Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 56 , Issue 3
Showing 1-45 articles out of 45 articles from the selected issue
  • Mitsuhiro IWASA, Ayako KAWADA, Miho YORITA, Naotaka ISHIGURO, Morikazu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 429-432
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An epizootiologic study was conducted for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) on a large grassland farm rearing a total of 1, 300-1, 400 heifers during May to October in both 1991 and 1992. Heifers were examined for infection with Moraxella bovis, and isolation of M. bovis from the affected eyes and from Asian face flies (Musca bezzii Patton et Cragg) swarming on the heifer face was carried out. During the observation period, 10.77% of the heifers in 1991 and 5.3% of the heifers in 1992 were affected with IBK. Eight M. bovis isolates were isolated from the ocular swabs of affected heifers with IBK for 2 years and identified by biochemical examinations and Southern DNA-DNA hybridization, but no M. bovis was obtained from 331 Asian face flies tested. Plasmid profile analysis showed that two plasmids (35-kb and 4.0-kb) were commonly found in all 8 M. bovis isolates. This indicates that M. bovis isolates with the same plasmid rofile were widely disseminated on this farm for 2 years.
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  • Takashi SASAKI, Sunao FUKAMI, Shigeo NAMIOKA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 433-437
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Peptidoglycan (PG) of Bifidobacterium thermophilum (B. thermophilum) from swine were orally administered to SPF-ICR mice in order to confirm the enhancement of the defence activity of the mice against Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection. It was found that the survival rates of the PG-administered group were significantly higher than those of the non-treated control group after the single oral administration of PG. And the proper concentration at which PG enhanced defence activity most effectively was found to be 500 μg per mouse. The number of E. Coli in the peripheral blood, liver and spleen of the PG-administered group at 24 hr after the inoculation was significantly smaller than that in the Control group. Liver weight per body weight in the PG treated group significantly increased in comparison with that of the non-treated group. The number of blastoid plasmacytes in the spleen of the PG-administered mice was found to be greater than that in the control group. These results indicate that the defence activity of mice against E. coli infection was accelerated by PG treatment.
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  • Yasushi HIROTA, Masamichi KUROHMARU, Mitsuharu MATSUMOTO, Yoshihiro HA ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 439-442
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis in golden hamsters was studied using a light microscope. Male golden hamsters were fed a vitamin A deficient (VAD) diet from 3 weeks of age. Hamsters with a VAD diet reached maximum body weight at about 13 weeks. After 17 weeks, the body weight of the hamsters began to decrease. When their body weight decreased to 70 g, only Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and a few spermatocytes were present within the seminiferous tubules. Administering retinol acetate (vitamin A) combined with a conventional diet to the VAD hamsters induced a reinitiation of spermatogenesis with stage-synchronization. At 9, 10, and 11 weeks after vitamin A replacement, the testes with active spermatogenesis possessed only a few successive stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle.
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  • Samuel Baltazar ANIMAS, Koichi OTSUKI, Mitsunobu HANAYAMA, Takeshi SAN ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 443-447
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Chicks at 2, 4 or 6 weeks of age were experimentally infected individually with a nephrosis/nephritis-causing avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain Kagoshima-34. The susceptibility of chicks in each group to the infection was compared, based on the clinical signs, excretion of virus in the faeces and antibody titres in the serum. The results showed that although all chicks appeared to be susceptible to IBV infection, the most severe clinical response was observed following infection at 2-week-old. Likewise, whilst the virus was also recovered from the faeces of all the chicks infected, the duration of viral excretion was longest in the 2-week-old chicks. A high antibody titre was detected at 4 weeks post infection (PI) and was maintained for at least another 16 weeks in the 4- and 6-week-old chicks. In contrast, a low antibody titre was detected only between 8 to 12 weeks PI in the 2-week-old chicks. Thereafter, no antibody was detected despite the presence of clinical signs.
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  • Samuel Baltazar ANIMAS, Koichi OTSUKI, Misao TSUBOKURA, Jane K. A. COO ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 449-453
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two- and 6-week-old chicks were inoculated with the Kagoshima-34 strain of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Serum, bile, Harderian gland, lachrymal fluid, saliva and tracheal washings were collected and their antibody content determined using neutralisation tests. The neutralising antibody (NA) in the serum and bile was detected earlier and in slightly higher concentration in the 6-week-old chicks. Although there was no marked difference in the levels of NA in other body fluids, it was detected earlier in the 6-week-old chicks. In both experiments, the clinical signs were more severe in the 2-week-old chicks. Recovery of virus from the trachea of both ages was not different but virus was recovered for longer in the lungs, kidneys and colon of the 2-week-old chicks. This is the first report wherein IBV-neutralising antibody in the bile is described.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 455-458
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The right lung of the dog consists of the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory lobes. The left lung consists of the bilobed middle and caudal lobes. These lobes are separated by interlobular fissures on either side. The dog lung has four bronchiole systems, dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial, on either side. The right cranial lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the dorsal bronchiole system. The right middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system, and the right accessory lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the ventral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the dorsal, lateral and ventral bronchiole systems and all the bronchioles of the medial bronchiole system constitute the right caudal lobe. In the left lung, the left middle lobe is formed by the first bronchiole of the lateral bronchiole system. The remaining bronchioles of the lateral bronchiole system and all the bronchioles of the dorsal, ventral and medial bronchiole systems constitute the left caudal lobe. These findings are compared with those in other domestic animals and man.
