In camels, hepatic diseases are relatively common and most of them are misdiagnosed as a cause of illness because signs may be subtle. In addition, diagnostic laboratory methods are insufficient as hepatic enzymes can also be elevated in camels with cardiac or skeletal muscle damage. Examples of liver diseases in camels are hepatic lipidosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis, choleostasis, hyperplasia of biliary epithelium, hydatid cysts, glycogen deposition, cholangitis, cholangiohepatitis, calcified hydatid cyst and hepatic abscesses. When the liver is examined by ultrasonography, the clinician gets sufficient information about the size, position, echopatterns of the hepatic parenchyma, bile ducts and outlines of the hepatic blood vessels. Ultrasonography has been used previously in camels only for reproductive purposes. However, during the past decade, it has been used for scanning of the healthy organs as well as evaluation and determining the diagnosis and prognosis of non-reproductive disorders. Examples of diseases evaluated by ultrasonography in camels are paratuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, abdominal and urinary disorders, thoracic diseases, renal tumors, pyelonephritis, renal abscessation, gastrointestinal tumors, chronic peritonitis and splenic abscessation. Ultrasound-guidance in biopsy of hepatic lesions and in portocentesis has also been reported in camels. This mini review article is written to shed light on ultrasonography of the liver and its blood vessels in healthy camels as well as finding in camels with hepatic disorders such as fatty infiltration of the liver, hepatic abscesses and calcification of the bile ducts.
The distribution pattern of chemokine CXCL14-immunoreactive cells was examined by immunohistochemistry in the pituitary of the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus. Immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia and pars distalis of the pituitary, but not in the pars nervosa. All α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH)-producing cells were immunoreactive for CXCL14 in the pars intermedia. The CXCL14-immunoreactive cells corresponded to prolactin (PRL)-producing cells but not to other adenohypophyseal-hormone-producing cells in the pars distalis. CXCL14 secreted from αMSH-producing cells and PRL-producing cells may regulate insulin release from β cells in the pancreatic islets as well as glucose uptake in the muscle cells together with αMSH and/or PRL. In addition, secreted CXCL14 with αMSH and/or PRL may act as a bioactive factor regulating hormone release in the adenohypophyseal cells of the reptilian pars distalis.
Organ culture systems are useful for elucidating the process of testicular differentiation from mammalian undifferentiated genetically male gonads, as they permit various experiments, including experiments involving the control of gene expression. However, without addition of testicular differentiation-related factors, it is difficult to induce the formation of testis cord from immature gonads by a time point earlier 12 tail somites (ts) that corresponding to 11.0 days post coitum (dpc). In this study, we attempted to establish an organ culture system that induces testis formation from immature gonads (around 8 ts: 10.5 dpc) just before Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) expression. A paired gonad-mesonephros complex of around 8 ts was placed in the groove of an agarose gel block and put the semi-cylindrical piece of agarose gel to maintain the gonad morphology. The gonads were cultured in the gas phase for 96 hr. As a result, testis cord-like structures appeared in many genetically male gonads. Cells expressing the Sertoli cell markers Sox9 (SRY-box 9) and Amh (anti-Müllerian hormone) were observed, while granulosa cell marker Foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was not detected. In addition, Sox9- and Amh-expressing cells were observed throughout the entire gonad in many individuals. Amh mRNA expression was also upregulated. Surprisingly, formation of a partial testicular structure was observed from more immature gonads (6 ts). These results show that our gonadal organ culture system is useful for elucidating the regulation mechanism of Sry expression in undifferentiated bipotential gonads.
