Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
Volume 56 , Issue 2
Showing 1-43 articles out of 43 articles from the selected issue
  • Tetsuya MIZUTANI, Akihiko MAEDA, Masanobu HAYASHI, Hiroshi ISOGAI, Shi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 211-215
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    DBT cells and several transfected cell lines which express antisense or sense RNA against the nucleocapsid protein gene of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were examined for the yields of MHV. The transfected cells showed 95 and 99% reduction of virus yield at 9 and 12 hr postinfection (p.i.) as compared with untransfected DBT cells. A remarkable decrease in MHV-specific RNA synthesis was observed in both transfected cell lines at 3.5 hr p.i. The result suggested that both antisense and sense RNAs inhibited viral replication at the initial stage of infection.
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  • Kazuhiro MISUMI, Hiroshi SAKAMOTO, Ryosuke SHIMIZU
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 217-222
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To investigate the validity of swimming training, the following matters were considered: 1) changes in the performance capacity, 2) changes in the constitution and 3) frequency of locomotor diseases. These were evaluated during a training program including both conventional exercise on a track and swimming. In this study, 24 two-year-old thoroughbred horses were studied, and divided into the following three groups: Group A, trained by only running; Group B, trained by running plus a gradual increase in swimming; Group C, trained by running plus constant swimming. As a result of standardized exercise tests, only the intercepts of the 3 regression curves between the speed and the blood lactate concentration in Group B increased significantly as the training progressed. While the growth in height in Groups B and C were greater than in Group A, the increase in girth and weight in Groups B and C were smaller than in Group A. The percentages with locomotor diseases during this experiment in Groups A, B, and C were 62.5%, 12.5% and 25.0%, respectively, and there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between Group A and Group B. As mentioned, it was suggested that a training program including swimming training is seen as being useful for improvement in performance capacity, since it can reduce locomotor diseases in young horses and allow for smooth progress in future training.
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  • Takashi OGAWA, Kazuki ISHIBASHI, Kazuhiko IMAMURA, Sei KURASHIGE, Tada ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 223-226
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze a correlation matrix of three variables on epidemic data of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) outbreaks. These original data were summarized from the official outbreak report of Fukuoka Prefecture. The first and the second principal components of the PCA were interpreted as the infectious potency due to BEF virus and the prevention against BEF virus infection, respectively. The BEF outbreak areas were able to be classified epidemically into 4 groups by using the two principal components. The valuable epidemiological insights can be reasonably obtained from an application of the PCA. The results provided an important information for a further BEF vaccination campaign in the western part of Japan.
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  • Nobuyuki TOMIZAWA, Ryohei NISHIMURA, Nobuo SASAKI, Hiroyuki NAKAYAMA, ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 227-233
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Nineteen wobbling foals (17 males and 2 females) showing lameness of hindlimbs at 6 to 21 months of age were investigated radiographically and histopathologically. Minimum sagittal diameter (MSD), minimum flexion diameter (MFD) and minimum dural sagittal diameter (MDD) were measured on plain radiograms or myelograms taken at neutral and flexed positions as indicators of narrowed vertebral canal. After necropsy, the cervical spines and the spinal cord were examined macroscopically and respectively the relationships between radiographic findings and the corresponding morphological lesions were evaluated. Radiographically, lower values than each minimum reference limits were recorded in 14 foals in MSD, 5 foals in MFD and 6 foals in MDD, respectively. According to the histopathologic examination, the disappearance of axons and myelin sheaths, vacuolated spongy degeneration and appearance of macrophages were recognized symmetrically in the white matter of the cervical cord. These lesions were centrally located at the spinal cord radiographically demonstrated as compressed sites in 12 out of 17 foals examined. Macroscopically, asymmetrical overgrowth of one side of the process, encroachment of articular processes into the intervertebral foramina and proliferation of bone around articular facets were observed in the articular processes of bone specimens in the caudal neck of 6 foals. In conclusion, the equine incoordination might mainly be caused by the cervical stenotic myelopathy resulting from cervical vertebral malformation, and therefore the cervical vertebral radiography, especially myelography, is quite very important and effective for the diagnosis of wobbling foals.
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  • Shintaro YAGI, Kiyoko YAGI, Juri FUKUOKA, Masanori SUZUKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 235-244
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The upstream activating sequence (UAS) of TDH3, one of three genes encoding glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized by using a series of external and internal deletion mutants of the TDH3 upstream region. The levels of activation by these deletions of transcription mediated through either the segment of TDH3 promoter or the segment of ADH1 (alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene) promoter were quantitatively examined and the region between -583 and -447 was found to be required for full transcriptional activation with either promoter segment. It has been demonstrated that the protein binding site involved in the formation of two DNA-protein complexes is identical with the consensus RAP1 binding sequcnce by methylation interference assay. Surprisingly, the UAS fragment composed of the 22-mer sequence containing exclusively a RAP1 binding sequence showed full activation, suggesting that the RAP1-dependent transcriptional activation is a primary positive control in the TDH3 gene expression. In addition, a pair of inverted rcpeat sequences homologous to the binding sequence for GRF2, another yeast trans-acting factor, and directly repeated sequences containing a CATCC motif were also found upstream and downstream, respectively, of the RAP1 binding site. Deletion analysis suggested that these elements could also function as regulatory elements for transcription.
