In the current study, we investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) can inhibit pathological reductions in neurogenesis. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 7 weeks of age were anesthetized with zoletil, and sham-acupuncture or EA at the Zusanli (ST36) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints was administered once a day for 5 weeks. In the ZDF group that received sham-EA (ZDF-Sham group), the blood glucose level was significantly increased together with age as compared to the control littermates [Zucker lean control (ZLC) rat]. In contrast, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly decreased in the ZDF-Sham group compared to the ZLC group. Although EA treatment decreased blood glucose levels, this was not statistically significant when compared to blood glucose levels changes in the ZDF-Sham group. However, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly increased with EA in ZDF rats as compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in hippocampal homogenates of ZDF-Sham group compared to those in the ZLC group. The EA treatment significantly increased the BDNF levels compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group, and BDNF levels in this group were similar to those in the ZLC group. These results suggest that EA at ST36 and GV20 can ameliorate the reductions in proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus induced by type-2 diabetes without significantly reducing blood glucose levels with increasing BDNF levels.
The dog visual system is well suited to dim light conditions due to rod-dominated retina and the reflective tapetum. The topographical distributions of rods and thickness of the tapetum of the dog were quantified in retinal whole mounts stained with thionine, and spatial relationships among the tapetum, rod density and visual streak of high ganglion cell density were elucidated. The relationship between the retina and tapetum was analyzed in parasagittal sections stained with thionine or hematoxylin-eosin. The tapetum was thick in its center, and the thickest part consisted of 9 to 12 tapetal cell layers. Rod density ranged from 200,000 to 540,000/mm2. Maximum rod density was found in the area dorsal to the visual streak, and the density in that area was significantly higher than the rod density in the visual streak and accorded spatially with the thickest part of the tapetum. The horizontal visual streak was found over the horizontal line through the optic disc in the temporal half and extended slightly into the nasal half. The central area of the highest density of ganglion cells was approximately located midway between the nasal and temporal ends of the visual streak. The visual streak was located within the tapetal area, but ventrally to the thick part of the tapetum.
The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions were evaluated for their virucidal ability against a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N1. HOCl solutions containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm chlorine (pH 6) or their sprayed solutions (harvested in dishes placed at 1 or 30 cm distance between the spray nozzle and dish) were mixed with the virus with or without organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS). Under plain diluent conditions (without FBS), harvested solutions of HOCl after spraying could decrease the AIV titer by more than 1,000 times, to an undetectable level (< 2.5 log10TCID50/ml) within 5 sec, with the exception of the 50 ppm solution harvested after spraying at the distance of 30 cm. Under the dirty conditions (in the presence of 5% FBS), they lost their virucidal activity. When HOCl solutions were sprayed directly on the virus on rayon sheets for 10 sec, the solutions of 100 and 200 ppm could inactivate AIV immediately after spraying, while 50 ppm solution required at least 3 min of contact time. In the indirect spray form, after 10 sec of spraying, the lids of the dishes were opened to expose the virus on rayon sheets to HOCl. In this form, the 200 ppm solution inactivated AIV within 10 min of contact, while 50 and 100 ppm could not inactivate it. These data suggest that HOCl can be used in spray form to inactivate AIV at the farm level.
We evaluated the protective efficacy of 94-kb virulence plasmid-cured, and phoP- or aroA-deficient strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ΔphoP or ΔaroA S. Typhimurium) as oral vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice. Two weeks after the completion of 3 oral immunizations with 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of virulence plasmid-cured, and ΔphoP or ΔaroA S. Typhimurium at 10-day intervals, S. Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) antibody titers were detected in the cecal homogenate, bile and lung lavage fluid, but not in the intestinal lavage fluid. In addition, the increases in S. Typhimurium LPS-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody titers in the serum were also observed 2 weeks after completing 3 oral immunizations with virulence plasmid-cured, and ΔphoP or ΔaroA S. Typhimurium. The series of 3 oral immunizations protected the mice against an oral challenge with 5 × 108 CFU of the virulent strain of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that both the virulence plasmid-cured, and ΔphoP and ΔaroA S. Typhimurium strains are promising candidates for safe and effective live S. Typhimurium vaccines.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane concentration on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEPs). Six clinically normal laboratory-beagle dogs were used. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane was detected from all subjects by tail clamp method. The refractive power of the right eyes of all subjects was corrected to −2 diopters after skiascopy. For P-VEP recording, the recording and reference electrode were positioned at inion and nasion, respectively, and the earth electrode was positioned on the inner surface. To grasp the state of CNS suppression objectively, the bispectral index (BIS) value was used. The stimulus pattern size and distance for VEP recording were constant, 50.3 arc-min and 50 cm, respectively. P-VEPs and BIS values were recorded under sevoflurane in oxygen inhalational anesthesia at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 2.75 sevoflurane MAC. For analysis of P-VEP, the P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude were estimated. P-VEPs were detected at 0.5 to 1.5 MAC in all dogs, and disappeared at 2.0 MAC in four dogs and at 2.5 and 2.75 MAC in one dog each. The BIS value decreased with increasing sevoflurane MAC, and burst suppression began to appear from 1.5 MAC. There was no significant change in P100 implicit time and N75-P100 amplitude with any concentration of sevoflurane. At concentrations around 1.5 MAC, which are used routinely to immobilize dogs, sevoflurane showed no effect on P-VEP.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart.
