The rabbit intestinal tract is supplied by the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. Generally, the cranial mesenteric artery supplies the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, proximal colon and ascending and transverse distal colon, whereas the caudal mesenteric artery supplies the descending distal colon and rectum. The present study describes an abnormal branching pattern of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in a Japanese White rabbit, where the caudal mesenteric artery but not the cranial mesenteric artery supplied the distal ileum, cecum, proximal colon and ascending and transverse distal colon. Such a rare mesenteric arterial ramification pattern may be explained by anomalies of the remaining anastomotic branches between the primitive mesenteric arteries and regressed their parent arteries during the developmental process.
Aeromonas hydrophila causes disease in fish known as Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS), also named as bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia. In this study, a pathogenic A. hydrophila strain was isolated from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., which were suffering from severe hemorrhagic septicemia. According to the phylogenetic analysis derived from 16S rDNA sequence, the isolate formed a single branch in the A. hydrophila group, named AhHN1. Artificial infection results indicated that AhHN1 showed strong pathogenicity in C. carpio and the LD50 was 1.38 × 106 CFU/fish, the clinical symptoms and pathological features of infected fish were similar to those observed in natural infections. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that AhHN1 resistance to more than 13 kinds of antimicrobial agents. However, the AhHN1 strain exhibited an extremely sensitivity to enrofloxacin, the in vitro activities of enrofloxacin were subsequently investigated and drug selection window (MSW) was 0.0016–0.0125 µg/ml. Pharmacokinetics data showed that plasma concentration of enrofloxacin was 0.0016, 0.0148 and 0.0282 µg/ml at 24 hr after orally administered with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin. Moreover, dosing once a day of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin, which the relative protection ratio (RPS) was amounted to 33.3, 66.7, and 83.3%, respectively. Therefore, 5 mg/kg enrofloxacin was considered to be the rational regimen for controlling AhHN1 infection in C. carpio in the countries where the use of enrofloxacin is permitted in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to establish a scientific medication regimen for the prevention and therapy of the mutidrug-resistant A. hydrophila infection.
Physical disturbances are common in dogs with canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD). However, the relation between these physical disturbances and CCD has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to clarify the physical disturbances in CCD by questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of items of general information, physical disturbances (gait and posture abnormalities, and deteriorating perception) and a CCD assessment scale named the CCD rating scale (CCDR). The survey was conducted toward owners of dogs aged 10 years or older in two ways: A web-based (Web survey) and a paper-based (Paper survey) survey. To determine which physical disturbances were associated with CCD, ordinal logistic regression analyzes were performed. Through the Web survey, 726 valid responses were obtained, and the test results revealed that vision impairment, smell disturbance, tremor, swaying or falling and head ptosis were significantly associated with CCD. These items, except for head ptosis, were also significantly associated with, or tended to be associated with, CCD in 103 valid responses to the Paper survey. The prevalence of CCD was increased in the elderly dog population, especially in dogs aged 16 years or older. In contrast, physical signs gradually increased from 10 years of age. These results suggest that physical disturbances may appear in the early stages of CCD. In conclusion, the present study revealed new clinical signs of CCD linked to physical disturbances and suggested that these signs could be useful for detecting early stage of CCD.
Immunoproteasome (i-proteasome) has both immune and non-immune functions and plays important roles in controlling infections and combating illnesses. Our previous studies suggest that interferon (IFN)-γ induces the expression of three immune-specific catalytic subunits of the 20S proteasome that can replace their constitutive homologues to form the i-proteasome in immune cells, such as porcine alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. However, i-proteasome levels and their modulation in non-immune cells such as the epithelial cells in pigs remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of i-proteasomes in non-immune cells (porcine kidney (PK)-15 cells) to determine i-proteasome modulation upon stimulation of PK-15 cells with IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. The expression of i-proteasome subunits in PK-15 cells were regulated by IFN-γ and TNF-α. Remarkably, we found that the combination treatment of IFN-γ and TNF-α increased the expression of i-proteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1 in PK-15 cells at transcriptional levels, but may decrease their expression at translational level, compared to their expression levels induced by individual cytokine treatments. These results provide critical insight into i-proteasome modulation in porcine non-immune cells, contribute further to our understanding of i-proteasome function in tissue pathogenesis and the development of antiviral adaptive immune responses against intracellular infections.