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  • Musbah O. M. TANIRA, Farouk F. EL-SABBAN, Mohamed A. FAHIM, Ibrahim A. ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 245-248
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Effect of water deprivation for 1, 2 and 3 days, on blood parameters and photochemically-induced thrombosis in pial microvessels of the mouse were investigated. Blood data of dehydrated mice confirmed hemoconcentration with significant increases in urea, total proteins and cholesterol. The time required for the first platelet aggregate to appear and time to full occlusion in pial arterioles were significantly shorter in dehydrated mice than in control, thus suggesting an increased susceptibility to cerebrovascular thrombosis. The effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), 100 mg/kg (i.p.), in alleviating the accelerated thrombosis in dehydrated mice was also investigated. Mice were deprived of drinking water for a 24-hr period prior to the injection of ASA and the photochemical aggregation procedure. Acetyl salicylic acid significantly prolonged both time to platelet aggregation and to full occlusion of the vessel in dehydrated mice, thus indicating a protective effect.
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  • Yuji KONO, Seiji SUUZUKI, Tetsuya MUKAI, Katsunori OKAZAKI, Eiichi HON ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 249-253
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of IgG and IgA antibodies against Bordetella bronchiseptica in serum and nasal secretions of pigs was developed. The ELISA that used formolized phase I organisms of B. bronchiseptica as an antigen detected antibodies to a capsular K antigen(s) of the organism. In pigs which had an agglutinin titer of less than 10 and an ELISA value of 0.47, on average, of maternal antibodies to B. bronchiseptica, IgG antibody in serum increased 4 weeks on average and IgG and IgA antibodies in nasal secretions rose markedly l and 2 weeks, respectively, after appearance of more than 5×103 colony forming units per ml of the organisms in the nasal cavity. In contrast, IgG antibody response in serum was inhibited strongly and no increase of the antibody was observed in pigs that had high titers (an agglutinin titer of 149 and an ELISA value of 1.49, on average) of the maternal antibody. In the pigs, a typical decrease in the production and marked delay in the time course of the production of IgG and IgA antibodies in the nasal cavity were also observed. Thus, although pigs produced systemic and local antibodies to B. bronchiseptica, the antibody response was affected dose responsively by the maternal antibody. However, the effect seemed to be a little milder in local antibody responses than in systemic antibody responses. The role of the local antibodies in eradication of the organism in the nasal cavity was not elucidated.
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  • Noriyuki TAIRA, Minoru HIROOKA, Hideharu SAEKI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 255-258
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    On 30 August 1984, Strongyloides sp. specimens were isolated from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) trapped at a pig farm in Kiire-cho, Ibusuki-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Both anterior and posterior ovaries of parasitic female were spirally coiled. The means of body length and width, esophagus length, and the distances from mouth to vulva and from anus to tail end were 2, 493, 34.5, 719.8, 1, 682.8 and 54.4μm respectively. Filariform larvae measured 544.2, 15.6 and 238.5μm in the means of body length and width, and esophagus length respectively. These measurements of the present Strongyloides species agreed with those described for S. venezuelensis. Infection rate by oral administration of larvae was low, while subcutaneous inoculation and percutaneous exposure to larvae produced high infection rate to rats which discharged many egg in the feces. The present parasite has been passaged through rats (SD strain) in these 8 years. This isolate is designated as the Kagoshima strain of S. venezuelensis.
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  • Yoshio KOJIMA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 259-267
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    During the morphological study of goat spermatogenesis, cross and oblique sections of the neck region (connecting piece) of the spermatid were closely studied in conjunction with the shaping of the sperm head; the centriolar adjunct (CA) briefly appeared as a fragile organelle in spermiogenesis. As is the case of other mammalian spermatids, the CA expanded about 1μm in length from the distant end of the proximal centriole (PC). The prolongation of this structure began in an early stage of the cap phase in spermiogenesis, and it usually oriented itself parallel to the flat plane of the flattening spermatid head. In other words, the CA appears to regulate the flattening direction of the spermatid head. Thus, the expanding direction of this structure showed a declination of about 25°C toward the ninth microtubule in the axoneme of the sperm tail. After regulating the head shape, this accessory apparatus quickly disappeared during the maturation phase. If this observation is correct and not an artifact of sampling procedures, the basic mechanisms of sperm motility might be elucidated.
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  • Masao AKUZAWA, Mitsuru MORIZONO, Kenichi NAGATA, Seiya HAYANO, Hiroshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 269-273
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2, 300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs.
