Brucella infections in wildlife originate either from contact with infected livestock or from a natural sustainable reservoir in wildlife populations. As South Korea has set a goal of brucellosis eradication by 2013, it is necessary to determine the prevalence of Brucella in wildlife and wild rodents. This information will play an important role in the control of brucellosis. Because of the absence of prominent clinical signs, direct and indirect laboratory tests are essential for diagnosing brucellosis. In this study, tissue and blood samples were taken from wild animals, abandoned dogs, a cat and wild rodents, and they were tested for Brucella or Brucella-specific antibodies by isolation, PCR and serology. Results showed that 18.6% (33/177) of blood samples were positive by PCR, and 5.7% (11/194) were positive by C-ELISA. However, none of these samples yielded culturable bacteria. Of the tissue samples, 9.7% (8/82) were positive by PCR. Brucella was isolated from only one tissue culture from a Chinese water deer carcass. This Brucella species was identified as Brucella abortus biovar 1 by biotyping, 16S rRNA PCR and the Bruce-ladder PCR assay. In this study, we reported the prevalence of Brucella in wildlife, dogs, a cat and rodents by using serological and molecular methods, and we report the first isolation of B. abortus in wild Chinese water deer in South Korea.
Macrolide and lincosamide (ML) resistance and the related resistance genes of staphylococci were assessed from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis. Of the 104 Staphylococcus aureus and 62 coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) isolates, 26 (25%) and 12 (19.4%) were resistant to ML, respectively. While constitutive ML resistance phenotype accounted for 15.4% (16/104) of S. aureus and 8.1% (5/62) of CoNS, inducible ML resistance phenotype accounted for 2.9% (3/104) of S. aureus and 3.2% (2/62) of CoNS. Among erythromycin-resistant isolates, single or various combination of different resistance genes were detected. The results of this study showed that ML resistance was prevalent among staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis cases in Hatay, Turkey. Therefore, a continuous surveillance is necessary to minimise the spread of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci.
We have examined for hemoplasma infection among cattle in the Hiroshima and Miyazaki prefectures by using a sensitive real-time PCR, with SYBR Green I and with melting curve analysis, which allow to distinguish the two bovine hemoplasma species, Mycoplasma wenyonii and `Candidatus M. haemobos'. We found 69.4% of 36 cattle in Hiroshima and 93.8% of 32 cattle in Miyazaki infected with either of these two hemoplasma species. High morbidity in western part of Japan may reflect the activity of arthropod vectors for hemoplasma transmission. We also demonstrated neonatal calves less than three months old affected with hemoplasmas without grazing in summer, suggesting a possibility of vertical transmission.
Only two hemoplasma species, Eperythrozoon parvum and Mycoplasma suis, have been recognized in pigs. Here we demonstrate the genetic variations among six hemoplasma strains detected from pigs, by analyzing the 16S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) genes, and propose a novel hemoplasma taxon that has not been described previously. Phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these six hemoplasmas were divided into two clusters representing M. suis and a novel taxon. We further examined the primary and secondary structures of the nucleotide sequences of the rnpB gene of the novel taxon, and found it distinct from that of M. suis. In conclusion, we unveiled a genetic cluster distinct from M. suis, suggesting a new swine hemoplasma species or E. parvum. Our findings also suggest that this novel cluster should be included in the genus Mycoplasma.
Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family with a key role in inhibition of muscle growth by negative regulation of both myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Recently, a genomic region on ECA18, which includes the MSTN gene, was identified as a candidate region influencing racing performance in Thoroughbreds. In this study, four SNPs on ECA18, g.65809482T>C, g.65868604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G, were genotyped in 91 Thoroughbred horses-in-training to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, chest circumference, cannon circumference, and body weight/withers height. Of these, statistically differences in body weight and body weight/withers height were associated with specific genotypes in males. Specifically, body weight/withers height showed statistically significant differences depending on genotype at g.658604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G (P<0.01) in males during the training period. Animals with a genotype associated with suitability for short-distance racing, C/C at g.66493737C>T, had the highest value (3.17 ± 0.05 kg·cm-1) for body weight/withers height in March, while those with a genotype associated with suitability for long-distance racing, T/T, had the lowest (2.99 ± 0.03 kg·cm-1). In females, the trends in the association of body weight/withers height with genotypes were similar to those observed in males. As the SNPs are not believed to be linked to coding variants in MSTN, these results suggest that regulation of MSTN gene expression influences skeletal muscle mass and hence racing performance, particularly optimum race distance, in Thoroughbred horses.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) evaluated by applanation tonometry via TONO-PEN XL (TP), and rebound tonometry via TonoVet (TV) were compared in enucleated canine eyes with varied pressure of the anterior chamber (AC) and in clinical cases. TV measured IOP values were lower than IOP measurements of TP in the enucleated eyes with 5-10 mmHg of AC (P<0.0001), though there was no significant difference in IOP values obtained with TP and TV on the pressure ranges of 15-20 mmHg. However, TP detected IOP values were lower than IOP measurements of TV in the eyes with over 25 mmHg of AC (P<0.0001). The results of clinical cases were similar to the enucleated eye model. There was no significant difference in IOP values obtained from TP and TV in dogs with normotensive eyes. IOP measurements of TP were lower than those of TV in glaucomatous eyes (P<0.0001). TV was a reliable tonometer for measurement of IOP in hypertensive eyes, whereas it was less accurate than TP in hypotensive eyes. The characteristics of TP and TV should be considered in the evaluation of IOP in practice.
To analyze serum proteomics differences between normal and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected piglets, an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used. Samples of venous blood were collected before and after FMDV infection and high abundance serum albumin was removed using a commercial kit. After trypsin digestion, serum samples were processed with LC-MS/MS. Proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. We found that apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, haptoglobin and probable chemoreceptor glutamine deamidase cheD appeared after FMDV infection in the same piglet. This is believed to be the first time that serum proteomics analysis by LC-MS/MS after FMDV infection has been performed, and our results may provide further information about biomarkers for early diagnosis of FMD in piglets.
In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (<3 months old) and adult (>12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 μg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.
We assessed prokinetic action of gastroprokinetic agent, mosapride in dogs. Open-label cross-over study. Six healthy beagles were administered single oral mosapride at doses of 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 2 mg/kg 30 min prior to feeding, followed by 1-week interval. The motility index (MI) of gastric contraction was ultrasonographically evaluated by change rate of antral area and contraction number. Significant increases in MI were observed at doses of 0.75 mg/kg (mean ± SEM, 11.11 ± 0.19), 1 mg/kg (11.65 ± 0.34), and 2 mg/kg (12.04 ± 0.34), compared with that of the control (9.37 ± 0.51). Mosapride administration (2.0 mg/kg, BID) for 1 week had no adverse effects on blood tests or health of the animals. In conclusion, 0.75 to 2 mg/kg of mosapride produces gastric prokinetic actions without adverse effects.
A 14-year-old Maltese dog presented for complete medical examination due to intermittent vomiting and diarrhea observed during the previous two days. A single, solitary, lobulated cystic mass was observed in the liver upon ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination. After surgical hepatic resection to remove the mass, histological examination revealed a multilocular cyst lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, which is consistent with biliary cystadenoma. Here, we report the clinical, clinicopathological, histopathological, and diagnostic imaging findings of biliary cystadenoma in a dog.
Podocytes have a peculiar structure constituting slit diaphragm (SD) and foot process (FP), and play essential roles in the glomerular filtration barrier. There is now ample evidence that SD- and FP-associated molecules, such as podocin and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), are down-regulated during albuminuria of chronic kidney disease. However, it is still unclear whether these molecules are altered during acute renal failure (ARF) with albuminuria. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice as a model of septic ARF, we provide evidence that the expression of SD- and FP-associated molecules becomes faint, along with albuminuria. In the LPS-treated mice, urinary albumin levels gradually increased, associated with the elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels, indicating the successful induction of albuminuria during septic ARF. In this pathological process, glomerular podocin expression became faint, especially at 36 hr post-LPS challenge (i.e., a peak of albuminuria). Likewise, LPS treatment led to a significant decrease in CD2AP, an anchorage between podocin and F-actin. With regard to this, tensin2 is a novel molecule that stabilizes F-actin extension. Interestingly, glomerular tensin2 expression levels were also decreased during the albuminuric phase, associated with losses of glomerular F-actin and synaptopodin under septic states. As a result, there were some lesions of podocytic FP effacement, as shown by electron microscopy. Based on these data, we emphasize the importance of concomitant decreases in podocin, CD2AP and tensin2 during septic ARF-associated proteinuria.