Thus far, there are few computed tomography (CT) characteristics that can distinguish benign and malignant etiologies. The criteria are complex, subjective, and difficult to use in clinical applications due to the high level of experience needed. This study aimed to identify practical CT variables and their clinical relevance for broadly classifying histopathological diagnoses as benign or malignant. In this prospective study, all dogs with liver nodules or masses that underwent CT examination and subsequent histopathological diagnosis were included. Signalments, CT findings and histopathological diagnoses were recorded. Seventy liver nodules or masses in 57 dogs were diagnosed, comprising 18 benign and 52 malignant lesions. Twenty-three qualitative and quantitative CT variables were evaluated using univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses, respectively. Two variables, namely, the postcontrast enhancement pattern of the lesion in the delayed phase (heterogeneous; odds ratio (OR): 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82–262.03, P=0.0429) and the maximal transverse diameter of the lesion (>4.5 cm; OR: 33.3, 95% CI: 2.29–484.18, P=0.0006), were significantly related to the differentiation of benign from malignant liver lesions, with an area under the curve of 0.8910, representing an accuracy of 88.6%. These findings indicate that features from triple-phase CT can provide information for distinguishing pathological varieties of focal liver lesions and for clinical decision making. Evaluations of the maximal transverse diameter and postcontrast enhancement pattern of the lesion included simple CT features for predicting liver malignancy with high accuracy in clinical settings.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (LY) supplementation on serum oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant vitamin levels, and lactation performance in dairy cows during summer. A total of 16 lactating cows weighing 707.5 ± 13.1 kg (mean ± standard error) were enrolled and randomly assigned to either supplemented (n=8) or control group (n=8). In the supplemented group, the cows were administered with LY product at 10 g/day per cow from mid-July to mid-September for 8 weeks. The serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites in the supplemented group were lower (P<0.05) at week 6. The serum retinol and blood glucose concentrations in the supplemented group were higher (P<0.01) at week 8. LY supplementation did not affect physiological responses, such as rectal temperature, respiratory rate, protein and cholesterol metabolism, and lactation performance. During the study period, daily average milk yield decreased in both groups. The reduction rates of milk yield in the supplemented and control groups were 17.6 and 20.0%, respectively. These results suggest that LY supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve carbohydrate metabolism in lactating dairy cows during summer.
Hypercoagulability is a common paraneoplastic complication in dogs with various malignant tumors. Importantly, tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) induced by TF-bearing microparticles (TF-MPs) is associated with hypercoagulability in human patients with cancer. However, TF-PCA in tumor cells and the association between circulating TF-MPs and hypercoagulability in dogs with malignant tumors remain poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the TF-PCA in various types of canine tumor cell lines and plasma in dogs with malignant tumors. Mammary gland tumor, hemangiosarcoma, and malignant melanoma cell lines, but not lymphoma cell lines, expressed TF on their surfaces and showed cellular surface and MP-associated TF-PCA. The plasma TF-PCA was elevated in some dogs that naturally developed such tumors. No significant difference was observed in plasma TF-PCA between the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) group (median: 43.40; range: 3.47–85.19; n=5) and non-DIC group (median: 7.73; range: 1.70–16.13; n=12). However, plasma TF-PCA was remarkably elevated in three of five dogs with DIC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate plasma TF-PCA in dogs with malignant tumors. Further studies must be conducted to determine the cellular origin of TF-MPs and the efficacy of plasma TF-PCA as a biomarker of DIC in dogs with malignant tumors.
The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is activated in human and canine osteosarcoma (OSA) and represents a potential therapeutic target for cancers, including OSA. Arsenic trioxide represses GLI expression. Melarsomine, an arsenic compound-containing drug, has been approved for the treatment of canine heartworm disease. Hence, we hypothesized that melarsomine inhibits GLI signaling in canine OSA cell lines. The present study aimed to assess this hypothesis. Cell viability and colony formation were decreased in the canine OSA cell lines Abrams and D17 after treatment with melarsomine. Melarsomine-induced apoptotic cell death was assessed via cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed a downregulation of genes downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, including GLI1, GLI2, and PTCH, after melarsomine treatment. The present results suggest that melarsomine exerts antitumor effects and serves as a GLI inhibitor in canine OSA cells. Additional studies are required to evaluate and confirm the anticancer effect and relevant therapeutic dose of melarsomine in vivo.