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  • Kimihiko SATOH, Toshio OHTA, Shigeo ITO, Yoshikazu NAKAZATO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 275-279
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Effects of dantrolene on contractions evoked by KCl, carbachol (CCh) and caffeine were studied in the circular smooth muscle of rat stomach. Dantrolene (10-100 μM) suppressed contractions evoked by KCl (40 mM) and CCh (1 μM), but not those induced by caffeine (3 mM) in physiological saline. After intracellular Ca stores were depleted by treatment with ryanodine (50 μM) plus caffeine (10 mM), or by repetitive applications of caffeine (10 mM) or CCh (0.1 mM) in the absence of extracellular Ca, combined application of KCl (150 mM) with Ca (2.5 mM) or CCh (1 μM) with Ca (2.5 mM) elicited contractions which were due to Ca influx. Nifedipine (10 μM) almost abolished the contractions induced by KCl, but only partially reduced the contractions induced by CCh. Dantrolene inhibited contractions induced by KCl with various concentrations of Ca (0.3-10 mM), and those induced by CCh with Ca (1-10 mM) in the presence of nifedipine. Dantrolene failed to inhibit the caffeine- and CCh-induced contractions depending on intracellularly stored Ca. In skinned muscle preparations, dantrolene had no effect on the contractions induced by Ca (6.3×10-7M). These results suggest that dantrolene inhibits Ca influx through both nifedipine-sensitive and -resistant pathways of the plasma membrane but does not affect Ca release from intracellular stores and the contractile machinery in the circular smooth muscle of rat stomach.
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  • Kouichi HIRANO, Yoshikazu ADACHI, Sachiko ISHIBASHI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 281-286
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The deleterious effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the liver after intragastric inoculation and the protective influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from AFB1 damage was biochemically and histologically examined using one-day-old chicks. Three mg/kg weight of AFB1 was inoculated intragastrically into the chicks, the dosage being based on the results of a preliminary toxicity test that indicated it was the minimum dose for lesion production. The resulting histological changes were confined to the liver and were characterized by bile duct proliferation, vacuolation of hepatic cells in the peripherolobular regions, and necrosis of hepatic cells in the centrilobular regions. In a subsequent experiment, 3 groups of one-day-old chicks were each inoculated with AFB1 alone, AFB1+BSA and dimethyl sulfoxide alone (control), respectively. BSA provided protection from AFB1 as evidenced by the less pronounced changes in the liver of chicks inoculated with AFB1+BSA and the same quantitative value of plasma isocitrate dehydrogenase released from the liver, maintaining its activity at nearly the same level with the control. Moreover, AFB1 contents in the plasma and liver were significantly lower in the AFB1+BSA inoculated chicks than those with AFB1 alone. AFB1 in the plasma and liver of both groups receiving AFB1 attained its maximum level 6 hr after inoculation. This was immediately followed by a rapid decline with both parts having similar final levels. These results indicate that BSA may have AFB1-binding ability in the intestinal tract of young chicks and may also be excreted with AFB1.
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  • Masanobu HAYASHI, Tatsuya FURUICHI, Shaomin REN, Emiko ISOGAI, Meihan ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 287-291
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Marek's disease virus (MDV) DNA in latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines is considerably methylated. A treatment of the MDV-derived lymphoblastoid cell line, MDCC-MSB1 (MSB1), with 5-azacytidine (5-AzC) resulted in a hypomethylation of MDV DNA and an increase in mRNA from certain portions of the MDV DNA. These results suggest methylation of MDV DNA as being one of the factors associated with a repression of transcription of MDV DNA in the lymphoblastoid cell line, MSB1.
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  • Toshikazu SHIRAHATA, Akihito SHIMOI, Hirokazu KANDA, Hitoshi GOTO, Aki ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 293-297
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Treatment of mice with heat-killed Propionibacterium (P.) acnes conferred transient protection against Toxoplasma infection. To investigate the mechanism of this nonspecific resistance, the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by P. acnes-injected mice was evaluated in comparison with that by noninjected controls upon infection with Toxoplasma. Mice pretreated with this bacterium produced significantly more IFN-γ than that produced by control mice up to 24 hr of infection. A single injection of anti-IFN-γ MAb on day 0 but not later than day 3 of infection resulted in a total abrogation of the resistance conferred by P. acnes. Likewise, daily injection of cyclosporin A (Cs-A), a potent inhibitor of T cell function, during the first 3 days of Toxoplasma infection severely exacerbated the infection, in accordance with a marked suppression of the early IFN-γ production. In contrast, the administration of Cs-A for 3 consecutive days starting at day 4 had no significant consequence on P. acnes-induced anti-toxoplasma resistance, while it reduced greatly the ability of P. acnes-injected mice to produce IFN-γ in the later phase of infection. Moreover, no significant increase in mortality and suppression of IFN-γ production was noted in mice receiving anti-asialo GM1 antibody. These results suggest that the early IFN-γ production by T cells is an essential event for the establishment of P. acnes-induced anti-toxoplasma resistance in mice.