Culicoides brevitarsis transmits important ruminant arboviruses, such as Akabane, Aino and bluetongue viruses. The presence of this species has so far been recognized primarily in Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan. In entomological surveys in 2008 and 2009, C. brevitarsis was collected at 8 sites throughout Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Kagoshima Prefectures. The collection sites are all located near pastures, where the larvae of C. brevitarsis can grow in cattle dung left in the field. C. brevitarsis was confirmed at the same sites in two consecutive years, suggesting that it overwinters in Kyushu. Given the risk of arbovirus transmission, the ecology of C. brevitarsis in Japan, such as its distribution range, seasonal abundance and larval breeding sites, should be investigated in more detail.
Enteric bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, have been isolated from porcine livers affected with ascariasis. We hypothesized that reason for this bacterial isolation was due to bacterial translocation (BT). In order to clarify the association between ascariasis and isolation of Enterobacteriaceae in the livers,12 pigs with ascariasis (ascariasis group), 12 pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis A group) were used. Jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, livers, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and portal blood were obtained from these pigs. Furthermore, in order to confirm the presence of BT in pigs, the samples mentioned above as well as spleens were obtained from 11 pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis B group) and 6 specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis SPF group). In the first experiment, the Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from livers (66.7%), MLN (91.7%), and portal blood (55.6%) regardless the presence of ascariasis. In the second experiment, isolation rates of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria were 52.9 and 66.7% for livers, 52.9 and 80% for MLN, 11.8 and 26.7% for spleens, and 40 and 20% for portal blood of the pigs examined, respectively. E. coli and Staphylococcus were the predominant isolates from these pigs. A large number of antigens immunodetected by E. coli polyclonal antibody were found in the damaged cecal mucosa. These findings present evidence that BT is generally observed in slaughtered pigs regardless the presence of ascariasis. This has challenged our notion that extraintestinal organs of pigs are usually maintained as sterile.
A juvenile nephropathy in a 4-year-old male Boxer dog, closely resembling the Nephronophthisis (NPHP)-Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease Complex (MCKD) in humans is described. Gross examination of the kidneys revealed several multiple cysts at the corticomedullary junction and in the medulla. Histological examination was characterized by a widespread tubular atrophy and dilatation, with a marked thickening of the tubular basement membrane, interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. Ultrastructural studies revealed dilated tubules with irregular basement membrane thickening and splitting. Lectin histochemistry investigation revealed that the cysts originated in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Having excluded all other known cystic diseases of the kidney, and based on the lectin histochemistry results, the macroscopic and histological findings of our case are highly compatible with a diagnosis of the NPHP-MCKD complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this particular lesion.
To evaluate serum clearance of iodixanol, applicable to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), clinically healthy and experimentally-induced nephropathy calves were prepared. Iodixanol was administered intravenously at 40 mg I/kg, and blood was withdrawn 60, 120, and 180 min later. Serum iodixanol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. No statistical difference in GFR was noted between strains (Holstein vs. Japanese Black) or sexes, and the α2-adrenergic agonist xylazine increased GFR. In calves subjected to right renal vessel ligation, followed by a left nephrectomy, a marked reduction in GFR was observed with renal ischemic changes. These results suggest that the GFR estimation by serum iodixanol clearance is a ready-to-use tool in calf research and practice owing to the ease of monitoring serial renal function.
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of fleas for transmission of Bartonella species among wild rodents in Japan. Flea samples were collected from wild rodents and examined genetically for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected from 16 of 40 (40.0%) flea samples. Sequence analysis demonstrated that 3 of 16 (18.8%) of the Bartonella-positive animals were infested with fleas from which the closely related Bartonella DNA sequence was detected, indicating that the fleas acquired Bartonella from the infested rodents. The DNA was detected in hemolymph, the midgut and the ovary (only in female), indicating that Bartonella might be colonized through the midgut and distributed into the body.