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  • Osamu YAMADA, Mitsuo ABE, Kazushige TAKEHANA, Kenji IWASA, Takeo HIRAG ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 459-464
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Large luteal cells of the bovine pregnant luteum can be characterized as steroid-producing cells. Mitochondria of these cells contained intramitochondrial bodies (IMB). The three-dimensional structure of the IMB and the degenerative process of luteal cells were as follows: 1) The IMBs were globular or oval, 0.1 to 1.5 μm in diameter. Their outer surfaces were coarse but their cut surfaces were uniform. Their outer surfaces changed from rough to smooth during pregnancy. 2) At the late stage of pregnancy, the large luteal cells lost their cytoplasmic processes, showing the first sign of degeneration at the cell level in such a way that their mitochondrial cristae transformed from tubular to laminar, and that they contained accumulated lipid droplets. 3) After parturition, the IMBs came out from degenerating large luteal cells, and were conveyed by lymphatic capillaries.
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  • Isao SHIBATA, Katsuyoshi URUNO, Yasuo SAMEGAI, Munenori OKADA, Yuji IN ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 465-468
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    In vitro and in vivo replication of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine alveolar macrophages (AM) was studied using two virulent strains and a vaccine strain with deletions in the thymidine kinase and gIII genes. In vitro, AM were highly permissive to virulent ADV infection. Virus progeny titers of virulent strains in the cell phase and in the fluid phase were higher than 107.3 TCID50/ml at 84 hr post-inoculation (PI). For vaccine strain infection, AM were less permissive, yielding virus titers of 102.3 TCID50/ml at 84 hr PI. To study in vivo replication of ADV in AM, virus isolations were made from AM collected at intervals from pigs inoculated intranasally with both the virulent and vaccine strains. Virus was isolated from AM samples collected from all pigs infected with the virulent strain from days 2 to 22 PI. On the contrary, no virus was detected in AM samples collected from pigs infected with the vaccine strain. The results presented suggesited that in vivo virulent ADV replicates for a relatively long period in swine alveolar macrophages.
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  • WenZhong ZHUANG, Chihiro SUGIMOTO, Takashi MATSUBA, Shingo NIINUMA, Mi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 469-473
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Theileria sergenti Fukushima stock, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite of cattle, were produced. The MoAbs reacted with 32 kDa or 23 kDa piroplasm surface protein (p32 or p23) in Western blot analysis. Using a panel of the MoAbs, antigenic analysis of the stocks and field isolates distributed in Japan was carried out. The results revealed antigenic diversity of 17. sergenti isolates, but diversity did not appear to be correlated with the geographical region of the isolates. N-terminal amino acids sequences analysis revealed substitutions of a few amino acids between the p23 of two T. sergenti stocks. The sequences couldn't be found in amino acid sequence of the p32 deduced from cDNA, which indicated that the p23 is not a proteolytic product of the p32. Genetic diversity of T. sergenti isolates was also observed by Southern blot analysis using a cDNA of the p32 as a probe.
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  • Yukio MORITA, Soichi MARUYAMA, Yasuji KATSUBE
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 475-479
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Atypical mycobacteriosis was detected in 4, 919 (0.28%) of 1, 776, 294 swine slaughtered at the G slaughter house in Gunma Prefecture during the period 1988-1990. The tuberculous lesions were mainly observed in the submaxillaly (64.4%) and mesenteric lymph nodes (29.0%). The enzootic and sporadic infections were detected in 4 and 870 of 1, 200 piggeries, respectively. Of the 2, 076 infected swine detected between September, 1988 and December, 1989, 231 swine were submitted to the isolation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAIC). MAIC was isolated from 141 of 219 swine that had tuberculous lesions only in the lymph nodes and from all of the remaining 12 swine that had lesions in the liver or in both the lymph nodes and organs. MAIC was also isolated from 11 gastric and 6 cecal contents of the 231 swine. Of 431 strains isolated, 336 were classified into 13 serovars. M. intracellulare serovar 6 (34.6%) was the Most predominant, followed by serovars 8 (21.8%), 4 (8.6%) and 10 (6.5%). Four strains (0.9%) were identified as M. avium serovar 3. In 16 swine, cach individual harbored plural serovars. The results of the investigation suggested that the atypical mycobacteriosis due to MAIC was widely distributed in swine in Gunma Prefecture.