The effects of prescription diets on canine intestinal microbiota are unknown. In this study, we used next generation sequencing to investigate the impact of four commercially available prescription diet regimens on the fecal microbiome in six healthy dogs. The diet regimens used were as follows: weight-loss diet, low-fat diet, renal diet, and anallergenic diet. We found a significantly decreased proportion of phylum Actinobacteria with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. There were no significant differences in the proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes between the four diets. The proportion of phylum Firmicutes was significantly decreased with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. The proportion of phylum Fusobacteria was significantly increased with the weight-loss diet compared to the anallergenic diet. There were no significant differences in the proportion of phylum Proteobacteria after consumption of the four diets. We therefore demonstrated that commercial prescription diet influences the fecal microbiome in healthy dogs. These results might be useful when choosing a prescription diet for targeting a disease.
We evaluated the relationship between ruminal motility measured by a force transducer and acceleration measured by bolus sensor, and we assessed the detection of ruminal motility in cattle by a bolus-type wireless sensor. The bolus sensor can be orally administered to cattle and was placed in the reticulum for continuous measurements. The probe was almost horizontal to the longitudinal axis. The bolus sensor’s basic y-axis acceleration movement appeared to have a very distinct vertical pattern, occurring roughly 1−1.5 times/min with a duration of approximately 8 sec, displaying at around 500 mG. A significant positive correlation was observed between the ruminal contraction revealed by the force transducer and the acceleration shown by the bolus sensor (P<0.01). The contraction of the dorsal sac of the rumen and the acceleration signals in the reticulum occurred at practically the same time. The frequency and amplitude of ruminal contraction demonstrated by the bolus sensor and the force transducer in feeding were significantly higher than those at rest (P<0.01). The bolus sensor could also detect ruminal atony in the cattle after the administration of xylazine. A bolus-type wireless sensor may thus be useful for the measurement of ruminal motility in cattle and for detecting rumen dysfunction (e.g., ruminal atony).
This study evaluated the monitoring methods in asymptomatic dogs with high serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentrations. Ten dogs with high serum Cys-C were divided into two groups based on the owner’s choice; one receiving clinical pathology-based monitoring at an animal hospital specialised in chronic kidney disease, and the other receiving symptom-based monitoring at home, partly because they showed no clinical symptoms. The dogs that received the clinical pathology-based monitoring led to an early treatment intervention, resulted in a longer survival period than dogs received the symptom-based monitoring (P<0.05). It became clear that early treatment intervention by clinical pathology-based monitoring extends the renal survival period even in asymptomatic dogs with increased serum Cys-C concentrations.
A cat was referred because of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Close examinations revealed a swollen abdominal lymph node and multiple nodules of the liver. Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection was confirmed by culture and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of samples recovered from the liver and bronchoalveolar lavage. After administration of combination antibiotics for 6 months, culture results were negative. Though atonic seizures were observed during the treatment, it disappeared after isoniazid discontinuation and pyridoxal phosphate administration. On day 771 of illness, no clinical signs, lung diseases, or obvious swelling of lymph nodes was observed. This is the first report to confirm Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection in cats through gene analysis and to completely cure it with combination antibiotics.
In this study, we document a case of phenobarbital-induced anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS), which has been rarely reported in veterinary medicine. A 2-year-old, 5.4 kg, neutered male Russian Blue cat was diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and started on phenobarbital treatment. Eight days after initiation of phenobarbital treatment, the cat showed tachypnea and hyperthermia. CBC and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. However, the patient showed high serum amyloid A (SAA). On abdominal ultrasonography, generalized enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes and splenic multiple hypo-echoic nodules, which were consistent with reactive lymphadenopathy were found. The cat was diagnosed with AHS, and phenobarbital was discontinued. After 10 days of cessation, the patient had normal SAA, and clinical signs were resolved.