We describe a method for determining the sex of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from feces collected in the field. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR), partial sequences of the sex determination region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene and X zinc finger protein (ZFX) gene were amplified. In 19 individuals with sex information, the correct sex was successfully detected and sequences of target amplicons were completely matched between muscle and feces from the rectum. Among 75 fecal samples collected noninvasively in the field, 68-71 samples (90.7-94.7%) yielded successful sex determinations. Using this technique, feces collected in the field would enhance the utility of genetic analysis. As a result, instead of biomaterials, these samples can serve as new or alternative materials. Finally, it can be expected that this technique will contribute to reveal in advanced detail of the population dynamics and genetic diversity that needed to carry out effective population control and to reduce the extinction risk of sika deer.
The antimicrobial susceptibility of 201 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from foods, environments, animals and human patients in Japan was determined. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, the first choice of drug for listeriosis treatment, chloramphenicol, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, lincomycin, nosiheptide, salinomycin, vancomycin, and virginiamycin. A human strain was resistant to oxytetracycline. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for 50% of the strains and the MIC for 90% of the strains were comparable in all the isolates. This is the first investigation to compare antibiotic resistances between isolates from foods and isolates from human patients in Japan. The result showed that most of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics used in this study.
Two canine mammary gland tumor (MGT) cell lines, CHMp-5b and -13a, were transplanted into nude mice, and their tumor development and metastatic potential were evaluated. In addition, NF-κB, Ki-67 and cyclin D1 expressions in the tumor masses were evaluated, and the relationship between these expressions and malignancy of the tumors developed in nude mice was investigated. Lower activation of NF-κB was positively correlated with a lower potential of metastasis and better prognosis in nude mice xenografted with CHMp-13a compared with CHMp-5b. Then, CHMp-5b cells were treated with BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB, and the expressions of I-κBα, p-I-κBα, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in these cells were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In addition, BAY11-7082 at a dose of 6 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice xenografted with CHMp-5b, and relationships between tumor growth and lung and lymph node metastasis in nude mice and NF-κB, I-κBα and p-I-κBα expressions in tissues of these mice were evaluated. BAY11-7082 treatment induced decreased expressions of p-I-κBα, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that BAY inhibited NF-κB in this cell line. CHMp-5b-xenografted mice treated with BAY11-7082 showed a reduction in tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway may be a promising novel therapeutic approach for canine MGTs.
Artificial bone implants are often incorporated with osteoinductive factors to facilitate early bone regeneration. Calcium phosphate, the main component in artificial bone implants, strongly binds these factors, and in a few cases, the incorporated proteins are not released from the implant under conditions of physiological pH, thereby leading to reduction in their osteoinductivity. In this study, we coated tailor-made bone implants with trehalose to facilitate the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In an in vitro study, mouse osteoblastic cells were separately cultured for 48 hr in a medium with a untreated implant (T-), trehalose-coated implant (T+), bFGF-incorporated implant (FT-), and bFGF-incorporated implant with trehalose coating (FT+). In the FT+ group, cell viability was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that trehalose effectively covered the surface of the artificial bone implant without affecting the crystallinity or the mechanical strength of the artificial bone implant. These results suggest that coating artificial bone implants with trehalose could limit the binding of bFGF to calcium phosphate.
To compare the technical difficulty and safety of epidural catheterization between cranial and caudal lumbar region, thirteen dogs were randomly assigned to a cranial lumbar group (group CraL, n=6) or a caudal lumbar group (group CauL, n=6) depending on different epidural sites, and one dog was used as a negative control without catheterization. After general anesthesia, an epidural catheter was advanced 10 cm cranially from the interspace of L1-L2 in group CraL or from lumbosacral space in group CauL. Dogs were euthanized and catheter position and tip location were confirmed by laminectomy. Spinal cord samples were examined by macro- and microscopic observations. Success rate, time taken for epidural space confirmation and catheter insertion were compared, and overall technical difficulty was evaluated subjectively. Epidural catheter was inserted successfully in all dogs. Time needed from needle skin puncture to catheter placement and saline injection was 226 ± 63 and 229 ± 26 sec in groups CraL and CauL without significant differences. Three dogs in group CraL suffered subcutaneous blood, but no spinal cord injuries were found. Subjective evaluation score of the overall technical difficulty was slightly but significantly higher in group CraL than in group CauL (P=0.009). Epidural catheterization in cranial lumbar region could be performed as feasible and safe as that at the caudal lumbar vertebral region in medium or large dogs.