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  • Rieko HORINO, Tomoo ITABISASHI, Kohichi HIRANO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 481-485
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    For observing biochemical and morphopathological changes in experimental cerebrocortical necrosis, 6 sheep and 6 calves were given amprolium (600 mg/kg/day). All of the amprolium-dosed animals showed neurological signs and died on days 35 to 57 after the onset of daily administration. They were pathologically confirmed as cerebrocortical necrosis. Total thiamine levels in blood and tissues were markedly reduced at death. Blood total thiamine level decreased significantly on day 7 of amprolium administration, and reached to the level as low as that seen at death about 2 weeks before the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms. Significant decrease in a thiamine-dependent enzyme, erythrocyte transketolase activity, and increase in thiamine pyrophosphate effect were detected about 2 weeks before the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms. Pathological changes and cerebral autofluorescence observed under ultraviolet light were also examined at death.
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  • Kazuto YAMASHITA, Toru FUJINAGA, Toru MIYAMOTO, Mitsuyoshi HAGIO, Yasu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 487-492
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The changes in serum activity of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were studied in dogs with acute inflammation. Dogs with local inflammation induced by an intramuscular injection of turpentine oil showed clinically a typical progression in the inflammatory response, recovering on day 14 after the treatment. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1 acid glycoprotein (α1AG) increased, and the albumin concentration decreased in all dogs during the acute phase response. These values each returned to the normal range from day 14 to 21. Serum IL-6-like activity was detected from 2 hr to day 6 after treatment. Serum TNF-like activity in the treatment group was detected at a low level from 3 to 24 hr after treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference compared with the control group. The temporal changes in serum IL-6 and TNF-like activities preceded those in serum concentrations of CRP, α1AG, and albumin. No dogs showed a detectable rise in serum IL-1-like activity after treatment.
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  • Noriyoshi HASHIMOTO, Daiji ENDOH, Mikinori KUWABARA, Hiroshi SATOH, Fu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 493-498
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Murine model for lung tumor induction was studied in C3H/He male mice, a strain with low spontancous incidence of lung tumors. Dose-response relationships in lung tumor induction were compared following irradiation with single doses and split doses of X-rays to the thorax either at night or in the daytime. The tumor incidence after a single 1.25 Gy dose at night during the period of nocturnal activity almost reached the maximum level after a 5 Gy dose in the daytime. Proliferative activity determined by observing the labeling index with tritiated thymidine in the normal lung was low as a whole, but tended to decrease in the daytime. When the proliferative response was induced by X-irradiation, signiticantly higher activity was observed at night. These circadian fluctuations were thought to affect radiosensitivity and lung tumor induction in mice. When split doses or fractionated doses of X-rays were applied to the thorax, lung tumor incidence definitely increased. The incidence after two 7.5 Gy doses with a 12 hr-interval was 41%, 3-fold higher than that after a single 15 Gy dose. Moreover, fractionated whole body irradiations (three times at 3 Gy with 3-month-interval) after a single 7.5 Gy thoracic irradiation was most effective in increasing not only the incidence (47%) but also the multiplicity of the lung tumor. More than 30% of tumor-bearing mice had two or more tumors following thoracic and whole body irradiations, while only 10% of tumor-bearers had multiple tumors after single or fractionated thoracic irradiation alone.
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  • Kozo ADACHI, Yoichiro HORII, Hiroshi NAGATOMO, Takamasa SHIMIZU, Susum ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 499-502
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A competitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay technique for the quantitation of erythrocyte (RBC)-bound IgG was devised. This method is highly sensitive, reproducible and can be performed more simply. Anemic dogs with a positive Coombs' test result were observed to have higher RBC-bound IgG values (IgG concentration, ng/ml) than healthy dogs.
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  • Aki NAKATA, Akinori JOZAKI, Naomi HIRATA, Mikihiko TOKURIKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 503-509
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Segmental synaptic responses in the obliquus externus abdominis (OEA) for stimulation of the dorsal cutaneous and cutaneous-muscle (CD) nerve and the ventral cutaneous and cutaneous-muscle (CV) nerve were investigated in 49 spinal cats and 28 cats under α-chloralose anesthesia (chloralose cats) with an intracellular recording method. The result that there was no monosynaptic PSP in OEA motoneurons for stimulation of the CD or CV nerves (containing the cutaneous-muscle nerve) indicates that the cutaneous muscle of the dorsal or ventral area does not connect monosynaptically to the OEA motoneuron. The OEA motoneurons in chloralose cats received few effects from descending pathways coming from the upper spinal cord and the brain. Almost all OEA neurons had polysynaptic EPSP responses for stimulation of the ipsilateral or contralateral CD or CV nerves at 5-10T stimulus intensity in spinal or chloralose cats, which indicates that the OEA muscle can contract bilaterally when strong impulses of superficial afferents from the left or right skin or cutaneous muscle enter in the spinal cord.
