Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 56 , Issue 6
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
  • Manabu MOCHIZUKI, Gantaro SHIMIZU, Yutaka YAMADA, Tsuyoshi KADOSAWA, R ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1029-1034
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two hundred and thirty-nine digits of 45 Holstein dairy cows, which were raised in typical Japanese dairy farms and received poor hoof management, were randomly obtained in the slaughterhouses and examined histopathologically. The findings were classified into 5 grades on the basis of the severity of circulatory disturbances and of keratogenesis. The lesions from Grade 1 to 5 were considered as manifestations of serial lesions indicating that subclinical laminitis advanced to other hoof lesions. The incidence of Grade 2, regarded as subclinical laminitis, reached approximately 50% of digits examined. The lesions classified as Grades 3 (23.9%) and 4 (5.4%) were mainly characterized by circulatory disturbances, which were similar to those of chronic laminitis in the previous reports. The incidence of Grade 5, characterized by sole ulcer, was 5.4%. It is suggested that a considerable number of dairy cows in Japan suffered from subclinical laminitis, which may be the cause of recent high incidence of hoof diseases in dairy cows.
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  • Shunji SUGII
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1035-1040
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Twenty-three overlapping peptides corresponding to the complete amino acid sequence of the bovine conglutinin molecule were synthesized on the basis of the sequence data to analyze antigenic determinants. Of the synthetic peptides tested, peptides 31-50, 166-185, and 241-260 were highly reactive with rabbit antibodies against native conglutinin, whereas peptides 1-20, 16-35, 31-50, 76-95, 136-155, 151-170, 181-200, 271-290, 301-320, and 316-335 were less reactive with the antibodies. Peptides 16-35, 31-50, 46-65, 76-95, 91-110, 106-125, 151-170, 166-185, 211-230, 226-245, and 286-305 inhibited the binding of native conglutinin to mannan. On the other hand, all of these synthetic peptides elicited rabbit antibodies reactive with native conglutinin. Antibodies to peptide 241-260 showed the highest reactivity with native conglutinin. Of these anti-peptide antibodies, however, only antibodies to synthetic peptide 46-65 inhibited effectively the binding of conglutinin to mannan. Antibodies to the remaining peptides failed to block the binding at the highest concentrations tested. These results suggest that the multiple antigenic determinants associated with both ligand binding and immunogenicity may be located on the conglutinin molecule and that the predominant antigenic determinant responsible for binding saccharides may be located in the vicinity of the region 46-65.
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  • Yasushi HARA, Masahiro TAGAWA, Hiroyasu EJIMA, Hiromitsu ORIMA, Masahi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1041-1045
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transverse diaphyseal fractures of the femur were experimentally made in immature cats, and were fixed by an intramedullary pinning technique using an uniaxially oriented poly-L-lactide (PLLA) rod, a biodegradable polymer. The healing process was evaluated radiographically and histologically. Formation of bony callus was completed in 8 weeks, and cortical bony union followed. The remodeling process was then observed form 12 to 16 weeks. The healing process was almost the same as when a metallic implant was used. Abundant periosteal callus formation may be attributable to the lower elasticity of the PLLA rod compared with metallic implants. Since no other abnormalities such as growth deformities were detected, it was concluded that the combined use of a uniaxially oriented PLLA rod and an external splint is clinically useful for the repair of diaphyseal fractures in immature cats.
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  • Shunji SUGII
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1047-1050
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To identify the antigenic determinants of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), overlapping peptides corresponding to the entire amino acid sequence of CPE were synthesized and their antigenicity and immunogenicity were analyzed. Of the 21 synthetic peptides (C-1 to C-21) tested, peptide C-7 (amino acid residues 91-110) showed the highest reactivity with rabbit antibodies against CPE. Peptides C-4 (46-65), C-9 (121-140), and C-11 (151-170) were reactive with the antibodies, whereas peptides C-2 (16-35), C-3 (31-50), and C-20 (286-305) were less reactive. Other peptides were much less reactive. On the other hand, all of the synthetic peptides reactive with the anti-CPE antibodies were found to elicit rabbit antibodies reactive with both their respective antigens and native CPE molecule. These findings demonstrate that CPE molecule contains at least 10 different antigenic determinants which are all immunogenic and supposed to be responsible for functionally and biologically active sites.