A concurrent infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected in Japanese native chicks in 2017, in which a high mortality rate (97.7%) was recorded in a small flock of 130 chicks exhibiting poor growth. Histological examination revealed that the affected chicks exhibited two different pathological entities: one was severe hematopoietic and lymphocytic depletion with abnormally large cells containing intranuclear inclusion bodies of CAV, whereas the other was renal tubular necrosis due to IBV infection. Immunohistochemistry detected CAV antigens in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen as well as IBV antigens in the kidneys, trachea, and air sacs. CAV was isolated from the liver sample of the chicks, and the isolated strain was designated as CAV/Japan/HS1/17. A phylogenetic analysis of the CAV VP1 gene revealed that CAV/Japan/HS1/17 is genetically similar to Chinese strains collected from 2014 to 2016. An experimental infection was performed using CAV/Japan/HS1/17 and specific-pathogen-free chicks to determine the pathogenicity of CAV/Japan/HS1/17. The isolate caused 100% anemia and 70% mortality to chicks inoculated at one day old, 80% of chicks inoculated at seven days old also developed anemia, and 10% died from CAV infection. These results suggest that the unusually high mortality in Japanese native chicks can be attributed to dual infection with both CAV and IBV. The results of the experimental infection suggest that CAV/Japan/HS1/17 has a pathogenic potential to specific-pathogen-free chicks and a relatively higher pathogenicity than previous Japanese CAV strains.
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease in chickens, induced by IB virus (IBV) infection. The pathotype and S1 genotype of IBV field strain that was detected from 2008 to 2018 were investigated in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The frequency of cases that the renal lesion characteristic of IBV infection was histopathologically confirmed was significantly higher from 2014 to 2018 than from 2008 to 2009, suggesting the altered pathotype of IBV. Of 7 genotypes (JP-I, JP-II, JP-III, JP-IV, Mass, Gray, and 4/91) that have been detected in Japan, 6 genotypes except for JP-II were detected since 2008 and it appeared that the JP-III and JP-I have been predominant. The JP-IV with different antigenicity from other genotypes was detected since 2009.
DEP domain-containing 1B (DEPDC1B) is involved in the regulation of cell de-adhesion and actin cytoskeleton activity during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, and its overexpression has been proven to be associated with cancer progression in several human cancers. Canine DEPDC1B was identified as a gene that was overexpressed in canine lymphoma tissues in our previous study. However, in dogs, the protein expression of DEPDC1B remains to be determined due to the lack of a specific monoclonal antibody. Here, we developed rat monoclonal antibodies against canine DEPDC1B and characterized their applicability for immunodetection assays. Our findings demonstrated that these antibodies are functional and can be important tools to investigate the precise role of DEPDC1B in canine tumors.
We determined the clinical signs and blood ionized calcium (iCa) levels in dairy cows with peracute coliform mastitis (PCM). The clinical scores at the onset of the disease (day 0) and on day 2 and subsequent days were significantly (P<0.01) higher than those of healthy cows. We found a positive correlation (r=0.894, P<0.01) between iCa and total calcium (TCa) concentrations in the blood of healthy cows ; however there was no correlation from day 0 to day 3 in the blood of PCM cows. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the concentration of iCa was correlated with rectal temperature, hematocrit value, platelet count, and albumin level of PCM cows at the onset of disease (r= −0.804, r=0.6576, r=0.6182, r=0.284, P<0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between the TCa concentration and these parameters for PCM cows at day 0. Low blood iCa concentration at day 0 for PCM cows was related to symptoms of septic shock involving hypothermia, activation of the blood coagulation system, and dehydration.
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are frequently observed in miniature dachshunds in Japan and treated by prednisolone and immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and leflunomide. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the treatment efficacy, such as response rate, response interval, recurrence rate, and adverse events between cyclosporine and leflunomide. While the response rates were significantly higher in dogs treated with leflunomide, no significant differences were observed in the response interval or recurrence rate. Two of the 11 dogs treated with leflunomide showed hematological or gastrointestinal adverse events, while no dog treated with cyclosporine showed any adverse events. A case-controlled prospective study to compare the treatment efficacy of leflunomide with that of cyclosporine should be conducted.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in Mbarara District, an intensive dairy production region of Uganda where hand-milking is dominant. In 30 farms, herd-level milking practices and SCM prevalence were studied. The SCM prevalences were 68.6% (417/608, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64.9–72.2%) and 39.2% (946/2,411, 37.3–41.2%) at the cow- and quarter-levels, respectively. A preventive factor for SCM was cow calmness at the end of milking (OR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.05–0.79, P=0.021); a risk factor was rough teat-end (OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.14–2.68, P=0.011). Good cow hygiene was negatively associated with environmental mastitis (P=0.002). Appropriate hand-milking practices that avoid teat damage are expected to reduce SCM in Uganda.