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  • Tsukimi WASHIZU, Takuo ISHIDA, Makoto WASHIZU, Isamu TOMODA, Jiro J. K ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 299-303
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Biliary obstruction was produced by surgical ligation of the common bile duct to observe alterations in serum bile acid composition. The percent composition of serum bile acids was found to change with time. Taurocholic acid increased on day 3 and accounted for more than 90 % of the total bile acids in all dogs, however it decreased after day 7. The percentage of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDC) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) decreased to 4.2-6.0% and 0.2-0.7% on day 3, respectively. However, the percentage of TCDC increased after day 7 in all dogs and reached greater than 20% on day 14 in 2 dogs, whereas the percent TDC after bile duct ligation remained low in all dogs. Glycolithocholic acid, which was not identified in normal dog sera, was detected on day 3 and remained throughout the study in all dogs. Bile acid composition of gallbladder bile sampled on day 35 was similar to the serum bile acid composition on the same day. This indicates that the bile acids refluxed into the circulation in these dogs. In the present study, total cholic acid to chenodeoxycholic acid (C:CDC) ratio increased to 15.5-22.3 at three days post bile duct ligation and after the day 14, the C:CDC ratio decreased to its pre-ligation value or below. In contrast, the glycine conjugated to taurine conjugated bile acids (G:T) ratio did not change. Therefore, at this time, the G:T ratio would not be usable as an indicator of liver disease in dogs while it may be possible to use the C:CDC ratio.
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  • Osamu FUJITA, Luis SANABRIA, Alba INCHAUSTTI, Antonieta R. DE ARIAS, Y ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 305-308
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Animal reservoirs for Tryponosoma cruzi infection were investigated in 5 communities in the Department of San Pedro, currently one of Paraguay's most highly endemic areas. A totalot.112 domestic animals (37 cattle, 2 horses, 1 ass, 20 pigs, 44 dogs and 8 cats) and 4 wild animals (1 white-eared opossum, 2 yellow armadillos and 1 common long-nosed armadillo) were examined for blood. Although no trypomastigotes were found by 2 direct observation methods, the microhaematocrit and Giemsa stained thick and thin smears methods, several forms of trypanosoma flagellates morphologically identical to T. cruzi were detected in the liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium from a single sample taken from a yellow armadillo, Euphractus sexcintus. When serum samples of all the animals were examined for antibody to T. cruzi by direct agglutination (DA) test, 3 cattle, 2 pigs, 16 dogs and 3 cats had positive titers (1:32 or greater), but no wild animals showed positive reactions. T. cruzi was not found by culture nor microscopic examination of samples from any of the seropositive animals. However, domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, dogs and cats which were found to be seropositive in this study, possibly act as an animal reservoir in this endemic area as well as armadillos in which T. cruzi was observed.
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  • Isao KITA, Seiki TAKATSUKI, Tosiro TIBA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 309-314
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Histological characteristics of retrograde corpora lutea (RCL) were examined for 105 pairs of ovaries of adult female sika deer, Cervus nippon. Animals were captured in various seasons at Mt. Goyo, Iwate Prefecture, the northern part of Japan. No histological differences were recognizable between RCL of pregnancy and retrograde accessory corpora lutea (RACL), so far as examined by means of hematoxylin-eosin and Weigert's resorcinfuchsin staining. They were both irregularly shaped and had well developed arteries in their thick capsules and a number of small arteries in the parenchyma. These arteries showed the proliferation of elastic fibers showing elastosis in older RCL. The total number of these retrograded bodies per female increased with age, suggesting that both the retrograded bodies would retain in the ovaries over 7 years. RCL of estrus were small hyaline bodies scattered with some degenerated luteal cells in the hyaline matrix. They were distinguishable from those of pregnancy since the capsule and parenchyma in those of estrus were poorer in blood vessels. RCL of estrus appeared in October and November but were rarely seen in February and March, suggesting that they will disappear within three months after ovulation.
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  • Seishi MAEDA, Seiichiroh OHSAKO, Masamichi KUROHMARU, Yoshihiro HAYASH ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 315-320
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    A monoclonal antibody 2C9 (IgM κ-light chain) was established by fusing the myeloma cells (X63-Ag8-653) with the spleen cells immunized with sexually indifferent gonads from 6-day chick embryos. The 1- to 17-day chick embryos were examined by immunohistochemistry (ABC technique). As a result, the 2C9 antigen first appeared in the cytoplasm of some primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the germinal crescent at 1 day of incubation. The reactivity was also detected in the hypoblastic cells. This antigen may be produced at this stage. After the migrating stage, 2C9-reactive PGCs were increased in number. From this stage to the sexually differentiating stage (7 days of incubation), the 2C9 antibody was reactive all over the cytoplasm of PGCs in both sexes. In the female gonads, the reactivity disappeared at 8 days of incubation, but not in the male. The reactivity of male PGCs was gradually decreased and disappeared until 14 days of incubation. Since the stages of disappearance of this antigen in both sexes seem to depend on the differentiation of the oogonia and spermatogonia, this antigen may disappear in accordance with germ cell differentiation. Cross-reactions were observed in hepatocytes, gastrointestinal endoderm and some mesonephric tubules. By SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting methods, all the extracts from these tissues revealed two bands; 109 kilodalton (kDa) and 64 kDa, suggesting that the 2C9 antibody detects the same molecule in each kind of cells. The 2C9 antibody may be a useful cell-marker and/or probe for analysis of the germ cell differentiation in chick PGCs.