Correction formulae of QT interval were developed for the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs by adopting atrial pacing (n=5), which were compared with Bazett’s and Fridericia’s formulae for humans, and Van de Water’s one for dogs. The correction formulae: QTc=QT−0.2072 (RR−750) as linear and QTc=QT/(RR/750)0.4007 as non-linear equations, were developed for microminipigs. These formulae can better correct the QT interval of the microminipigs compared with each of the conventional ones for humans and dogs. Moreover, analysis of the slope constant α values indicates that the rate-dependent change in the ventricular repolarization period of microminipig may better mimic that of humans than that of dogs.
Owned, free-roaming domestic cats are abundant in the Chilean countryside, having high probability of contact with wildlife and potentially participating as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. In the present study, 131 cats from two remote study areas (Valdivia and Chiloe Island) in southern Chile were analyzed for infection/exposure to eight pathogens. Serum samples from 112 cats were tested for antigens against feline leukemia virus (FeLV antigen-ELISA) and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-ELISA) and canine distemper virus (CDV-serum neutralization), yielded occurrence of 8.9, 1.7 and 0.8% respectively. The presence of DNA of five vector-borne pathogens, piroplasmids, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. was investigated in thirty cats. Overall observed occurrence was 6.6% (2/30) for both Anaplasma platys, and B. henselae, and 3.3% (1/30) for both Bartonella sp. and Theileria equi. Observed occurrence for all vector-borne pathogens in Valdivia area was significantly higher than in Chiloe Island (5/15 vs 0/15; P=0.04). Our results represent the first description of exposure to CDV and DNA detection of T. equi and A. platys in domestic cats in Chile. The results highlight the importance of performing pathogen screening in owned, free-roaming rural cats to evaluate their potential role as reservoirs of infection and vectors for disease transmission to wildlife.
The metacestode stage of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis cause cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively, which result in severe medical and veterinary problems. In this study, as an exploration of novel treatment agents against echinococcosis, we demonstrated that ampelopsin (AMP), which is extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata and has been clinically used for treatments of various types of diseases including cancers for a long time, exhibited profound in vitro effect against E. granulosus protoscoleces and E. multilocularis metacestodes. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity assay also demonstrated that AMP at the effective dose against E. granulosus protoscoleces and E. multilocularis metacestodes did not show significant toxicity to human hepatocytes. These results suggest that AMP has the potential as an alternative agent against echinococcosis.
We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of isoleucine-zipper tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (izTRAIL) against cell lines, B101592, Cha, and C090115, derived from canine mammary gland tumors. These cells were derived from three dogs diagnosed with mammary adenoma or carcinoma. All three cells were positive for vimentin, while B101592 and C090115 were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and CK CAM5.2. Treatment with izTRAIL decreased the viability of the three cell lines. The proportion of annexin V+/propidium iodide- cells increased in all three cell lines after treatment with izTRAIL. Additionally, cell cycle analysis revealed that izTRAIL treatment increased the number of cells in sub-G1 phase. Moreover, izTRAIL treatment activated caspase-8 and caspase-3 and enhanced the levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The cytotoxic effect of izTRAIL was mitigated upon co-treatment with caspase-8 or caspase-3 inhibitor. These results indicated that izTRAIL induces apoptosis in cell lines derived from canine mammary tumor, which was also previously reported in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines. This suggested that canine tumor cells have conserved TRAIL receptors. This study will provide the basis for further studies on TRAIL receptors and TRAIL-related molecules.
A 25-month-old female crossbred cow presented with astasia, emaciation, and stunted growth. Macroscopic examination revealed a large mass in the abdominal cavity, approximately 100 × 30 × 30 cm. Microscopic examination revealed that the mass consisted of multilobular mature and immature cartilaginous matrices with chondrocytic cells, surrounded by spindle to pleomorphic mesenchymal tumor cells. The cartilaginous matrices consisted of hyaline and elastic cartilages, as confirmed with Azan stain, and Victoria Blue and Van Gieson stain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the chondrocytic and mesenchymal cells both expressed S-100. The tumor was diagnosed as an extraskeletal chondrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity of this cow.