Otitis media of the left ear was diagnosed by video otoscopic examination in a 7-year-old, intact male Shih-tzu dog (weight, 5.1 kg), that also had three complex ceruminous adenomas and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the left ear canal. In such cases, total ear canal ablation is usually required. However, a complete cure was achieved in the present case without total ear canal ablation. The complex ceruminous adenomas were excised using a diode laser, and repeated cleansing of the tympanic cavity and ear canal was implemented using a video otoscope. As a result, the ear canal was closed in a U-form, and the otitis media was cured.
Canine atopic-like dermatitis (ALD) is suspected to be associated with food allergies, particularly those mediated by lymphocytes. In this study, 54 cases were included as ALD dogs, based on the negative IgE test results. In the dogs, the percentage of activated cells in helper-T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry using cultured peripheral lymphocytes under food allergen stimulation. We observed that 49 of the 54 ALD dogs (90.7%) had positive lymphocyte reactions against one or more food allergens. The most common food allergen was soybean, showing positive results in 21 dogs (42.9%), while the allergen to cause the lowest number of reactions was catfish (only 5 dogs, 10.2%). These results may be useful in considering elimination diets for ALD dogs.
The classic piebald mutation in the endothelin receptor type B (Ednrb) gene was found on rolling Nagoya genetic background (PROD-s/s) mice with white coat spotting. To examine whether genetic background influenced the phenotype in the piebald mutant mice, we generated a congenic strain (B6.PROD-s/s), produced by repeated backcrosses to the C57BL/6J (B6) strain. Although B6.PROD-s/s mice showed white coat spotting, 7% of B6.PROD-s/s mice died between 2 and 5 weeks after birth due to megacolon. The PROD-s/s, s/s and Japanese fancy mouse 1 (JF1) strains, which also have piebald mutations on different genetic backgrounds with B6, showed only pigmentation defects without megacolon. In expression analyses, rectums of B6.PROD-s/s with megacolon mice showed ~5% of the level of Ednrb gene expression versus B6 mice. In histological analyses, aganglionosis was detected in the rectum of megacolon animals. The aganglionic rectum was thought to lead to severe constipation and intestinal blockage, resulting in megacolon. We also observed an abnormal intestinal flora, including a marked increase in Bacteroidaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and a marked decrease in Lactobacillus and Clostridiales, likely inducing endotoxin production and a failure of the mucosal barrier system, leading ultimately to death. These results indicate that the genetic background plays a key role in the development of enteric ganglion neurons, controlled by the Ednrb gene, and that B6 has modifier gene (s) regarding aganglionosis.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus known to cause morbidity and mortality in a broad range of animals. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive ones, are susceptible to natural infection with CDV. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful adjuvant molecule that can enhance the development of antigen-specific immunity and vaccine efficacy. In this study, a giant panda IL-18 gene eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcAmIL-18) was constructed. Female BALB/c mice were muscularly inoculated with the plasmids pcAmIL-18, pcDNA3.1 and PBS, respectively. They were subsequently injected with an attenuated CDV vaccine for dogs, and the induced humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. The results showed that pcAmIL-18 remarkably improved the level of specific antibody, IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice sera, the T lymphocyte proliferation index and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These data indicated that pcAmIL-18 is a potential adjuvant that promotes specific immunity.
The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-Ay male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-Ay males. The number of β-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay, we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-Ay males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-Ay and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-Ay male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-Ay male with DDD.Cg-Ay or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males.
A total of 231 serum samples were collected from sheep (n=9), goats (n=99) and cattle (n=123) in northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trypanosome infection was detected using Trypanosoma brucei brucei crude antigen (TbbCA) and T. congolense crude antigen (TcoCA) ELISA assays. Recombinant antigen (T. evansi GM6 which consisted of 4 repeat domains, TeGM6-4r) ELISA and immunochromatographic test (ICT) were also used. Crude antigen ELISA, TeGM6-4r-ELISA and ICT detected 27.3%, 29% and 19.9% of trypanosome seropositive samples, respectively. Trypanosome infection prevalence in cattle and goats was 35.8–46.3% and 0–9.1%, respectively. Out of 9 sheep serum samples, 2–4 sera (22.2–44.4%) were positive. The detection performance of crude and recombinant antigen ELISAs was relatively similar (K=0.6–0.7); both are recommended for reference diagnosis and large scale epidemiological surveys. There is potential application for ICT in on-site diagnosis, but its sensitivity should be improved.
Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.