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  • Takashi HONDA, Hiroshi OKAMURA, Akira TANENO, Shinji YAMADA, Eiji TAKA ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1051-1055
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The cell-mediated immune responses of the chickens inoculated with the cell-associated (CA) ILT vaccine were studied. Lymphocyte blastogenic response was tested by MTT assay with spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the vaccinated chickens. The blastogenic response of peripheral blood and spleen lymphocytes was enhanced by a T-cell mitogen. The CA vaccine induced an immunity satisfactorily in bursectomized chickens. To study the role of immune cells in the vaccinated chickens, the bursectomized chickens were inoculated intravenously with the splenic, thymic, bursal and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the vaccinated chickens. Protective effects were shown in the chickens received the splenic cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating that these play an important role in eliciting the protective effects of the CA vaccine. From these results, it was found that the immune mechanism with CA vaccine against ILT involves mainly cell-mediated immunity.
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  • Masayuki HIRAGA, Tetsuo NUNOYA, Yosaburo OTAKI, Masanori TAJIMA, Toshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1057-1063
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The pathogenesis of highly virulent infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) infection was studied using 6-week-old intact and 5-week-old bursectomized chickens inoculated with highly virulent strain 90-11 or reference strain I. Chickens inoculated with 100.7EID50 of strain 90-11 showed neither clinical signs nor lesions during the 4-day observation period. In contrast, birds inoculated with 102.7 or 104.7EID50 developed severe clinical IBD, as well as gross and histologic lesions, typical of IBD, and produced IBDV antigen demonstrable by immunostaining in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus, spleen and bone marrow from day 2 post-inoculation (PI) onwards. The antigen was also detected by the agar-gel precipitation and latex microsphere agglutination tests in a bursal suspension of these birds from day 2 or day 3 PI on. Birds inoculated with 106.1EID50 of strain I developed only slight clinical signs at day 4 PI. Their lesion- and antigen-scores in the BF were almost the same as those in virulent strain-infected chickens, but lesion- and antigen-scores in the other organs were negligible. Bursectomized chickens inoculated with strain 90-11 did not develop clinical IBD despite the presence of infection that was evidenced by histologic lesions in the thymus and spleen as well as IBDV antigen demonstrable by immunostaining in these organs.
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  • Yasuyuki NAKAJIMA, Yoshiharu ISHIKAWA, Koichi KADOTA, Michi KODAMA, Yu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1065-1068
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Surface marker analysis of the vascular and epithelial lesions in cattle with sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) were done by immunohistochemistry using 7 monoclonal antibodies. MHC class I and II antigens were expressed in the degenerated portion of the vascular walls in addition to intiltrated leukocytes. The major population of mononuclear cells in these lesions were phenotypically macrophages. The other cells had BoCD4 or BoCD8, but rarely γδT cell markers. These results suggest involvement of MHC restriction and macrophages, in addition to autoaggressive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, in the development of MCF vascular lesion.
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  • Nobuhiro YASUDA, Kenjiro EZAKI, Masao AKUZAWA, Masako IZAWA, Teruo DOI ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1069-1073
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two Iriomote cats (Felis iriomotensis) and 2 Tsushima leopard cats (Felis bengalensis euptilura) killed probably by traffic accidents were submitted to the helminthological examination. In Iriomote cats, 8 species of parasites (Spirometra erinacei, Toxocara cati, Molineus springsmithi, Uncinaria maya, Capillaria aerophila, C. felis-cati, larvae of an unidentifiable lung worm and one species of Acanthocephala) were found. In Tsushima leopard cats, 10 species of parasites (Pharyngostomum cordatum, Spirometra erinacei, Toxocara cati, Molineus springsmithi, Arthrostoma hunanensis, Uncinaria felidis, Capillaria felis-cati, larvae of an unidentifiable lung worm, and two species of Acanthocephala) were detected.
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  • Kazuhiro MISUMI, Atsushi HIRAKAWA, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Ryousuke SHIMIZU
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1075-1080
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate whether the running exercise fitness of individual horses could be assessed by a standardized swimming exercise test, the results of multivariate analysis of the exercise parameters measured during incremental running and swimming tests were compared. Ten thoroughbred horses were subjected to different types of exercise tests on a track or in a pool, and the maximum heart rate during and the blood lactate concentration immediately after the exercise were examined. Serial exercise parameters (VLA2, VLA4, LA0, V150, V200, HRs, HRLA2, HRLA4) referred to as the indices related to the adaptation of cardiovascular or metabolic systems were computed using the relationships between these measurements and velocity during each test, and were analyzed by a multivariate procedure, i. e. the principal component analysis. The correlation diagram between the exercise parameters on the first two component axes in running were similar to that in swimming. When the exercise fitness in each horse was compared between running and swimming, three horses trained by short-term endurance exercise were statistically distinguished in both tests and differed as a group from the other horses. Therefore, it is thought that evaluation of the exercise fitness in swimming using the multivariate analysis is useful for predicting poor performing horses on a track.