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  • Aki NAKATA, Akinori JOZAKI, Mikihiko TOKURIKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 511-516
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Segmental synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of the dorsal cutaneous and cutaneous-muscle (CD) nerve or the ventral cutaneous and cutaneous-muscle (CV) nerve were investigated with intracellular recording from rectus abdominis (RA) motoneurons in 49 spinal cats and 28 α-chloralose-anesthetized cats. No monosynaptic and few disynaptic connections existed in the circuit from the ipsilateral or contralateral CD or CV nerves to RA motoneurons in spinal cats. Polysynaptic EPSP responses equal to or over trisynaptic connections were dominant. In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats, RA motoneurons exhibited significantly more polysynaptic EPSP responses at lower stimulus intensities (1.5T and 2T) of ipsilateral CV nerve stimulation than at those of contralateral CV nerve stimulation, The result that there was no monosynaptic or disynaptic PSP in RA motoneurons produced by low-intensity stimulation of the ipsilateral CD or CV nerve containing the cutaneous-muscle nerves indicated that Ia afferents from the cutaneous-muscle did not connect mono- or di-synaptically to the RA motoneuron. RA motoneurons exhibited more polysynaptic IPSP responses in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats than in spinal cats. Segmental pathways from the CD or CV nerves to RA motoneurons might receive inhibitory descending inputs from the upper spinal cord or the brain, in contrast to those from the same nerves to obliquus externus abdominis motoneurons previously reported.
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  • Yoshio KOJIMA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 517-522
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    During the morphological study of goat spermatogenesis, an electron dense core was noticed in the microbody of the Sertoli cell in adult animals. By means of a goniometer apparatus fitted to the electron microscope, tilting 30° unidirection, the dense core frequently displayed a characteristic checker pattern as a crystalloid or crystal. The size of the lattices in the crystalloid was found to be 6.6 nm lattice rods with 16.7 nm intervals (n=48). In this report, the structure and function of the crystalloid construction is discussed; and the results suggestled, as did former reports, that it may be a kind of peroxisome.
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  • Sei MATSUMURA, Takuo ISHIDA, Tsukimu WASHIZU, Isamu TOMODA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 523-528
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Lymph nodes from cats with natural feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection were examined histopathologically for characterization of lesions in the symptomatic and terminal stages. The localization of viral antigen was also studied in the nodes by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to FIV p24. In a node of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy stage, follicular hyperplasia was prominent and the viral antigen was demonstrated predominantly in the follicular lymphocytes and tingible body macrophages. In cats died at AIDS related complex stage, the lymph nodes showed either mixed follicular hyperplasia and involution, involution, or mixed involution and depletion. The lymph nodes in those died at AIDS stage showed considerable destruction of the nodal architecture with involution and depletion of lymphoid follicles. In this terminal stage, the viral antigen was seen prominently in histiocytes/macrophages of the sinus. These findings observed in the dead cats were similar to the lymph node changes seen in human AIDS associated with HIV infection. It was suggested that sequential histologic changes from follicular hyperplasia to depletion via involution took place in the FIV infected lymph node with persistence of FIV antigen.
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  • Takahiro YAMAGUCHI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 529-533
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    In swine gonadotropic (SGT) cells, the alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity was ultracytochemically demonstrated on the outer surface of the plasma membrane and in some vesicles in the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane-associated APase activity was sporadically detected on the outer surface and was intense at the site adjacent to the next SGT cells or follicular cells. APase-positive vesicles occurred around the Golgi apparatus and in the periphery of SGT cells. Some of the vesicles positive for APase activity attached to the plasma membrane. These results suggest that APase is synthesized in SGT cells and moves to the plasma membrane.
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  • Takashi MORI, Kazuya NAGATA, Takuo ISHIDA, Hirofumi NIKAIDO, Eiichi KO ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 535-540
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To demonstrate the possible role of foreign-body reaction to extravasated blood in provoking chronic cerebral vasospasm, talc (crystallized hydrous magnesium silicate) was injected as a non-biologic foreign material into the canine cisterna cerebellomedull-aris, and pathologic changes were followed. Angiographically, this cisternal talc injection induced delayed and prolonged constriction of the basilar artery, without any evidence of so-called early phase cerebral vasospasm that should occur shortly after an insult. Pathologically, around the spastic artery in the subarachnoid space with talc injection, the appearance of a moderate cellular migration coincided with cerebral vasoconstriction, which took place 2 days after talc injection. In the spastic basilar arterial wall, marked constrictive and degenerative changes including myonecrosis and subintimal proliferation were induced by cisternal talc injection as early as on day 2, and the changes were progressive with time. These pathologic changes were extremely analogous to those of the human autopsy cases with chronic cerebral vasospasm (chronic VS) but more prominent than those observed in the experimental autologous blood-induced model. The present study demonstrated that a foreign-body reaction to talc alone could induce chronic VS in the absence of extravasated blood. Thus, it is possible to consider that inflammatory reactions to extravasated autologous blood in subarachnoid hemorrhage may give rise to chronic VS.