A 5-year-old male ferret presented with an enlarged canalicular testis in the left inguinal region. Microscopically, the enlarged testis consisted of a diffuse intimately admixed proliferation of c-kit-positive germ cell-like and Wilms tumor-1 protein-positive Sertoli cell-like components, but no Call-Exner body was detected. In addition, the compact proliferation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-intense positive interstitial cells was identified in a separate peripheral area of the mass. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor with a concurrent interstitial cell tumor.
Choroid plexus tumor (CPT) is a primary intracranial neoplasm of the choroid plexus epithelium in the central nervous system. In the current World Health Organization classification, CPT is classified into two categories; choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and carcinoma (CPC). In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemical expressions of N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin in 5 canine CPT cases (1 disseminated CPC, 2 CPCs and 2 CPPs). One CPP case was positive for N-cadherin and β-catenin, but negative for E-cadherin. The disseminated CPC case was positive for E-cadherin and β-catenin, but negative for N-cadherin. The other cases were positive for the three molecules examined. These results suggest that loss of the N-cadherin expression might associate with the spreading of CPC cells.
To clarify the effect of renal dysfunction on pharmacokinetics of the prokinetic agent metoclopramide (MCP), we administered intravenously 0.4 mg/kg MCP to healthy calves and calves subjected to right kidney vessel ligation (ligation) without or with a subsequent left nephrectomy (ligation plus removal). Plasma MCP concentration, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma prolactin level were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, simplified equation using iodixanol and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Only in calves with ligation plus removal, plasma MCP concentrations were increased significantly 6, 8 and 12 hr after injection, showing that a negative correlation was observed between the plasma MCP concentrations and GFR value. A tendency to increase in plasma PRL concentration was noted also in these calves. In conclusions, plasma MCP concentrations depend on the GFR mode in calves, and its critical GFR value was estimated.
Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (P<0.05) at the end of packing. In the experimental donkeys, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-packing values of PCV, erythrocyte count and Hb. In the control donkeys, the neutrophil and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased significantly (P<0.05) post packing, but in the experimental donkeys, the pre- and post-packing values were not significantly different. The eosinophil count increased significantly (P<0.05) in experimental and control donkeys post packing. In conclusion, packing exerted significant adverse effects on the hematological parameters ameliorated by AA administration. AA may modulate neutrophilia and induce a considerable alteration of erythroid markers in donkeys subjected to packing during the harmattan season.
In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf − /sly − genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.
Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in intensive care medicine. Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties and able to prevent sepsis induced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by down-regulating the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, propofol’s anti-inflammatory effects upon canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have not yet been clarified. Here, we isolate canine PBMCs and investigate the effects of propofol on the gene expressions of both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and upon the production of nitric oxide (NO). Through real-time quantitative PCR and the Griess reagent system, we found that non-cytotoxic levels of propofol significantly inhibited the release of NO and IL-6 and TNF-α gene expression in LPS-induced canine PBMCs. Western blotting revealed that LPS does significantly increase the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein in canine PBMCs, while pretreatment with propofol significantly decreases the LPS-induced iNOS protein expression. Propofol, at concentration of 25 µM and 50 µM, also significantly inhibited the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 protein in canine PBMCs. This diminished TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS expression, and NO production was in parallel to the respective decreased NF-κB p65 protein nuclear translocation in the LPS-activated canine PBMCs pretreated with 25 µM and 50 µM propofol. This suggests that non-cytotoxic levels of propofol pretreatment can down-regulate LPS-induced inflammatory responses in canine PBMCs, possibly by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 protein.
A 3-year-old, intact female Pomeranian presented with a 1-month history of coughing. Thoracic radiography showed focal infiltration of the left cranial lung lobe and widening of the cranial mediastinum. Subsequent computed tomography revealed torsion of the caudal segment of the left cranial lung lobe, which was confirmed by exploratory thoracotomy. There was no apparent underlying etiology for the condition. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of lung lobe torsion in this breed and the first detailed CT imaging report for segmental lung lobe torsion.
A total of 568 normal feces from calves on a beef farm in Fukui Prefecture, Japan, in 2011–2012 were examined by RT-semi-nested PCR for rotavirus A (RVA) VP4 genes. Through partial sequencing and BLAST analyses of 84 VP4-positive specimens, we identified an avian-like RVA strain, N2342, which shares highest nucleotide identity (80.0%) with known avian-like bovine strain 993/83, in one specimen. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a close genetic relationship between N2342 and avian RVAs, suggesting bird-to-cattle transmission. We observed frequent contact of wild birds with calves in the farm, suggesting that these birds were the source of the virus.
To investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in South Korea, nationwide surveillance of five arbovirues was conducted in sentinel calves during 2009−2012. We used serum neutralization tests to investigate the presence of antibodies for the Aino virus, Akabane virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, Chuzan virus and Ibaraki virus. In 2009, 2011 and 2012, the seropositive rates for these five arboviruses were all less than 14.1%. In 2010, however, the seropositive rates for Aino virus and Akabane virus were 33.2% and 40.2%, respectively. High seropositive rates were also associated with a large-scale outbreak of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle in southern Korea in 2010. Continued seroprevalence surveillance will be useful for monitoring natural arboviral diseases.