Here, we describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) extending from the dorsal subcutis to the periphery of the spine in a female guinea pig aged 3 years 7 months. The patient presented with pleural and blood-like pericardial effusion and died. The tumor had invaded the spine and the surrounding muscles and had grown in hypercellular and hypocellular arrangements of round, broad-spindle, and elongated-spindle cells. We observed a fascicular growth pattern, nuclear palisading, and perivascular accumulations of cells that responded positively to anti-S100, sox10, and CD56 antibodies. This is the first report of a MPSNT in a guinea pig.
An 18-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier was admitted with a history of neurological signs including dullness and progressive tetraparesis. Physical examination revealed bilaterally symmetrical alopecia and pot-bellied abdomen. Computed tomography and necropsy examination showed a mass across the frontal sinus and cerebral frontal lobe, bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia, and hepatomegaly. Histopathologically, the tumor lesions consisted of sheets, nests, or cords of small- to medium-sized round-to-polyhedral cells. Adrenal cortex showed bilateral diffuse cellular proliferation, and some hepatocytes showed intracytoplasmic glycogen accumulation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, S100, synaptophysin, and thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for microtubule-associated proein-2 and neurofilament, leading to the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor. These tumor cells were also positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Pulsatillae radix, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is often used in combination with florfenicol for treatment of intestinal infection in Chinese veterinary clinics. Anemoside B4 (AB4) is the major effective saponin in Pulsatillae radix. This study aimed to investigate whether the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in broilers was affected by the combination of AB4. In this study, broilers were given AB4 (50 mg/kg BW), or 0.9% sodium chloride solution by oral administration for 7 days. They were then fed florfenicol orally (30 mg/kg BW) on the eighth day. The results showed that the AUC(0-∞), MRT(0-∞), t1/2z and Cmax of florfenicol were significantly decreased, and the Vz/F and CLz/F were significantly increased by AB4; the mRNA expression levels of CXR, CYP3A37 and MDR1 (except CXR and CYP3A37 in the liver) were up-regulated by AB4. In conclusion, AB4 altered the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol, resulting in lower plasma concentrations of florfenicol, this was probably related to the mRNA expression of CXR, CYP3A37 and MDR1 in the jejunum and liver (except CXR and CYP3A37) increased by AB4. The implications of these findings on the effect of traditional Chinese medicine containing AB4 on the effectiveness of florfenicol in veterinary practice deserve study.
Vincristine, one of the anti-cancer drugs used in veterinary practice, has adverse hematological and gastrointestinal effects in dogs. Juzen-taiho-to is a traditional Chinese medicine used for patients with anorexia in human medicine. However, the protective effects of Juzen-taiho-to against anti-cancer drug-induced toxicity in dogs have not been investigated. We therefore examined whether the administration of Juzen-taiho-to to dogs affects gastric motility, and vincristine-induced gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity. The study was composed of three trials. In the first trial, Juzen-taiho-to (450 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to five dogs. In the second and third trials, vincristine (0.75 mg/m2) was intravenously administered to each dog in the absence or presence of Juzen-taiho-to (450 mg/kg/day). During these trials, gastric motility and blood parameters were assessed. Juzen-taiho-to increased gastric motility and improved vincristine-induced gastrointestinal, but not hematological, adverse effects in dogs. This study suggested that Juzen-taiho-to may be applicable for gastrointestinal care in dogs receiving chemotherapy.
Liver-type fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP) is a biomarker for the early detection of renal diseases in humans. It is secreted along with cytotoxic oxidation products from proximal tubular epithelial cells under conditions of ischemia and/or oxidative stress. This study examined urinary L-FABP excretion under renal ischemia in feline acute kidney injury (AKI) model. L-FABP excretion increased immediately after renal ischemia/reperfusion, despite the absence of obvious structural damage to the kidneys, in the two AKI model cats studied. L-FABP was detected in the renal tubular lumen immediately after renal ischemia/reperfusion in the two cats, but not in a sham surgery cat. These results suggested that high L-FABP excretion is a pathophysiological response associated with antioxidant defense in proximal tubules with renal ischemia and/or oxidative stress in a feline model.