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  • Kenichi SAKAMOTO, Noriko MIZUKOSHI, Bunchong APIWATNAKORN, Akira IWATA ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 321-327
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The Complete sequences of RNA segment 2 and segment 6 of African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) vaccine strain were determined from cDNA clones inserted into pBR 322. The RNAs of segment 2 and 6 are 3229, 1566 bp long respectively and both contain an open reading fram encoding prot ins VP2 and VP5 of 1060, 505 amino acid residues. The estimated molecular weight of VP2 was 124, 178 dalton and that of VP5 was 56, 793 dalton. Their noncoding end sequences were 5'GTTTAA . . . and . . . ACATAC3' (segment 2), 5'GTTTAT . . . and . . . ACTTAC3' (segment 6). They were different from orbivirus characteristic terminal sequences, which were 5'GTTAAA . . . and . . . ACTTAC3'. The comparison of both sequences of AHSV-4 segment 2 and 6 with those of segment 2 and 5 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10 revealed 53% nucleotide similarity and 23% amino acid similarity (segment 2), and 58% nucleotide similarity and 46% amino acid similarity (segment 6). In the same way, the comparison of both sequences of the vaccine strain with those of the virulent strain segment 2 and segment 6 of AHSV-4 revealed 91% nucleotide and 96% amino acid similarity (segment 2), and 98% nucleotide and 98% amino acid similarity (segment 6).
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  • Miho OHUE, Takashi MAKITA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 329-333
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT), an enzyme involved in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, was localized in the interscapular brown adipose tissue of the rat. The reaction products were localized on the cristae and surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thin needle-like reaction products were abolished in control specimens incubated in either acetyl CoA (substrate)-free medium or inhibitor (HgCl2)-containing medium. They were also abolished when materials were fixed in a mixture of glutaraldehyde (1%) and paraformaldehyde (4%). Even when cristae were disintegrated in certain mitochondria contacting with nearby lipid droplets, the CAT activity was preserved in the rest of the intact cristae. However, when a mitochondrion was completely engulfed in a lipid globule, all cristae lost their CAT activity. These findings suggest an influence of lipid on the mitochondrial CAT activity. In the experimental administration of bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug increasing the CAT activity, the CAT activity in the brown adipose tissue was significantly increased (male 6.0-fold, female 2.0-fold) at two weeks of administration of bezafibrate except for castrated male and female rats. However, the localization of CAT activity in mitochondria was not altered by the administration of bezafibrate.
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  • Tarif ALKARMI, Fazal Karim DAR, Hong-Kean OOI
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 335-339
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Alveolar hydatid disease (AHD) in mice, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is characterized by restrictive and metastasizing progressive growth phases. In experimentally induced infections, neither inoculum size (5, 50 or 250 viable cysts) nor the route (intraperitoneal/subcutaneous) of infection altered the course of disease as measured by the size of the larval cyst mass (LCM) produced. Spleen weight and amyloid deposition were also shown to be independent of the route or size of inoculum. Inoculation of a soluble parasite protein extract (AHC-EXT) induced amyloid deposition, with a dose-dependent threshold. These results support our postulate that soluble component(s) of the LCM are the major factor in the pathogenesis of AHD.
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  • Masaya TAKAOKA, Sunao MANABE, Takashi YAMOTO, Munehiro TERANISHI, Naoc ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 341-346
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Antithyroid actions of 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), 3-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole (MTZ) and 3-nitro-1, 2, 4-triazole (NTZ), which are substituents on the 3-position of 1, 2, 4-triazole (TZ), and those of the parental compound, were compared in rats. After administration of either ATZ, MTZ, or NTZ, the thyroids of rats were enlarged with decreasing of colloid content and a proliferation of the follicular epithelia. The serum concentration of 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine decreased, while that of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased. ATZ, MTZ, and NTZ inhibited thyroid peroxidase activity both in vivo and in vitro. These antithyroid actions were the most remarkable in case of MTZ and were the least in case of NTZ. TZ had no effect on the thyroid function in vivo and in vitro. The results of Lineweaver-Burk analysis on the effect to lactoperoxidase activity indicated that ATZ, MTZ, and NTZ showed competitive inhibition. These results suggest that both MTZ and NTZ have goitrogenic effects on the thyroid through antiperoxidase action, such as ATZ. Thus, the 3rd carbon position of TZ is thought to be important for induction of goiter in rats. A comparison of the relationship between substituent on the 3-position of TZ and antithyroid activity shows that a mercapto moiety has more potent antithyroid action than an amino and a nitro moiety. It is concluded that the differences in antithyroid activity of TZ derivatives depend on the potency of the substituents.