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  • Nobuyuki TOMIZAWA, Ryohei NISHIMURA, Nobuo SASAKI, Yoshihiro HAYASHI, ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1081-1085
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Morphological differences between cervical vertebrae were statistically analyzed in ataxic foals to clarify abnormal structural factors in the pathogenesis of this problem. At first, multiple regression analysis and cluster analysis were performed with 28 variables in C3-C7 of 39 control foals without lameness. As a result, there were no sex differences in the growth of all cervical vertebral sites, and the most suitable categorization of the age of the foals was 3 clusters of 8 months old or younger, 9-12 months old and 13 months old or older in any sites in the cervical vertebrae. Twenty-eight ataxic and 19 control foals at the age of 13 months or older were then used for discriminant analysis with 20 variables. As a result, 1-7 variables on C3-C7 were selected for sufficient discrimination, in which the heights of the cranial and caudal orifices of the spinal canal, longitudinal length of the vertebral head and height of the vertebral fossa strongly contributed to the discrimination of all the cervical vertebrae. In addition, the widths and longitudinal diameters of the articular processes on articular surfaces strongly contributed to the discrimination of the caudal region of the nedk. In conclusion, it was suggested that the lesion in the cervical spinal cord observed in ataxic foals was caused by morphological abnormalities including osteochondrosis and subsequent degenerative joint disease in the cervical vertebrae.
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  • Tsuyoshi SUGIMOTO, Kohji MARUO, Yasuo IMAEDA, Kaoru SUZUKI, Kinji SHIR ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1087-1091
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Canine tumors resected at surgery or autopsy were subcutaneously xenotransplanted into SCID mice. Thirty of the seventy-three tumors (41.1%) grew primarily in SCID mice. The primary take rate of mammary tumors and skin and subcutaneous tumors was 55.9% (19/34) and 28.6% (8/28), respectively. One thyroid carcinoma, one oral leiomyosarcoma and one osteosarcoma also underwent successful primary growth. Thirteen of the forty-one benign tumors (31.7%) and 17 of the thirty-two malignant ones (53.1%) were successfully transplantable. The histological features of the primary xenografts and their original tumors were similar to each other in all the cases. Three xenografts of the four malignant tumors with metastasis in the canine patients were shown to grow also in SCID mice and two mammary tumor xenografts out of the three metastasized to the lungs of SCID mice as well. All the 30 primary tumor xenografts grown in the first recipient were successfully transplantable to the second generation of the SCID mice. Xenotransplantation using SCID mice appears to be a valuable tool for investigating the biological characteristics of canine neoplasmas.
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  • Ryoko OSHIKAMO, Yukinobu TOHYA, Yasushi KAWAGUCHI, Keizo TOMONAGA, Ken ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1093-1099
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The nucleotide sequence of the 5'-end of feline calicivirus (FCV) Japanese F4 strain genome was determined. This region had 5311 bases and contained a large open reading frame (ORF1) encoding the non-structural proteins. The nucleotide sequence of the ORF1 region was highly conserved as compared with that of FCV F9 strain. When the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF1 was compared with those of FCV F9 and CFI strains, the sequence was also highly conserved (88.9% and 88.8%, respectively). Functional motifs of the non-structural proteins were common to these strains. There were 2C polypeptide-, 3C cysteine protease- and 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-like regions. The N-terminal region of 2C-like region continued upstream from the region identified by Neill [Virus Res. 17: 145-160]. Furthermore, the presence of 2B-like region was suggested in the upper stream of the 2C-like region, although the function of the region is unknown. When Kyte and Dolittle hydrophobicity profiles of the predicted amino acid sequences of the ORF1s of FCV F4 and F9 were computed and compared, both the profiles had striking similarities. In the region between residues 950-1000, there was a high rate of basic amino acid residues, suggesting that the polypeptide in this region of FCV may have a nucleic acid-binding function.