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. The GRA7 of T. gondii (TgGRA7) is an essential component of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and PV membrane surrounding the tachyzoites and the cyst wall of the bradyzoites. While it has been widely employed as antigen for ELISA, there is only one study that has reported its potential as antigen for immunochromatographic test (ICT) in pigs. There is no study yet documenting its potential for ICT serodiagnosis of T. gondii infection in cats. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of an ICT using TgGRA7 in the detection of Toxoplasma infections in 100 cats and compared the results with iELISAs using TgGRA7 and lysate antigens of T. gondii strains, RH, PLK, and VEG. Our results revealed that TgGRA7-ICT is a reliable test for the diagnosis of anti-T. gondii antibodies in cats, producing comparable results as conventional serological methods. This study is the first report on the use of TgGRA7 as ICT antigen for the serodiagnosis of T. gondii infection in cats.
Up to now, four coccidian species have been identified in Rallidae (Aves: Gruiformes): Eimeria mongolica, E. alakuli, E. paludosa and E. porphyrulae. Here, we described an Eimeria species, E. paludosa, from a common gallinule (Gallinula galeata) in Mexico. Oocysts were ovoid and wall pitted single-layered. A prominent micropyle was present, the oocyst residuum absent and the polar granule was present. On histological examination of tissues, endogenous stages (meronts, microgametocytes and macrogametocytes) were seen in the epithelial cells of the small intestine (upper and lower intestine). In addition to a new locality, this is the first description of E. paludosa from G. galeata and is the third description of a coccidian infecting Rallidae in the Americas.
Piglets aged approximately 50 days exhibited diarrhea and wasting. Multiple white foci were detected in the colon of a dead piglet; histopathological findings revealed multifocal ulcers and crypt abscesses with Entamoeba trophozoites and gram-negative bacilli in the piglet. These pathogens were identified as Entamoeba polecki subtype 3 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, respectively. Numerous E. polecki subtype 3 trophozoites were located on the edge of the ulcerative and necrotic lesions in the lamina propria. Crypt abscesses were associated with S. Typhimurium. These results suggest that E. polecki subtype 3 caused multifocal ulcerative colitis accompanied by crypt abscesses with S. Typhimurium in the piglet. This study is the first report of colitis with E. polecki subtype 3 and S. Typhimurium coinfection.
Information regarding the pharmacokinetics of oral sildenafil in dogs with pulmonary hypertension is limited. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetics of oral sildenafil in a canine model of chronic embolic pulmonary hypertension (CEPH). The CEPH model was developed by repeatedly injecting microspheres into the pulmonary arteries. The pharmacokinetics of oral sildenafil at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg was evaluated using four dogs with pulmonary hypertension in the fasted state. The plasma concentrations of sildenafil were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis. Sildenafil was well tolerated in this study. Proportional increments in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity at drug doses of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg were detected using a power model analysis. No significant differences were observed among the three doses in the time to maximum plasma concentration. The mean residence time and elimination half-life were slightly but significantly higher at a dose of 4 mg/kg than at a dose of 1 mg/kg.
Dapagliﬂozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; it reduces glucose reabsorption via the kidney and increases the glucose excretion in urine. This inhibitor functions through a unique insulin-independent mechanism, and is therefore a potential new approach for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, by using a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). The STZ-induced rats showed marked hyperglycemia and other metabolic abnormalities. We clarified the hypoglycemic effect of the combination treatment of dapagliflozin with a low dose of insulin compared with dapagliflozin alone and insulin alone in 3-week and 8-week studies. Our results showed that dapagliflozin in combination with a low dose of insulin significantly lowered hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, the antioxidant status and body weight were improved. In contrast, treatment with dapagliflozin alone did not improve the blood glucose levels, lipid profile, antioxidant status, or body weight. These findings suggested that in type 1 diabetes, dapagliflozin was effective in combination with a low dose of insulin; however, the administration of dapagliflozin alone did not achieve a significant effect.