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  • Noriko MIZUKOSHI, Kenichi SAKAMOTO, Akira IWATA, Susumu UEDA, Masanobu ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 347-352
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was applied to the detection of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) using primers specific for attenuated AHSV serotype 4 segment 5 (NS1 gene). Total RNA which contains both messenger RNA and genomic dsRNA was extracted by the acid guanidinium-phenol-chloroform method from the AHSV infected Vero cells and was used as templates to optimize the RT-PCR. A pair of primer (NP2-NP32) amplified the product of the expected size from all serotypes of attenuated AHSV when four pairs of primers were tested. Using this primer pair, no RT-PCR product was detected from the RNA samples extracted from ten other orbiviruses infected cells and their virions. In addition, RT-PCR using a serial dilution of RNA samples suggested that AHSV was efficiently detected from 1 to 2 cells of the cell monolayer infected with 106TCID50 of AHSV. The RT-PCR concerning with total RNAs of AHSV NS1 gene was found to be a specific and sensitive method for the detection of AHSV.
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  • Takeshi OBI, Atsushi KABEYAMA, Akira NISHIO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 353-357
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    In coronary arterial rings isolated from horse, norepinephrine (NE)(10-7-10-5 M) induced concentration-dependent contractions which were not influenced by endothelial denudation. Prazosin (α1-antagonist) inhibited the contraction, but yohimbine (α2-antagonist) did not, and propranolol (β-antagonist) enhanced the contraction. Pretreatment with phentolamine (10-5 M)(α-antagonist) converted the contraction induced by NE to relaxation in coronary rings precontracted with ONO11113 (thromboxane A2 derivative). The relaxation was not influenced by removal of the endothelium, and was inhibited by propranolol and atenolol (β1-antagonist) but not by butoxamine (β2-antagonist). These results suggest that in equine coronary arteries, the contractile response to NE is mediated by stimulation of (α1-adrenoceptors on the smooth muscle, and that stimulation of β1-adrenoceptors on the smooth muscle modifies the contraction by inducing relaxation.
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  • Ryohei NISHIMURA, Hwi-yool KIM, Satoru MATSUNAGA, Kei HAYASHI, Hiroshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 359-363
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine (40 μg/kg)-midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and medetomidine (40 μg/kg)-midazolam (0.2 mg/kg)-atipamezole (160 μg/kg) were evaluated in laboratory pigs. The intramuscular administration of medetomidine-midazolam caused a pressor response, characterized by a rapid increase in arterial and pulmonary arterial pressure mediated mainly through systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. These pressures decreased after reaching a peak 5 to 10 min after the administration of sedatives, but maintained higher values than the base-line. However, all these changes caused by medetomidine-midazolam were within the physiological fluctuation. In addition, this combination did not induce bradycardia, subsequent hypotension or a significant decrease in cardiac output, which were generally observed with α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and caused fewer changes in the respiratory system. The administration of atipamezole resulted in a marked transient decrease in vascular resistance, and caused a decrease in blood pressure and increases in cardiac output and heart rate. However, these changes were relatively small and sustained for a short time. Thus the combination of medetomidine-midazolam and atipamezole have minimal cardiopulmonary effects and might be used safely in laboratory pigs.
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  • Koichi NOMURA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 365-369
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia resembling that of normal early pregnancy was induced by the insertion of a silk suture into diestrous bitches. Intraluminal trauma (wire scratching) induced a similar but moderate change. Intraluminal olive oil and saline had little or no effect. Maternal decidual response in rodentia produced by mechanical means in progesterone-stimulated uteri in the absence of fertilized ova is termed Loeb's deciduoma. A similar response was created in progesterone-stimulated canine uteri by various physical means when compared to the pregnant contralateral horn.
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  • Takafumi HAMAOKA, Nobuyuki TERAKADO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 371-373
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The common antigens between Clostridium chauvoei and C. septicum were examined by indirect-immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antisera to formalized cells of C. chauvoei and C. septicum strains and to EDTA-soluble antigens of these strains were used. The antisera to formalized cells, which have reacted only with homologous antigens in agglutination tests, reacted not only with homologous antigens but also with heterologous antigens in IFA. The antisera to EDTA-soluble antigens, which have shown no reactivities in somatic agglutination tests, reacted with both homologous and heterologous antigens in IFA. These results indicate that these species possess common antigens, which are undetected by agglutination test, on cell surface and a some of them are solubilized by EDTA-treatment.
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  • Hideyuki ASAOKA, Haruo MATSUDA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 375-377
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two chicken monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), HU/Ch2-7 and HU/CH6-1, detecting Hanganutziu-Deicher (HD) antigens with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) at a terminal carbohydrate were reactive with bovine, sheep and horse erythrocytes examined by flowcytometry (FCM). The FCM profiles of the three animal erythrocytes treated with trypsin were different from those of non-treated cells and from each other depending on MAbs used. To identify the nature of antigenic molecules, recognized by HU/Ch2-7 and HU/Ch6-1 MAbs, solubilized erythrocytes from the above three animals were analyzed by a Western blotting method. The MAb HU/Ch2-7 identified HD antigen-specific glycoprotein in each of animal erythrocytes. These results indicate that the MAb HU/Ch2-7 is a valuable reagent for the detection of NeuGc-containing gangliosides and glycoproteins.
