgical excision of lesions was rarely curative. In order to prevent recurrences, over 65% of the cases required prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. Polymorphism of canine α1AT gene was investigated as a candidate gene for sterile panniculitis. Eight polymorphisms were discovered in seven Miniature dachshunds by direct nucleotide sequencing, which included a 12-bp deletion, three non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, and four silent substitutions. Genotyping of the two polymorphisms, c.109_120del12 and c.483A>C, which identified at high incidence in the dachshunds, was conducted in 83 dogs of 6 popular breeds. The frequencies of neither polymorphism differed between Miniature dachshunds and other breeds, suggesting that neither is responsible for developing panniculitis.
Preemptive analgesia is recommended in small animal medicine. However, many studies have evaluated the response to analgesic treatment by behavioral observation. Therefore, the influence of preemptive analgesia with meloxicam on postoperative cardiovascular and renal parameters remains to be clarified. The present study examined the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, double product and heart rate variability for 14 days and the changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum cortisol level for 24 hr after resection of the unilateral mammary gland in meloxicam and control groups consisting of 5 healthy dogs. All data were collected under unanesthetized and unrestrained conditions using a radio telemetry system. Blood pressure, heart rate and double product were significantly lower in the meloxicam compared with the control group, and the meloxicam group's diurnal changes became stable more than 36 hr earlier than those of the control group. The systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure values of the meloxicam group were 5- to 20-mm Hg lower than those of the control group until 5 days after surgery. The maximum difference between the two groups in terms of the double product values 14 days after surgery was 2,000 bpm × mmHg. Autonomic activity inhibition was prolonged in the control group. There were no significant differences in the 24-hr changes in GFR or serum cortisol level. This study showed that perioperative administration of meloxicam reduced unfavorable postoperative changes in the cardiovascular system without influencing renal function.
Three dogs were presented to us for evaluation of cardiac problems. Electrocardiographic recordings revealed severe tachyarrhythmia and atrial fibrillation with ventricular tachycardia in 2 of the 3 dogs. The echocardiographic findings of the 3 dogs revealed markedly decreased fractional shortening and a marked increase in E-point septal separation. Based on the results of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation, the 3 dogs were diagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The dogs were treated with conventional cardiac medication, but cardiac function did not improve and the clinical signs remained. We subsequently attempted treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; 10 μg/kg, subcutaneously). The specific purpose of G-CSF therapy for DCM was to improve cardiac function and a significant improvement in cardiac function was confirmed. The three dogs had no treatment side effects. This case report suggests that G-CSF might have therapeutic effects for medically refractory DCM in dogs.
We retrospectively examined clinical data for 12 dogs in which echocardiography revealed the presence of left ventricular moderator bands (LMB). Physical examinations, electrocardiography and echocardiography revealed slight cardiac murmurs, increasing QRS complex and left ventricular turbulent flow (6 of the dogs), respectively. No differences were observed with respect to gender, and no specific clinical symptoms or types of dog that frequently develop this disorder were found.
A propionate tolerance test (PTT) was used to determine the pathophysiology of a Japanese Black steer with hyperglycemia. In the hyperglycemic steer, a low insulin secretion was confirmed by a glucose tolerance test (GTT), so that the hyperglycemic steer was diagnosed as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although the plasma insulin concentration in the control cattle increased in response to propionate stimulation, a low insulin response to PTT was observed in the diabetic steer. The fact that both PTT and GTT determined that the diabetic steer had low insulin secretion suggests that the PTT might be an effective diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus in cattle.
Soft feces and a decreased delivery rate were observed in a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C3H-scid mouse breeding colony. Grossly, the ceca were shrunken and edematous in the affected mice. Histopathologically, severe edema in the cecal submucosa as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ceca and colon were observed. No pathogenic microorganisms were detected by the routine microbiological tests. By anaerobic bacterial-examination, Clostridium (C.) difficile with toxin A was isolated from the cecal contents of the affected mice. The mice were diagnosed with C. difficile-associated colitis. This case appears to be the first report of natural infection with C. difficile in SPF mice with clinical signs.
To examine the tumor modification activity of kojic acid (KA) by sodium ascorbic acid (AA), 5-week-old male ICR mice were administered intraperitoneally with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after the initiation treatment, animals were fed basal diet containing 0 (Group 1: DEN alone) or 3% KA (Group 3: DEN+KA), drinking water containing 5,000 ppm AA (Group 2: DEN+AA) or 3% KA and 5,000 ppm AA (Group 4: DEN+KA+AA) for 6 weeks. One week after the administration of KA and/or AA, all mice were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy. At the end of the experimental period, all surviving mice were sacrificed and removed the liver. The liver weights of the Groups 3 and 4 were significantly increased, and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes and the gene expressions of Ccnc, Ccnd1, Ercc and Cyp7a1 were significantly increased in the Group 4, as compared to the Group 1. These results of the present study suggest that AA enhances the hepatocellular proliferative activity of KA in mice.
In a pet rabbit, 2 tumor masses one on each horn were macroscopically seen in the wall of the uterus. On light microscopic examination, the right horn mass consisted of an admixture of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal element. The epithelial element was composed of neoplastic epithelial cells with numerous mitotic figures and formed varied sizes of acini, glandular, and solid structures. The tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The mesenchymal element was composed of well-differentiated smooth muscle cells and was diagnosed as a leiomyoma. While adenocarcinoma cells formed a protrusive mass in the uterine lumen, they also showed an extension into the leiomyoma of the myometrium. By immunohistochemistry, adenocarcinoma stained positive for cytokeratin (MNF116) and leiomyoma stained positive for smooth muscle actin, showing a substantial difference in the cytological nature of these tumor cells. The results may give a further evidence supporting the narrative of the tumor development that an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium extended into leiomyoma of the uterus. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing this type of combination of two independent tumors in a pet rabbit.
In 57 Holstein cows where the dairy farm uses a milking parlor system, the somatic cell count (SCC) increased persistently in the bulk milk (monthly mean 52.3 × 104 cells/ml; range 21 to 94 × 104 cells/ml). We detected S. aureus in 24 (41.2%) of the 54 lactating cows and in 29 (12.8%) of 227 quarters of the 57 milking cows in the herd. A control program was implemented in an effort to eradicate S. aureus mastitis from this dairy farm. The control plan established improved handling of the lactating cows, improved milking procedures, dry-cow therapy, and culling of infected cows. The program was monitored for 3.5 years by frequent checkups on the rate of S. aureus infection, the SCC, and the changes in milk composition. Eighteen months after the control program was started, the rate of S. aureus infection in the quarter milk decreased dramatically, and no S. aureus isolates were found in the milk of the remaining cows. The SCC in the bulk milk of the herd dropped to a monthly mean of <20 × 104 cells/ml. In conclusion, the control program was effective for controlling persistent S. aureus mastitis in this dairy herd.
An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.
In the present study, an equine-derived cell line was established by transfecting primary fetal horse kidney (FHK) cells with expression plasmid encoding simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and then cloning them by limiting dilution. The cloned cell line, named FHK-Tcl3, grew well and could be propagated over 30 times by splitting them 1:3. Equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 and EHV-4 replicated well in FHK-Tcl3. EHV-2 and EHV-4 were isolated from samples collected from horses in the field using FHK-Tcl3, and EHV-3 also propagated in FHK-Tcl3. These results indicated that this novel cell line, FHK-Tcl3, can be used for isolation and propagation of equine herpesviruses.