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  • Akihiro KONNO, Yoshiharu HASHIMOTO, Yasuhiro KON, Makoto SUGIMURA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1101-1105
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Distributional and immunohistochemical characteristics of the feline globule leukocyte (GL) were investigated by light microscopy. The GL, which contained eosinophilic large granules in the cytoplasm, was frequently found in the epithelia of the intestine and gall bladder, and less frequently found in those of the gastric pit, intrahepatic bile duct, and interlobular secretory duct of the pancreas. No GL was seen in the respiratory and urogenital organs. The GLs composed a homogeneous cell population including no mast cells according to the following histochemical stainings; phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, alcian blue and peroxidase. The feline GL showed perforin-like immunoreactivity to anti-human perforin monoclonal antibody, but did not show histamine-immunoreactivity to anti-histamine polyclonal antibody. The results suggest that the feline GL is a lineage of large granular lymphocytes. The epitheliotropism and the characteristics as granular lymphocytes of the feline GLs were similar to those of the intestinal γδT cells of the mouse.
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  • Naomi WADA, Aki NAKATA, Tsukasa KOGA, Mikihiko TOKURIKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1107-1112
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Anatomical structure and movements of tail muscles were studied in 12 adult cats. Tail muscles mainly consisted of the following 6 muscles on both sides, M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis (SDM), M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis (SDL), M. coccygeus lateralis (CL), M. coccygeus medialis (CM), M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis (SVL) and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis (SVM). Experiments by electrical stimulation of muscles dcmonstrated that the tail is bent to the dorsal direction by actions of SDM and SDL, curved laterally by those of SDL, CL, CM and SVL, bent to the ventral direction by those of SVL and SVM, and rolled by those of CL and CM on both sides. Contraction of SDL and SVL produced rapid and strong tail movernents by actions of their long tendons.
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  • Yasuhiro NAMBA, Masako YAMAMOTO, Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Masahiko KUSANAGI ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1113-1118
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The age-related testicular effect on the ovarian primordia was studied by combined transplantation of fetal testes and ovaries in adult male hosts. First, ovarian primordia of 14-day fetal rats were transplanted into a renal subcapsular position of castrated or intact adult male rats. In both the castrated and the intact hosts, most of the ovarian transplants developed normally with only 3 of them having in part seminiferous tubule-like structures in addition to normal ovarian structure. Second, a 14-day ovary was combined with a fetal testis the age of which varied from 13- to 18-day, and the combination was transplanted. In the combination of a 14-day ovary and a 13-day testis, the results varied in such a way that the ovary or the testis alone developed or otherwise, both gonads developed well. In union with 15- to 18-day testes, the ovaries did not develop, although the testes developed well. These results suggest that the 14-day ovarian primordia have a slight reactiveness to androgens of host rats and that the 13-day fetal testes begin to inhibit the development of the 14-day ovaries co-transplanted with them.
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  • Nobuyuki TOMIZAWA, Ryohei NISHIMURA, Nobuo SASAKI, Tsuyoshi KADOSAWA, ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1119-1122
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Cervical myelography and survey radiography was Performed on 12 light breed wobbling foals and a new radiographic measurement method was applied for more accurate diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability. Ratios of stenosis of the spinal canal on survey radiography and myelography using relative values in an individual foal were defined on radiograms of lateral flexed position of mid-cervical region, and coincidence between the ratios and histopathological lesions in the cervical spinal cord was investigated. Five of 6 foals had ratios of stenosis on myelography more than 40% at the intervertebral sites where the most severe histopathological lesions were observed. Four of 6 foals had ratios of stenosis on survey radiography more than 40% at the intervertebral sites where the most severe histopathological lesions were observed. False-positive diagnosis of CVI was observed in 1 out of 6 foals without histopathological lesion when both ratios of stenosis on myelography and survey radiography were applied. Although the standard value of 40% should be further investigated, the new radiographic measurement method in this study is very useful in clinical diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability in wobbling foals, and the presence of lesions in the cervical spinal cord and their sites by survey radiography may be estimated more accurately.