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  • Anuchai PINYOPUMMIN, Yoshiyuki TAKAHASHI, Hee Tae CHEONG, Mitsugu HISH ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 379-380
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Cumulus-intact and cumulus-free mouse oocytes were exposed to 7% ethanol for 1, 4 and 7 mm, and treated with cytochalasin-B. The activation rate and the proportion of diploid parthenogenones in all groups were not significantly different. After 96 hr in culture, a higher number of blastocysts was obtained when either cumulus-intact or cumulus-free oocytes were exposed for shorter times (1 and 4 mm) to ethanol. The presence or absence of cumulus cells at activation had no effect on the percentage of blastocysts. However, at 1 and 4 mm ethanol-exposure periods, the parthenogenones derived from cumulus-intact oocytes had a higher number of cells than ones derived from cumulus-free oocytes.
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  • Mina KAWAMURA, Fumihito OHASHI, Ryohei NISHIMURA, Nobuo SASAKI, Akira ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 381-383
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Plasma concentrations of four substances, a pyridine derivative (S7a), uric acid (UA), hippuric acid (HA) and kynurenic acid (KA), suspected as uremic toxins in dogs were determined in dogs with experimentally induced uremia by the ligations of renal arteries, spontaneous uremic dog patients and normal dogs. In experimentally induced uremic dogs, plasma concentrations of S7a, HA and KA showed continuous increase after the ligation of renal arteries together with a significant correlation to plasma creatinine concentration (Crc). Plasma UA concentration increased rapidly, but it showed a varying fluctuation without showing any correlation to Crc. Plasma concentrations of S7a, UA, HA and KA in spontaneous uremic dogs were almost within the ranges of those of experimentally induced uremic dogs.
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  • Toshio TAKAHASHI, Yutaka TAMURA, Yuuko S. ENDOH, Naruo HARA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 385-387
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The cellular fatty acid compositions in 6 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and 7 strains of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum were determined by gas chromatography. Fatty acids, ranging from C10 to C18, were detected in the test strains. The fatty acid profile was characterized by very high percentages of 18:1 (cis-9) (cis-9-octadecenoic acid; 72.4 to 82.1%) and 16:1 (hexadecenoic acid; 8.7 to 13.7%). The profiles of the E. rhusiopathiae and E. tonsillarum strains resembled each other, indicating that discrimination between E. rhusiopathiae and F. tonsillarum from qualitative or quantitative fatty acid differences is difficult.
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  • Mitsugu SHIMIZU, Shunji YAMADA, Yosuke MURAKAMI, Tetsuo MOROZUMI, Hide ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 389-391
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was isolated at high frequency from the sera and lungs of pigs affected with Heko-Heko disease. In addition, a considerable amount of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) was also isolated from the lungs. Inoculation of gnotobiote pigs with the first isolate of PRRS virus resulted in the reproduction of proliferative and interstitial pneumonia. The virus was recovered from the inoculated pigs for long periods. Superinfection with PRRS virus and Mhr appeared to produce more serious pneumonia than inoculation with PRRS virus alone. In this study, the presence of PRRS virus was confirmed in Japan, and the PRRS virus was considered as being the most important pathogen for Heko-Heko disease.
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  • Tamio INAMOTO, Hirotada TAKAHASHI, Koushi YAMAMOTO, Yutaka NAKAI, Keij ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 393-394
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The antibiotic susceptibility of thirty-nine strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolated from swine between 1970 and 1989 was investigated. From the present results, it is suggested that the susceptibility to chlortetracycline has been decreasing in Japan. On the other hand, all the strains were sensitive to lincomycin, thiamphenicol and macrolides. Newly developed macrolides such as tilmicosin, acetylisovaleryl-tylosin and mirosamycin had equal or higher activity than general macrolides.
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  • Koichi KADOTA, Hiromi NAKAJIMA, Yasuo NOMURA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 395-397
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Multiple lesions of splenic hamartoblastoma were found incidentally in a 2- to 3-year-old crossbred sow. The predominant cells, characterized by extreme nuclear irregularity and hemidesmosome-like structures, were considered to be derived from reticular cells of the spleen, and demonstrated infiltrative growth. Their cytological atypism and growth pattern suggest that the present lesions are true neoplasms.
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  • Soichi MARUYAMA, Kazuaki YAMAMOTO, Yasuji KATSUBE
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 399-401
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Two hundred Toxocara canis larvae derived from Japanese quail liver were given orally to each of 50 8-week-old ddY mice and parasitism of the larvae was examined during 6 hr and 120 days after inoculation. Although there were no clinical signs in infected mice, larvae were recovered from the liver (21.5 ± 16.3 larvae), lung (5.1 ± 6.0 larvae), kidney (0.7 ± 1.1 larvae), small intestine (1.0 ± 2.0 larvae), mesentery (1.6 ± 3.1 larvae), and brain (7.8 ± 6.8 larvae).
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  • Mina ROSTAMI, Susumu TATEYAMA, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, Hiroshi NAITOU, Ryoji ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 403-405
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    During the ten years from 1980 to 1989 inclusive, a total of 468 (16.1%) tumors were found in 2, 907 pathological samples from domestic animals. collected from Southern Kyushu, around Miyazaki City. In this study, canine tumors were collected most commonly (340/468 cases, 73%). In small animals, the skin and mammary gland were associated particularly with tumorigenetic hazards. In cattle, high incidence of leukemia and mesothelioma was found. These tendencies were almost the same as those we reported for the preceding ten-year period, although the number of cases of tumor was higher in this study.