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  • Miho OHUE, Takashi MAKITA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 541-546
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Changes in fine structure of peroxisomes and mitochondria were examined by electron microscopy in the hepatocyte of rats administered with bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic reagents. Peroxisomes increased to approximately 4.8 times in number one week after oral administration of bezafibrate in male rats. Newly induced peroxisomes showed paler matrix with frequent absence of core structure at two weeks after administration, peroxisomes further increased in number, 5.8 times in males, and were mostly devoid of core structure. Mitochondrial cristae were occasionally arranged along the long axis of mitochondria. Activity of carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), one of the enzymes involved in beta oxidation of fatty acids, increased significantly after oral administration of bezafibrate. At two weeks after administration, it increased up to 12.0 times in males, 8.4 times in castrated males, 3.8 times in females and 5.5 times in castrated females, respectively. Cytochemically, CAT was localized in the outer compartment and inner membrane of mitochondria. CAT activity was also detected in the matrix of peroxisomes at two weeks after oral administration of bezafibrate.
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  • Hozumi TANAKA, Mitsugu HISHINUMA, Yoshiyuki TAKAHASHI, Hiroshi KANAGAW ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 547-548
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The present study examined the developmental competence of oocytes from the ovaries of repeat-breeding cows after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The number of oocytes recovered from eight repeat-breeders averaged 45. Following IVF, the average number of blastocysts obtained was 5 (range from 1 to 7) per cow. Twenty-two frozen-thawed blastocysts were transferred to recipient animals and produced nine pregnancies (41%). Eight normal calves were subsequently born.
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  • Chiharu MORITA, Satoshi INOUE, Yasushi AMI, Kazuyoshi SUGIYAMA, Takash ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 549-550
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two Seoul virus strains were isolated from the same wild brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) by 2 different procedures. While one isolate (TR-352) by means of a cell culture system had no horizontal transmissibility in 3-week-old rats, another isolate (TR-352R) by means of inoculation to newborn rats had transmissibility in rats.
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  • Eri TANAKA, Takahiro KIMURA, Sinpei WADA, Kisio HATAI, Seizaburou SONO ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 551-553
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Serious dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was found in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) at Yomiuri Land Marine Aquarium in Tokyo. The external clinical signs were extensive depilation and hyperkeratosis, as well as redness and depigmentation of the skin. Histopathological findings of the skin revealed PAS positive fungal hyphae with septa in the corneum layer of the epidermis. Further microscopic examination suggested that this lesion of the skin was typical chronic dermatophytosis. Based on morphological and growth characteristics, the isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was thought that the infection was due to some factors including species and individual specific and environmental factors and so on.
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  • Masami UECHI, Yusuke NOGAMI, Haruko TERUI, Tomohiro NAKAYAMA, Ryoukich ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 555-556
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    We investigated urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase NAG (EC 3.2.1.30), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase γ-GTP (EC 2.3.2.2) and glycyl-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase GP-DAP (EC 3.4.14.5) in dogs with heartworm disease and renal failure. In the renal failure dogs, the NAG, γ-GTP and GP-DAP index were significantly higher than those in the healthy dogs. In the heartworm disease dogs with normal chest X-rays (HW I), none of the enzyme values was significantly different from those of the healthy controls. In the dogs with heartworm disease showing abnormal heart shadows on their chest X-rays (HW II), enzyme values were significantly higher than those in the healthy dogs (P<0.01) and the HW I dogs (P<0.01). Thus, these urinary enzymes tests are available for the early detection of renal disorders.
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  • Yoshitaka OMATA, Shen-Zhi XU, Ikuo IGARASHI, Atsushi SAITO, Hideo TOBA ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 557-558
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was examined in older cows and imported cattle slaughtered in East Hokkaido. Samples of myocardial tissues were examined for Sarcocystis microscopically. Sarcocystis cysts were detected in 15.7% of 83 older cows, 48.4% of 91 imported cattle which were kept in East Hokkaido prior to slaughter and 51.1% of 94 imported cattle slaughtered immediately after quarantine check. Based on the morphology of the cyst wall and the establishment of infection in experimentally inoculated dog, the Sarcocystis species was identified as Sarcocystis cruzi.