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  • Soichi MARUYAMA, Yasuji KATSUBE
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1123-1127
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Live and formalin- or heat (100°C, 30 min)-treated cells of Campylobacter jejuni strains Y6878 and Y6817, and the supernatant of the heat-treated bacterial suspension had agglutinating activity for the intestinal epithelial cells of Japanese quails and human (INT407). Among the erythrocytes derived from 7 animal species (human, horses, sheep, rabbits, mice, chickens, and quails), only rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated by live and glutaraldehyde-, formalin-, or heat-treated cells of 15 strains of C. jejuni examined. The treated and non-treated C. jejuni strains Y6878 and Y6817 did not agglutinate formalin- or glutaraldehyde-fixed rabbit erythrocytes. Flagellar fraction of strains Y6878 and Y6817 showed no hemagglutinating activity for non-fixed rabbit erythrocytes. The supernatant of heat-treated strain Y6878 also had the adhesion activity for the intestinal mucus derived from the Japanese quails. It was found that hemagglutination using rabbit erythrocytes is a simple and useful tool for the study of C. jejuni adhesion factor and that the adhesion factor of C. jejuni is the formalin-, glutaraldehyde-, and heat-resistant substances existing on the bacterial surface. It was suggested that the hemagglutination for the detection of adhesion factor may require the intact receptors on the surface of rabbit erythrocytes.
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  • Takashi SASAKI, Sunao FUKAMI, Shigeo NAMIOKA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1129-1133
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A preparation of peptidoglycan (PG) of Bifidobacterium thermophilum (B. thermophilum) of swine was orally administered to SPF-C57BL/6CrSlc mice in order to confirm the enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells (NK), intraperitoneal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A-stimulated lymphocytes). The NK cells from the spleen and the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) of mice that were continuously fed with PG-mixed feed for three weeks showed a significantly higher rate of cytolysis than those from the control group. However, a single oral administration of PG had no significant effect on NK activity. The activity of peritoneally sensitized CTL of the mice that were continuously fed with PG-mixed feed was assayed. The PG-mixed feed administered group showed a higher CTL activity than that of the control group. The cytotoxic activity of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes in the PG-mixed feed administered group was higher than that of the control group. These results indicate that the cytotoxic activity of mice was enhanced by orally administered PG.
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  • Dominic KAMBARAGE, Paul BLAND, Chris STOKES
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1135-1138
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Although intestinal macrophages stimulated significant T cell responses to MHC class II antigens and polyclonalmitogens, they were weak stimulators of ovalbumin-driven responses. These cells showed numerous and large endocytic vacuoles, lysosomes and phagolysosomes which may be indicative of active phagocytosis during the isolation process. The poor antigen presenting activity of the cells in protein antigen-elicited may be an in vitro artifact attributed to acquired inefficiency in antigen uptake and/or processing.
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  • Hidenori IKENAGA, Kenichiro ONO, Isamu TOMODA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1139-1142
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Gel filtration was performed for cystine aminopeptidase (CAP) [EC 3. 4. 11. 3] on full term placental extracts from human, cynomolgus monkey, dog, goat, pig and horse. The enzymatic profiles of CAP were examined and compared with that of CAP in pregnancy plasma on the basis of inhibitory effects. Elution proliles of placental extracts exhibited 2 CAP activity peaks in human and pig, 3 peaks in cynomolgus monkey, dog and goat, and 4 peaks in horse. The molecular weights of placental CAP that showed identical inhibitory effects to that of pregnancy plasma CAP were estimated to be approximately 325, 000 in human, 350, 000 in the cynomolgus monkey, 140, 000 in the dog, 140, 000 in the goat, 128, 000 in the pig, and 115, 000 in the horse. These molecular weights tended to decrease in accordance with the increase of barrier layers present between maternal blood and placental syncytiotrophoblasts in which CAP is synthesized.
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  • Shigeyuki TANABE, Yasuho TAURA, Shuichi FURUSAWA, Yoshikazu HIROTA, Mi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1143-1148
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to xenogeneic hepatocytes (HCs) was investigated in mice received subcutaneous (s.c.), intrasplenic (i.s.), or intravenous (i.v.) transplantation of rat HCs. The DTH response in mice preimmunized i.s. or i.v. with rat HCs (1x106 cells) was significantly lower than that in mice preimmunized s.c. with the same doses of rat HCs. Co-transfer of spleen cells from i.s. immunized mice with spleen cells from s.c. immunized mice to naive recipient mice did not suppress the DTH response induced by transfer of spleen cells from s.c. immunized mice. On the other hand, co-transfer of spleen cells from i.v. immunized mice with spleen cells from s.c. immunized mice suppressed the DTH response to rat HCs in recipients. Furthermore, the levels of DTH responses in recipients transferred with spleen cells from mice sensitized i.s. or i.v. with rat HCs, immunized s.c. with rat HCs 6 hr after transfer, and challenged with rat HCs 7 days later was almost similar to those in recipients transferred with spleen cells from s.c. immunized mice. These results suggest that antigen-specific suppression of DTH responses to rat HCs in mice is associated with the presence of suppressive spleen cells induced by i.s. or i.v. immunization with rat HCs.