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  • Yasushi CHIDA, Keiichiro TOYOSAWA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 407-410
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The correlation of rhythmic slow activity (RSA, "gtheta rhythm") of the rat hippocampus with voluntary movement is well known. However, it is not clear whether there is any difference between the right and left hippocampal function, and profiles of each electroencephalogram (EEG) in the rat. We fixed two paired chronically indwelling electrodes in the bilateral hippocampi, bilaterally enclosing the dorso-ventral structure. It was demonstrated that the distribution of the EEG frequency from the right ventral hippocampus was no the same as that on the other side when the rats were walking in an open area as a novelty environment. Morphological investigation suggested that there was no symmetry in structure between the right and left hippocampi in the rat. In the present investigation, bilateral hippocampal EEGs were also not identical. It is assumed that the left and right hippocampi have different functions in the rat.
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  • Shin SERIKAWA, Shunsuke ITO, Tadao HATTA, Naohito KUSAKARI, Kazuhiro S ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 411-412
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The effect of spraying shearing wounds with iodine tincture on Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in lambs was examined. The ELISA-negative lambs which had received some visible wounds during their first shearing were randomly divided into two groups: one was sprayed with iodine tincture on wounds after shearing, and the other was not. Anti-C. pseudotuberculosis toxin titers were measured by ELISA. The seroconversion ratio of the group with iodine tincture treatment 3 months after shearing was smaller than that of the untreated group (P<O.05). These results suggest that treatment of shearing wounds with iodine tincture is effective in the protection of C. pseudotuberculosis infection in lambs.
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  • Mitsuyuki SHIRAI, Kazuyoshi ARISHIMA, Toshio MASAOKA, Hirotaka TAKAGI, ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 413-414
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    The ductus arteriosus (DA) in the fetal rat was calibrated using a whole-body freezing method, 3 hr after maternal treatment with paraquat at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight on days 19-21 of gestation. On days 20 and 21, the DA was significantly constricted. The DA was also significantly constricted on day 19 2/3 but not on day 19 1/2. It is concluded that paraquat has a constrictive effect on the DA and that the onset of this effect occurs in the first half of day 19 of gestation.
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  • Miki YOSHIZAWA, Toshiya OKADA, Yoshio MORIKAWA, Fumihiko SASAKI, Yasuo ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 415-416
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Morphology of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cell, a uterine natural killer (NK) cell, was reported to be normal in pregnant uteri of NK cell-deficient mice and T-cell- and B-cell-deficient mice, but little is known about the number of GMG cells. To determine whether the number of GMG cells is influenced by such mutations, their number in the bg mice (genotype C57BL/6J-bg/bg) and SCID mice (genotype C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) was compared to that of control mice on day 12 of gestation. GMG cells in these mutant mice were normal in number. Thus, the present results support the previous reports that GMG cells can differentiate normally in bg mice and that the GMG cell differentiation is not affected by functional T- nor B-cells.
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  • Takafumi ONISHI, Takaomi SHIMIZU, Taketsugu KAJIKAWA
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 417-419
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Simple purification method for canine serum, C-reactive protein (CRP) was established. By combining an affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with o-phosphorylethanolamine and a gel filtration on a column of Sephacryl S-300, about 9 mg of purified CRP from 50 ml of canine serum was obtained. The method is simple and efficient to purify canine CRP.
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  • Kiyotaka WATANABE, Yukihisa SAKASHITA, Kouichi ORINO, Shinji YAMAMOTO
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 421-423
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Each of four common homozygous bovine serum transferrins Tf A, Tf D1, Tf D2, and Tf E gave only two main bands in polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (PAGIEF). This is considered to be due to the co-migration of the main components 2a and 3a with the main components 2b and 3b, respectively, in PAGIEF. Ten phenotypes, which are controlled by four alleles TfA, TfD1, TfSUPD2, and TfE, were distinguishable from each other in PAGIEF.
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  • Keiji SAHARA, Masanori MURAKOSHI, Tokuhiro NISHINA, Hideto KINO, Toshi ...
    1994 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 425-427
    Published: April 15, 1994
    Released: February 15, 2008
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    Pathologic changes related to chiormadinone acetate (CAP) implantation were examined using 14 bitches given doses 2.5 to 25 mg/kg for 2 years. Absence of corpus luteum in bitches given 5 mg/kg or more supported long-term preventive effect of CAP on estrus. The uteri were dose-dependently enlarged and mucometra was occasionally found. Endometrial epithelium hyperplasia was observed but less in smaller doses. Changes in the mammary gland were only growth and lactation at normal degree. No remarkable changes were observed in ACTH and LH cells in the pituitary gland. Low, stable levels of CAP maintained in plasma by subcutaneous implantation seemed to be the main reason for absence or slight CAP-related pathologic changes.
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