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  • Ryohei NISHIMURA, Hwi-yool KIM, Satoru MATSUNAGA, Kei HAYASHI, Hiroshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 559-561
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Effects of medetomidine (40μg/kg)-midazolam (0.2mg/kg) on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated in laboratory pigs. Intramuscular injection of medetomidine-midazolam induced a gradual hyperglycemic response associated with hypoinsulinemia which was much smaller than that by 80μg/kg of medetomidine alone and was almost within a physiological fluctuation. These mild responses induced by medetomidine-midazolam were antagonized by use of an α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist atipamezole (160μg/kg), therefore those changes were thought to be mainly attributed to the effect of medetomidine on α2-adrenoreceptors. A combination of medetomidine at a low dose and midazolam reduces undesirable effects, while providing more profound sedation than medetomidine alone in laboratory pigs.
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  • Fuyuki ABE, Toshihalu HAYASHI, Hiroyuki IWATA, Takeshi INOUE
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 563-564
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The capacity of lactic dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) clearance of the liver following partial hepatectomy was investigated in ICR mice. Compared with sham-operated mice, the LDH-5 clearance rate was decreased slightly after the removal of 30 or 50%. Removal of approximately 65% of the liver induced a statistically significant decrease in the clearance rate. LDH activity in the blood was increased by the removal of about 50 and 65%, but not 30% of the liver. These results suggest that increase in LDH activity after hepatectomy may be due to decreased catabolic activity of the liver and the liver may play a significant role in the catabolism of LDH-5. The LDH-5 clearance capacity of the liver will be discussed.
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  • Nariaki NONAKA, Takashi IWAKI, Munehiro OKAMOTO, Hong-Kean OOI, Yuzabu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 565-567
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from Norway rats captured at Sapporo (SRN isolate) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KRN) and from Bedford's gray red-backed voles at Toubetsu (TCR) and Abuta (ACR). SRN, KRN and TCR isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in Mongolian gerbils and voles. Contrary to this, inoculation with ACR isolate eggs resulted in strobilocerci formation in the liver of voles, but no cysts were observed in rats, mice or gerbils. This host specificity of ACR isolate to voles suggests that it might be a new species of Taenia.
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  • Shoichi NAKAKUKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 569-571
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The lungs of 70 crab-eating monkeys were examined. The crab-eating monkey has the dorsal, lateral, ventral and medial bronchiole systems on both sides. According to the bronchial ramification, the right lung consists of the upper, middle, lower, and accessory lobes, whereas the left lung consists of a middle lobe which is bilobed and a lower lobe. These findings were based on the comparative anatomy of the bronchial tree and blood vessels of the mammalian lung.
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  • Rieko HORINO, Tomoo ITABISASHI, Kohichi HIRANO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 573-576
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    For observing chronological changes of biochemical and pathological aspects in experimental cerebrocortical necrosis, 14 sheep were given amprolium (600 mg/kg/day), and killed at various clinical stages. At the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms, total thiamine concentrations in the cerebrum, liver, heart and blood were reduced significantly. After anorexia was noted, total thiamine concentrations in them did not decrease further as symptoms developed severely. Autofluorescence and necrotic lesions in the cerebral cortex were observed in animals killed one day after the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms.
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  • Tetsuro SUGIMOTO, Yasuyuki MISAWA, Rikio NIKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 577-579
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    An intracranial epidermal cyst was found incidentally in a 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rat. The cyst was located in the leptomeninx of the longitudinal cerebral fissure, ventral to the corpus callosum and dorsal to the third ventricle. It was approximately 0.7 mm in diameter, lined by stratified squamous epithelium and filled with concentric layers of desquamated keratin. The wall consisted of 2-4 layers of cells. Ultrastructurally, the sequence of epidermal differentiation was not normal in that the basal cell layer and was absent in certain areas. The adjacent brain tissues were slightly compressed but not otherwise damaged by the cyst.
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  • Neide Mariko TANAKA, Kunio SHIOTA, Ken NODA, Satoshi KOKUBO, Tsuyoshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 581-583
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD) activities in 57 neoplastic tissues surgically removed from dogs were measured. Forty-eight of 57 tumor samples were shown to possess 20α-HSD activity. These tissues were histopathologically classified into 22 benign and 26 malignant tumors. Among these tumors, mixed tumor types demonstrated the higher 20α-HSD activity than epithelial and non-epithelial types, and malignant tumors of each tissue type showed slightly but not significantly higher 20α-HSD activities comparing with the corresponding benign ones. Comparing with the activity of normal tissues examined, the corresponding tumor tissues showed significantly higher 20α-HSD activities. Thus, 20α-HSD activity was found in neoplastic tissues at a considerable high rate and the activity seemed to be higher in pathologically malignant tumors.