Cardiovascular effects of tramadol were evaluated in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane. Six beagle dogs were anesthetized twice at 7 days interval. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane was earlier determined in each dog. The dogs were then anesthetized with sevoflurane at 1.3 times of predetermined individual MAC and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated before (baseline) and after an intravenous injection of tramadol (4 mg/kg). The administration of tramadol produced a transient and mild increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) (P=0.004) with prolonged increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (P<0.0001). Compared with baseline value, mean ABP increased significantly at 5 min (119% of baseline value, P=0.003), 10 min (113%, P=0.027), and 15 min (111%, P=0.022). SVR also increased significantly at 5 min (128%, P<0.0001), 10 min (121%, P=0.026), 30 min (114%, P=0.025), 45 min (113%, P=0.025) and 60 min (112%, P=0.048). Plasma concentrations of tramadol were weakly correlated with the percentage changes in mean ABP (r=0.642, P<0.0001) and SVR (r=0.646, P<0.0001). There was no significant change in heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In conclusion, the administration of tramadol produces a prolonged peripheral vascular constriction in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane, which is accompanied with a transient and mild increase in arterial blood pressure. It also indicated that the degree of vasoconstriction might depend on the plasma concentration of tramadol.
Seven Thoroughbred horses were castrated under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) using propofol and medetomidine. After premedication with medetomidine (5.0 μg/kg, intravenously), anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin (100 mg/kg, intravenously) and propofol (3.0 mg/kg, intravenously) and maintained with constant rate infusions of medetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/min) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min). Quality of induction was judged excellent to good. Three horses showed insufficient anesthesia and received additional anesthetic. Arterial blood pressure changed within an acceptable range in all horses. Decreases in respiratory rate and hypercapnia were observed in all horses. Three horses showed apnea within a short period of time. Recovery from anesthesia was calm and smooth in all horses. The TIVA-regimen used in this study provides clinically effective anesthesia for castration in horses. However, assisted ventilation should be considered to minimize respiratory depression.
The fertility was compared between ejaculated and cauda epididymal sperm sensitized with prostatic fluid in dog after freeze-thawing using the fertility of ova from the contralateral ovary after injection (2 × 108 sperm) into dog uterus on the unilateral ovariectomized side, on the basis of the presence or absence of conception. No significant difference was observed in sperm quality after freeze-thawing between the two groups and conception rates were equivalent and low. Therefore, to achieve a high fertility by intrauterine insemination of canine frozen-thawed ejaculated and cauda epididymal sperm, intrauterine insemination on both sides is recommended, rather than insemination with a lot of sperm of the uterine horn on one side.
The first epidemiological survey of Border disease virus (BDV) was undertaken in small ruminants in Japan. Ovine sera, collected from the northern prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate, were examined for the presence of antibodies against BDV using the neutralization peroxidase-linked antibody test. Twenty-nine (17.6%) of one hundred and sixty-five samples were seropositive for BDV. Results were specific, excluding cross-reactions with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Only one sample (0.6%) was positive for BVDV, and was negative for BDV. Despite serological evidence of virus circulation, there have been no clinical cases of border disease in sheep in Japan. Although no diagnostic measures were performed, the infection did not appear to be associated with a reduction in ewe fertility nor with lamb mortality.
A single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution of guanine (G) for adenine (A) at position 2254 in the viral DNA polymerase gene (encoded by open reading frame [ORF] 30) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has been significantly associated with neuropathogenic potential in strains of this virus. To estimate the prevalence of EHV-1 strains with the neuropathogenic genotype (ORF30 G2254) in the Hidaka district-a major horse breeding area in Japan-we analyzed the ORF30 genomic region in cases of EHV-1 infection in this area during the years 2001-2010. Of the 113 cases analyzed, 3 (2.7%) were induced by ORF30 G2254 strains. This prevalence is lower than those observed in the U.S.A. (10.8-19.4%), Argentina (7.4%), France (24%), and Germany (10.6%).