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  • Chiaki ISHIHARA, Masayoshi TSUJI, Katsuro HAGIWARA, Kyoji HIOKI, Jiro ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1149-1154
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    We have previously demonstrated that the red blood cells (RBCs) in the blood circulation of SCID mice could be almost completely substituted with bovine RBCs by means of repeated transfusions. In the present study, transfusion experiments were carried out with RBCs from various animal species to investigate the ability of SCID mice to accept xenogeneic RBCs. Bovine (Bo), equine (Eq), human (Hu) and murine (Mu) RBCs were labeled with a fluorescent dye to trace their trafficking in the blood stream. Following the intravenous injection these RBCs were cleared from the circulation at various rates; the 1/100 reduction time in the labeled cell counts was 2 to 7 days, 4 to 7 hr and 1 to 2 hr with Bo-, Hu- and Eq-RBCs, respectively. In contrast, labeled Mu-RBCs from not only syngeneic but also allogeneic mouse strain were able to stay over 50 days. The difference in clearance rates was attributable to the difference in uptake of the RBCs by the splenic macrophages. The clearance rates of labeled RBCs were significantly decreased by co-transfusion with unlabeled RBCs of the same species, indicating that xenogeneic RBCs were recognized by the reticulo-endothelial system of SCID mice in a species-specific fashion. Furthermore, at least in the case of Hu-RBC, the complement component 3 may play a role in the Hu-RBC clearance in SCID mice since C3 deposition was observed on Hu-RBCs but not on Bo- and Eq-RBCs.
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  • Yoshitake ITO, Koh-ichiro OHTSUBO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1155-1159
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effects of neonatal (1-1O days) administration of various doses (5-30 μg/animal) of zearalenone, a mycotoxin, on the sexual maturation and reproductive physiology of female ICR mice were investigated. The drug was found to have mimic estrogen actions, causing delayed vaginal opening, persistent estrus (60-80% incidence) and sterility. Daily doses of zearalenone (10-30 μg/animal) for 3-5 neonatal days resulted in infertility accompanied by thickening of the vaginal epithelium, even after ovariectomy and adrenalectomy, indicating mucosal independence of endogenous estrogen. Thus, it may be possible that zearalenone acts by binding irreversibly to estrogen receptors in the target tissues.
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  • Hiroko AIDA, Yutaka MIZUNO, Seiji HOBO, Kohei YOSHIDA, Toru FUJINAGA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1161-1165
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane required to prevent gross purposeful movement in response to electrical stimulation of the oral mucous membranes was determined in horses, and their physical responses to inhalation of this anesthetic were observed. The MAC was 2.31±0.11%. The horses showed good ventilation, without any signs of airway irritation such as coughing. The horses became slightly excited before they laid down. The end tidal sevoflurane concentration (ESC) required to produce recumbency was 2.54±0.11%. These results suggest that sevoflurane is a clinically useful anesthetic agent in horses.
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  • Tsuyoshi KADOSAWA, Kazutoshi NOZAKI, Nobuo SASAKI, Akira TAKEUCHI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1167-1169
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A new cell line has been established directly from a spontaneous osteosarcoma on the femur of a 1.5-year-old male mongrel dog and named POS. Doubling time of the cells was approximately 33 hr. Morphologically, spherical cells, fibroblast-like cells, large or small polygonal cells and multinucleated giant cells seemed to be the major component of this cell line. The transmission electron microscopic feature of most of the cells was abundant dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Alkaline phosphatase activity as one of the osteoblastic properties was high in this cell line. The tumor tissue produced by the inoculation of the cells into nude mice was histologically identical to the original osteosarcoma.
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  • Rostami B. MINA, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, Ayano SAKUMI, Ryoji YAMAGUCHI, Susum ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1171-1172
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A mammary mass approximately 60 cm in diameter, which developed in the left udddr of a 17-month-old Holstein cow, was removed surgically. The mass was well demarcated from the surrounding tissues and its cut surface was lobular in appearance. Microscopically, the mass consistcd of a proliferation of well differentiated ducts and mucinous connective tissue. Immunohistochemically, the proliferative stroma contained two distinct cell types; vimentin-positive fibroblasts and spindle cells positive for vimentin and actin at the periphery of the ducts. The biological features of the present mammary tumor are thought to be generally compatible with those of mammary tibroadenoma reported in humans and dogs.