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  • Yukio MORITA, Mariko ARAI, Osamu NOMURA, Soichi MARUYAMA, Yasuji KATSU ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 585-587
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A tubercular lesion (15 mm in diameter) was found on the skin of the caudal part of the cloaca in a 2-year-old male carrier-pigeon. Mycobacterium avium serovar 2 was isolated from the tubercular lesion on the skin and in the feces. The smooth and dome (SmD) variant (4.9 × 106 CFU) and rough and granular (RG) variant (3.7 × 107 CFU) of the isolates were injected into chickens intravenously. The chickens inoculated with the RG variant died on the 39th day and the one with the SmD variant died on the 77th day after inoculation. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in all the inoculated chickens. Many white tubercular lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and lung of the chicken inoculated with the SmD variant, while no macroscopical change was observed in the bird inoculated with the RG variant. Inoculated organisms were recovered from the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and pancreas of each inoculated chicken.
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  • Morihiro SAITO, Yoshinao OHUCHI, Masaru KOBAYASHI, Makoto HARITANI, Hi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 589-591
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Sarcocystis cruzi antigens and their antisera were prepared for the seroimmunological diagnosis of bovine sarcocystosis. Fresh S. cruzi cysts directly removed from cardial muscle of slaughtered cattle were digested with trypsin to release bradyzoites. By twelve cycles of freezing at-22°C and thawing at 37°C, bradyzoites were let to leach out soluble material. The soluble antigens were inoculated four times to rabbits at a dose of 343 μg protein and anti-S. cruzi sera were prepared with blood of the rabbits. Gel immunodiffusion test showed no cross-reaction between the present antigens and any of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Hammondia hammondi and - Besnoitia wallacei rabbit sera. Avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique with the present anti-S. curzi rabbit sera showed clear positive reaction against S. cruzi cysts in the muscular sections of infected cattle.
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  • Reiko USUI, Junko HIROTA, Toshinori OMI, Sadahiko IWAMOTO, Shigenori I ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 593-595
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Canine red blood cells were divided into a positive type (C type) and a negative type (c type) by a agglutination test with Clerodendron trichotomum lectin (CTL). Blood cells changed from c to C type after suffering from mammary tumor were named cm. The c type blood cells treated with neuraminidase were named cn. These red blood cells were studied with flow cytometry using a directly fluoresceinated CTL. Positive percents of C type, cm type, and cn type were 49.3%, 43.8% and 81.0% respectively. While C showed one peak in histogram, cm showed two peaks. The positive peak in the cm blood cells suggested an appearance of a new blood cell population with a novel sugar chain structure after suffering from the tumor.
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  • Michiko HASHIMOTO, Hideo NIGI, Masahiro SAKAGUCHI, Sakae INOUYE, Hiros ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 597-598
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    We evaluated the removal of a cat major allergen (Feld I) from futons (Japanese bedding) with the use of a large-sized home washing machine. Before and after washing a futon that had been used in a home with a cat, a small amount of cotton was collected from the futon and Fel d I was extracted from the cotton. The levels of Fel d I were assayed by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that washing reduced the Fel d I level in futons by more than 95%. In conclusion, washing of futons is an effective method for elimination of their cat allergens.
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  • Kiichi KANAYAMA, Tadashi SANKAI, Koichi NARIAI, Tuyoshi ENDO, Yuzi SAK ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 599-600
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    With a view to simplify the method of inducing superovulation in rabbits, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a solvent for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). As a result, it became clear that more than the equivalent number of ovulation points and fertilized ova that are obtainable by the conventional six injections of FSH were able to be obtained by only a single injection of FSH-PVP preparation. Inflammation or swelling of the tissue was not observed in the injection site or its vicinity. The results seem to enable simplification of superovulation induction by using PVP as a vehicle for FSH in rabbits. This finding could reduce injection distress to the animals and labor of the operator.
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  • Takeo OHSUGl, Kazuki ISHIBASHI, Masahisa SHINGU, Taisei NOMURA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 601-603
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    HTLV-I-transformed human T-cell line, MT-2, has been reported to successfully proliferate in only the SCID mice with depletion of NK cell function. However, MT-2 cells could be engrafted into SCID mice possessing normal NK cell function in this study. MT-2 cells (5-7 × 107 cells) were intraperitoneally injected into SCID mice without the deletion of NK cell function. The SCID mice developed tumors in the peritoneal cavities 3 months after the inoculation of MT-2 cells. All tumors reacted to anti-HTLV-I p19 and anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies by immunofluorescence assay and were also positive for the HTLV-I gene by PCR assay. DNA obtained from main organs in group of mice with or without tumors showed a high incidence of positive signals for HTLV-I gene by PCR assay.