Oviducts play an important role in the reproductive process, such as in gamete transport, fertilization, and early embryonic development. However, the regulation of oviductal function during luteal formation phase (3−5 days post-ovulation), which is a crucial phase for early embryonic development, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of oviductal estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations on bovine oviductal functions in the luteal formation phase using RT-qPCR for some genes of oviductal epithelial cells. Bovine oviducts ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL) in the luteal formation phase were collected from a slaughterhouse. The concentration of oviductal E2 was positively correlated with the mRNA expressions of nuclear P4 receptor (PGR) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (PDIA4), which is related to protein secretion, in the ampulla and with estrogen receptor α (ESR1) mRNA expression in the isthmus. In contrast, the concentration of oviductal P4 was not correlated with oviductal mRNA expressions in either regions. Furthermore, for the candidate factor related to the oviductal E2 concentration, the CL parameters (CL size and tissue P4 concentration), first-wave dominant follicle (W1DF) parameters (follicle size and intrafollicular E2 concentration), and W1DF location (ipsilateral or contralateral to CL) did not influence the oviductal E2 concentration. In conclusion, our results suggest that the local oviductal E2 is a potential oviductal function regulator during the luteal formation phase.
In this study, the effects of restriction feeding on the liver function, hepatic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity, hepatic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNA expression and response to high-dose estradiol-17β (E2) administration were investigated in non-lactating cows. Cows were assigned to either restricted feeding (30% of total digestible nutrient requirement) or ad libitum feeding of a dent corn-based concentrate and roughage for a 2-week feeding trial (Day 1=day of beginning the feeding trial). On day 14, a high-dose E2 administration study was carried out to examine plasma E2 levels as an indicator of hepatic E2 metabolism. Plasma E2 concentration in the restricted feeding group was consistently higher after high-dose E2 administration than in the control group. In addition, indocyanine green half-life value was prolonged by restricted feeding for 13 days, and increased liver triglyceride concentration and decreased liver UGT activity were caused by this restriction over 14 days. Restricted feeding did not affect plasma IGF-1 concentration or hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression. These results suggest that two weeks of restriction feeding led to accumulation of triglyceride, decreased liver blood flow, and slightly impaired liver function, which in turn slowed down the hepatic metabolism of E2 without significantly impacting hepatic IGF-1 production.
Equine influenza is a leading cause for respiratory illness in equines. Major control measures involve vaccination which requires continuous harmonization owing to antigenic drift. The present study focused on assessing the protective efficacy of an inactivated recombinant equine influenza virus (rgEIV) vaccine candidate adjuvanted with MontanideTM Pet Gel in murine model. The rgEIV was generated using reverse genetics by incorporating HA and NA segments from EIV/H3N8, clade 2-Florida sublineage in an A/WSN/33 /H1N1 backbone and inactivated by formalin. The vaccine was prepared by mixing inactivated rgEIV with MontanideTM Pet Gel adjuvant followed by intranasal inoculation into BALB/c mice intranasally. The immune responses and protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by measurement of antibody titer, immunoglobulin subtyping, cytokines, clinical signs and pathological lesions after immunization and challenge with wild EIV. Serology and cytokine expression pattern indicated that the vaccine activated mixed Th1- and Th2-like responses of vaccine. Booster immunization stimulated strong antibody responses (HAI titre: 192 ± 28.6) at 42 days post immunization and the predominant antibody subtype was IgG1. Upregulation of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-2 levels indicates effective induction of Th1 type response. We found that vaccination has protected mice against equine influenza virus challenge as adjudged through a lack of nonappearance of visible clinical signs of disease, no loss of body weight loss, reduced pathology in the lungs and markedly reduced virus shedding from the respiratory tract. Therefore, we conclude that recombinant EIV vaccine candidate adjuvanted with MontanideTM Pet Gel could aid in quick harmonization of the vaccines through replacement of HA and NA genes for control of EIV outbreaks.