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  • Masaharu TANAKA, Yoshiya AZE, Tsuneo FUJITA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1173-1175
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Megakaryocytic emperipolesis was observed in the rat bone marrow when lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administrated intravenously at a daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Emperipolesis was significantly increased in the LPS-treated group (3.54%) as compared with the control group (1.35%). Histologically, several types of hematocytes were engulfed within megakaryocytes, but the host cells and entering hematocytes showed no degenerative alterations. Morphologically, most megakaryocytes showing emperipolesis were classified into the mature type indicating high platelet producting ability but platelet counts in the peripheral blood were markedly reduced in the LPS-treated group (63.7×104/mm3) as compared with the control group (128.4×104/mm3). These results suggest that the emperipolesis is a phenomenon closely related to the marked reduction in the number of Platelets and accelerated Platelet Production of megakaryocytes.
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  • Seiichi TANAKA, Takashi IMAMURA, Hajime MATSUI, Masashi SAKAGUCHI, Kaz ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1177-1179
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cells infected with Pseudorabies virus (PrV) and fixed with formaldehyde were evaluated as a vaccine against Aujeszky's disease. Mice and pigs inoculated with fixed cells showed no clinical signs. In a challenge test, all fixed cells conferred protection on mice and pigs. Although pigs showed slight symptoms, they were restored to normal health within a few days. These results demonstrate that PrV-infected cells fixed with formaldehyde function as a vaccine against Aujeszky's disease and serve as a novel type of vaccine which is easy to make, and is both safe and effective.
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  • Mineo HAYASAKI, Fumito NANAMURA, Katsuhiko KONNO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1181-1183
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    SDS-PAGE analysis of Dirofilaria immitis extracts demonstrated the complexicity of protein components of microfilariae, similar to that of adult male and female worms. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic dogs with D. Immitis infection suggest that antigenic components in the low molecular weight region may be related to the anti-microfilarial mechanism of the host.
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  • Tetsuo NASU, Masaaki NAKAI, Noboru MURAKAMI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1185-1186
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. Cerebra{is Caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus occipitalis and the Sinus sagittalis dorsalis. There was a direct vascular connection between capillaries of the stalk of the gland and those of the Plexus choroideus.
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  • Hiromitsu ORIMA, Michio FUJITA, Tsukimi WASHIZU, Makoto WASHIZU
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1187-1189
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A retrograde angiography method for the detection of a portosystemic shunt was studied. The retrograde angiography was done by compressing the caudal vena cava In the chest by applying pressure to the thoracic cavity, then feeding a contrast medium into the Caudal vena cava without releasing the pressure loading. The angiography could detect shunt vessels in experimental cases as well as clinical cases. This method is useful for the confirmation of a portal-caudal caval shunt, which can be performed without technical dlfficulty and without the need for a special kind of catheter.
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  • Yoshikazu IRITANI, Kazunari SAWAGUCHI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1191-1193
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The usefulness of the measurement of antibody titer to fowl pox virus (FPV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated in SPF chickens with or without inoculation with FPV. The optimum concentration of purified antigen was 10μg/ml of protein. The absorbance at 492 nm was less than 0.10 in the chickens negative to FPV from 1 to 63 days old. By contrast, a higher titer was detected in SPF chickens with various FPVs inoculated into the wing web than in non-inoculated chickens. Moreover, there was no cross response to chicken sera immunized with Haemophilus paragallinarum, Marek's disease virus, Newcastle disease virus or infectious bronchitis virus. The titers increased after vaccination were not increased after subsequent challenge with virulent FPV. These findings suggested the usefulness of the measurement of the antibody response to FPV vaccine by ELISA.
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  • Hiroyoshi NINOMIYA, Tomo INOMATA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1195-1198
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Scanning electron microscopy of resin casts was carried out on the vascular system of hepatoma in Chinese hamster. Casts of capillaries in the hepatoma were thin and fragmentary and formed a fine randomly arranged network in contrast to those in the liver with radial arrangement and central veins in centrilobular regions. Capillaries in the cancer merged into superficial venules corresponding to central veins while those in the border region merged into sinusoids of adjacent liver tissue. The superficial venules connected to tributaries of hepatic veins to drain into the posterior vena cava. Neovascularization did not occur by sprouting and anastomosing to form hair-pin loops of capillaries but by division of pre-existing vessels into smaller vessels, thus increasing the number of capillaries. The hepatic artery feeding the cancer was seemingly intact. There was no indication of arterio-portal shunts in the hepatoma.