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  • Tatsuya TAKIZAWA, Takashi ODA, Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Masako YAMAMOTO, Hi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 605-606
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Caesarean newborn rats were given subcutaneously enalapril maleate (EM), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, (1) immediately or (2) 180 min after delivery. The ductus arteriosus (DA) in these newborn pups was calibrated 30, 60 and 90 min after the EM-treatment. The results were as follows: (1) DA calibers of the pups given 10 or 50 mg/kg EM just at caesarean delivery remained significantly larger than those of the controls thereafter until 90 min. (2) The DA was completely closed 180 min after caesarean delivery. However, with 50 mg/kg EM given at this time, the DA was temporarily re-opened and then constricted. It is concluded that, in newborn rats, EM has the direct inhibitory action on the constriction of the DA, and that it also has the re-opening action on the once-constricted DA.
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  • Michio FUJITA, Hiromitsu ORIMA, Katsuyuki MIYASAKA, Masao TAKATA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 607-609
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    We studied the pressure-volume (PV) relationships of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall in 8 anesthetized and paralyzed normal adult cats. The PV relationships of the total respiratory system had a sigmoid shape with a relatively linear portion with an alveolar pressure between 0 to + 15 cmH2O. The relative impact of the lung and chest wall to the total elastic recoil forces of the respiratory system was approximately equal within a physiological pressure range. The results suggest that measurements of PV relationships of the respiratory system may offer a physiologic basis for accurate interpretation of pulmonary functions, leading to a better therapeutic strategy in animals with lung diseases.
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  • Takafumi ONISHI, Sayoko SUZUKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 611-612
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    When the serum hemolytic activity in Babesia gibsoni-infected dogs was determined with self red blood cells from the infected animals, the decrease in the activity is paralleled with the increase in the number of reticulocytes. The activity determined with red blood cells from phenylhydrazine-induced anemia also decreased parallel with the increase in the number of reticulocytes. These results suggest that the rapid decrease in the serum hemolytic activity after reaching the peak is due to the increase in reticulocytes, which are probably unsusceptible to the hemolytic factor(s).
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  • Yoshiaki HIKASA, Katsuaki TAKASE, Kiyoko KONDOU, Shigeo OGASAWARA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 613-616
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effect of sevoflurane-oxygen anesthesia at surgical depth on clinically important features was evaluated in spontaneously breathing cattle given atropine-guaifenesin-thiopental. The mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 2.0% for 75 min maintenance. Recovery from anesthesia was extremely rapid and smooth. Heart rate increased and arterial pressure was higher during anesthesia, but respiratory rate did not change significantly. Arrhythmia was not observed. Minute ventilation was low due to decreased tidal volume during anesthesia, and changes in blood gases and pH showed mild respiratory acidosis. There were no marked changes in hematologic or serum biochemical values for 7 days postanesthesia. These findings suggest that sevoflurane is an effective inhalant anesthetic showing rapid recovery from anesthesia.
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  • Hac-Sung HYUN, Takenori ONAGA, Hitoshi MINEO, Seiyu KATO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 617-618
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effects of the perfusion rate and glucose concentration in perfusate on glucose absorption in the intestinal Thiry-Vella loop of conscious sheep were studied. When 10 mM glucose was perfused at the rates of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 ml/min, the absorption rates were 77.1±2.2, 54.9±2.3, 31.6±2.1 and 12.9±0.3%, respectively. When 5, 10, 20 and 40 mM glucose solutions were perfused at 1 ml/min, the absorption rates were 75.5±1.7, 52.2±2.2, 29.4±1.9 and 19.5±0.1%, respectively. We conclude that the perfusion of 10 mM glucose solution at 1 ml/min, in which about a 50% absorption rate was obtained, are the optimal conditions for the study of glucose absorption in the intestinal loop of sheep.
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  • Takayuki IWASE, Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Naoki OHYAMA, Keiko INAZAWA, Yumik ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 619-621
    Published: June 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The teratogenic potential of caffeine was examined in vitro by a whole embryo culture system (WECS) and an embryonic cell culture system (mi(:romas teratogen assay: MTA) in the rat. In the WECS, hyperemia of the tail, and a reducion of the placental size was induced by caffeir]e at concentrations higher than 50 pg/ml; hypoplasia of the forelimb bud was induced at concentrations higher than lOO /Lg/ml; hematoma in the yolk sac and dysmorphogenesis of the fore- and hind-limb buds, prosencephalon and tail were induced by 200 pg/ml caffeinc:. In the MTA, even with 200 pg/ml caffeine, the toxicological parameters obtained by proliferation and differentiation assays of the midbrain and limb bud cells were almost the same as in the contro1. In conclusion, caffeine induced various morPho1o9ical anomalies, but did not affect Proliferation or differentiation of cells in these experimental systems.
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