This study aims to investigate and compare the expressions of leptin and ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tracts of calves and cows. The mRNA expression of leptin in the rumen, abomasum, and jejunum of calves was significantly higher than that in cows. In both calves and cows, abomasum ghrelin mRNA expression was significantly higher than that in other gastrointestinal tracts. In calves, leptin protein expression in the abomasum was the highest. In addition, leptin protein expression in the abomasum and jejunum of calves was significantly higher than that in cows. Results indicated that leptin in the abomasum and jejunum plays an important role during the suckling period in a ruminant.
A 9-year-old neutered male Wire Fox Terrier presented with an 1-month history of hindlimb paresis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a contrast-enhanced mass at the level of the L2 vertebral canal. The dog became paraplegic with no deep perception of the hindlimbs, and the mass was surgically removed. The histopathological diagnosis was of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). The dog suffered a relapse of right hindlimb ataxia at 225 days after the surgery. The dog died 434 days after the surgery. Necropsy found a large mass in the abdominal cavity invading from the L2-nerve. This is the first report of MPNST invading the abdominal cavity through the nerve root.
Chelonian exhibit temperature dependent sex determination, and ex situ incubation of eggs in conservation hatcheries may render a gender bias. The gender of juvenile Painted terrapins (Batagur borneoensis) produced at a conservation hatchery in Malaysia was determined by endoscopy of the gonads. Circulating reproductive hormones (testosterone, progesterone and estradiol) were profiled for 31 juveniles and nine captive-reared non-breeding adult terrapins. Endoscopy revealed a gender bias of 96.8% (30/31) females. Testosterone levels in the juvenile females (2.49 ± 1.29) were significantly lower than that of the adult females (12.20 ± 4.29), and lower than values in the juvenile male (9.36) and adult males (27.60, 35.62). The progesterone levels in the juvenile females (107.12 ± 68.68) were significantly higher than that of the adult females (51.13 ± 24.67), but lower than values in the juvenile male (33.27) and adult males (3.43, 8.51). Estrogen levels were significantly lower in the juvenile females (1.57 ± 1.35) compared to the adult females (77.46 ± 53.45). Negative correlations were observed between levels of progesterone and testosterone, and progesterone and estrogen. A positive correlation was noted between estrogen and testosterone. The present study constitutes the first attempt to determine the gender and reproductive hormone profiles of juvenile Painted terrapins produced by ex situ incubation, and captive non-breeding adults. Endoscopy of the gonads is a useful techniques for gender determination among juvenile turtles, while the use of testosterone as a gender biomarker warrants further investigation.
We analyzed the genotypes of three pregnant females and their litters to investigate the phenomenon of multiple paternity in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) using 17 microsatellite markers. If a female has mated with only one male during estrus, then the maximum number of paternal alleles will not exceed two among littermates with the same father. The results revealed two out of three litters had three or four paternal alleles at one or five microsatellite loci. Therefore, the female had mated with more than one male during estrus. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the possibility of multiple paternity in wild raccoon dogs.
The Kiso horse is native to Japan and is on the verge of extinction. Here, we used microsatellites to characterize changes in their genetic diversity over time. We divided a population of Kiso horses that genotyped during 2007–2017 into three groups based on birth year: Group 1, 1980–1998 (70 horses); Group 2, 1999–2007 (61 horses); and Group 3, 2008–2017 (42 horses). We genotyped 31 microsatellites to calculate average number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, and expected heterozygosity. All indicators decreased across age groups. The results indicate that Kiso horses have been experiencing a drop in genetic diversity, and the population is expected to experience further decline unless appropriate measures are implemented.