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  • Atsushi SHIGA, Kinji SHIROTA, Yumi UNE, Yasuo NOMURA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1199-1202
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lymphangiosarcoma was seen in the subcutis of right chest in a 11-year-old female Poodle. No metastasis was observed clinically. Tumor cells were vimentin positive and formed irregular space or slit without erythrocytes in the tumor tissue. Lymphocytic foci and edema were seen in the stroma. Only a few tumor cells had factor VIII-related antigen. Electronmicroscopically, tumor cells did not accompany with basement membrane and intercellular junctional complex.
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  • Takashi HASEGAWA, Yukari OGURA, Takateru INOMATA, Yuko MURAKUMO, Tetsu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1203-1206
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cyclophosphamide (CY) treated mice were orally administered heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 preparation (FK-23) to define the effect of FK-23 on leukopenia associated with chemotherapy. FK-23 had no inhibiting effect on CY induced leukopenia, whereas it augmented leukocyte reconstitution in CY-treated mice. The percentage of neutrophils increased in the mice orally given FK-23. Furthermore, an increase in a myeloid/erythroid ratio and neutrophilic lineages was found in bone marrow of FK-23 treated mice. These findings suggest that FK-23 may have a potent effect on the augmentation of leukocyte reconstituting capacity in patients receiving chemotherapy.
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  • Yoshiyuki TAKAHASHI, Yuuko S. ENDOH, Shuichi HAMAMOTO, Yoshihito ISHIH ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1207-1208
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method for determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using samples of the same muscle, liver and plasma from chickens administered with SMX. Interlaboratory variation in the determined values were similar to those of other studies determined by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography. It was suggested that the interlaboratory difference in determined SMX residues from chicken tissues did not become problems of using EIA method, in spite of the differences of equipments and operators.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1209-1211
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    According to the fundamental structure of the bronchial ramification of the mammalian lung proposed by the present author [5, 6], the lung of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleo-albus) consists of the cranial and caudal lobes on either side. Both lobes are united to form a single one. The middle and accessory lobe bronchioles are lacking on either side.
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  • Shoji SHIRASAKA, Miho SUZUKI, Gorou ENDOU, Yoshikazu ADACHI, Noriyuki ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1213-1214
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ten calves harboring microfilariae (Mf) were injected with ivermectin at a single dose of 200 μg/kg body weight. Thereafter, the number of calves harboring Mf was gradually reduced to 7, 2 and 0 by 1, 4 and 12 weeks, respectively and remained negative for microfilariae by 16 weeks after injection. Furthermore, none of 221 goats and sheep injected twice with ivermectin at a dose of 200 μg/kg body weight developed setariosis while 17 out of 303 non-injected animals suffered from that disease. Therefore, ivermectin was much effective for the eradication of Mf in calves and the prevention of setariosis in sheep and goats.
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  • Yasuyuki USAMI, Yoshiharu OKAMOTO, Saburo MINAMI, Akira MATSUHASHI, No ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1215-1216
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Suspension of chitin and chitosan Particles (mean size of 1 μm) were found to attract Canine ncutrophild chcmotactichlly asdetermined by a checkerboard assay through polycarbonate filter with 5 μm pore size in Blind well chamber. Suspension of chitin induced chemokinetic migrations of the neutrophils. These evidences might reflect accumulation of neutrophils to chitin- and chitosan-implanted regions in dogs.
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  • Hisashi INOKUMA, David H. KEMP, Peter WILLADSEN
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 6 Pages 1217-1218
    Published: December 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in salivary gland of semi-engorged adult female Boophilus microplus, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes holocyclus were 374.3 pg, 427.0 pg and 825.0 pg per one tick, respectively. It was thought that the PGE2 production is a common phenomenon among ticks. Then PGE2 concentrations in saliva and hemolymph, salivary gland, ovary and gut of fully-engorged adult female B. microplus were compared. The PGE2 concentration in saliva induced by pilocarpine was 40.3ng/ml and hemolymph was 19.1 ng/ml. Salivary gland, ovary and gut from a tick contains 35.5 pg., 27.0 pg and 2.5 ng of PGE2, respectively.
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