Bovine enteroviruses (BEV) are members of Enterovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. BEV1 has a broad host spectrum, including humans. The virus usually causes subclinical infection, but fatal/severe cases have also been reported in different animal species. There is quite limited data regarding BEV1 in humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate human infection and to identify possible risk factors for viral exposure. For this purpose, blood serum samples (n=1,526) were collected from a city center and nearby villagers simultaneously from humans and farm animals in Elazig province in Eastern Anatolia. As a result of serum neutralisation test, BEV1 specific antibody presence detected in cattle was 85.3% (163/191), 73.5% in donkeys (64/87), 71.8% in goats (115/160), 46.5% in sheep (93/200), 43.9% in horses (40/91), 41.3% in dogs (19/46) and 33% in humans (248/751). Although a high contamination potential was mentioned for people living in rural areas, it was determined that infection rates in rural areas (31.6%) and urban centers (32.2%) were very close. There was no difference according to sex. Viral exposure is higher in the 40 to 70 age range. In addition, the serological evidence of the infection in donkeys was identified for the first time with this study.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) keeps causing economic damages in the swine sector across the globe. There has been emergence of the European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) in China in recent years. The presently available vaccines cannot unable to provide safeguard against PRRSV infection completely. This study was aimed to construct recombinant adenovirus expressing the ORF3 and ORF5 genes of the EU-type PRRSV strain. Then, the recombinant adenovirus vaccines for EU-type PRRSV (rAd-E3518, rAd-E35, rAd-E3 and rAd-E5) which we constructed and evaluated were constructed and identified by western blot and PCR. All recombinant adenovirus vaccines were evaluated for humoral and cellular responses and EU-type PRRSV challenge in pigs. The results showed that the group of rAd-E3518+Quil A developed higher GP3 and GP5 specific antibody responses compared to the group of rAd-E3518. The majority of the neutralizing antibody titers were higher than 1:16 (P<0.05), the fusion of IL-18 has increased significantly PRRSV-stimulated secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4 in porcine serum, the group of rAd-E3518+Quil A produced highest T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells) proliferative in peripheral blood of pigs. The animals were challenged with the EU-type PRRSV strain and the viral load was detected in the several tissues, the viral load of rAd-E3518 and rAd-E3518+Quil A were lower than the wild-type adenovirus group. Our findings provide evidence to confirm that the recombinant adenovirus vaccine can protect pigs from EU-PRRSV infection.
A serological survey of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was conducted among dromedary camels and herbivorous animals sharing the same pasturage in Ethiopia. The pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus coated with the spike protein of MERS-CoV was used in virus neutralization (VN) tests performed in a biosafety level (BSL)-2 laboratory. The results were similar to those obtained from the VN test using live MERS-CoV and were more sensitive than the ELISA performed using synthetic MERS S1 fragment as the antigen as well as the competitive ELISA performed using a monoclonal antibody against MERS-CoV. According to the comprehensive results of the four types of serodiagnosis methods, positive antibodies were detected only in dromedary camels and the remaining herbivorous animals were not infected with the virus. Moreover, using the present procedure, serological tests for MERS-CoV can be conducted even in BSL 2 laboratory.
A banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) presented at our hospital with clinical signs of acute diarrhea. Fecal samples were positive for canine parvovirus (CPV) as determined by polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for both CPV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). The full-length VP2 was cloned, sequenced, and compared with sequences of FPV and CPV strains reported in GenBank. The amino acids that determined the host range were similar to those of FPV. Moreover, amino acid analysis of VP2 revealed over 98% homology to FPV. The FPV isolate was closely related with FPV isolates from Japan, South Korea, and China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that banded linsang can be infected with FPV.
One captive musophagid bird at a zoological garden in Japan showed clinical symptoms and was found to be infected with avian haemosporidia. We subsequently collected blood from all musophagid birds kept in the garden and examined for avian haemosporidia using both microscopic and molecular examination. Only Haemoproteus gametocytes were observed in the blood of two Guinea turaco (Tauraco persa). Three genetic lineages of Haemoproteus were identified from three Guinea turacos and one genetic lineage of Leucocytozoon was identified from a grey plantain-eater (Crinifer piscator). Detected Haemoproteus lineages were all identical and completely different from those previously reported in Japan, suggesting that these birds were infected in their original habitat. This is the first record of Haemoproteus infection in Guinea turacos.