Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a metallo-enzyme containing zinc, broadly distributes in mammalian tissues and participates in physiological regulation such as respiration, acid-base balance, ion transport, bone resorption, as well as the development of tumor by the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. However the expression of CA in the tissue of mammary gland tumor was not documented. In this study we examine the histolocalization and gene expression of CA in both normal canine mammary gland tissue and mammary gland tumor by histochemical examination, and RT-PCR. Four mRNA expression of CA isoenzymes, such as CA II, IV, VI and IX were found under RT-PCR analysis and different band patterns were found between normal canine mammary tissue and canine mammary gland tumor tissue. CA II, IV, VI and IX gene mRNA expression were found in the normal mammary gland tissue, indicating CA II, IV, VI and IX are likely to be the essential enzymes to maintain the normal physiological condition of canine mammary gland tissue cells. However the expression of CA IV was not found in the tissue of malignant mammary gland tumor that may become the marker for the prognostic recognition of canine mammary gland tumor.
Spontaneous cases of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection were serologically evaluated. The 192 dogs in which CDV antigen was confirmed from tonsil by immunohistological examination were 2- to 4-months old, of various breeds, and unvaccinated. The prognoses were good in 74 dogs with significantly high levels of anti-CDV passive hemolytic aggregation (PHA) titer. In the other 118 dogs with poor prognoses, anti-CDV PHA titer was not detected. Anti-CDV PHA titer had the most significant association with the prognoses of CDV infection, and could be the most reliable and useful indicator for evaluating such prognoses.
The aim of this study is to investigate the immunoadjuvant activity of the crude Momordica charantia lectin (crMCL) extracted from seed using β-galactosidase (β-gal) as the model antigen. BALB/c mice were injected intramuscularly with β-gal alone or β-gal + crMCL for up to four immunizations at two-week intervals. After administration of 2 doses, the IgG-specific titer to β-gal was significantly higher in mice in the β-gal + crMCL group than in that from the animals from the β-gal alone group, while it was about the same in both groups after 1 dose. Our data suggest that crMCL may help raise antibodies under the prime and boost administration regimen and could be a potent vaccine adjuvant.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by chronic overactivation of immune and inflammatory system, resulting in anergic state and dysfunction of immune cells. Lactoferrin (LF), a glycoprotein present in exocrine secretions and neutrophils, plays an important role in host defense system. Our previous study showed that oral administration of bovine LF (bLF) suppressed oral inflammation, improved the clinical symptoms and decreased serum γ-globulin as a marker of inflammation in FIV-infected cats with intractable stomatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect was partly involved in regulation of neutrophil function by bLF. In this study, to clarify the relationship between anti-inflammatory effects of bLF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we examined the effect of bLF on proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokine expression in mitogen-activated PBMC. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay showed that bLF inhibited the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced cell proliferation in FIV-infected cats with the asymptomatic carrier and AIDS-related complex (ARC) phase. Bovine LF restored ConA-induced cell cycle progression and resulted in suppression of the induced apoptosis in feline PBMC. Real-time RT-PCR showed that bLF suppressed ConA-induced expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in cells of the ARC group regardless of the time of its addition to the medium. These results suggest the hypothesis that therapy with bLF may have the potential to improve and protect functions of overactivated lymphocytes by modulating the cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytokines expression in cats in terminal stage of FIV infection.
Lactoferrin has several biological activities, including antitumor activities in some human and animal tumor cells. Clinical trials have been carried out in human medicine based on these effects. However, the antitumor effects of lactoferrin in veterinary medicine remain unknown. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that co-incubation of canine mammary gland tumor cells (CIPp and CHMp) and bovine lactoferrin induced growth arrest of tumor cells. This growth arrest was associated with induction of G1 arrest. Furthermore, this effect was stronger in tumor cells than in normal cells. These findings demonstrate that bovine lactoferrin has anti-tumor activity in canine mammary tumors and has the potential for use in tumor-bearing dogs.
The present study compared 2 indirect methods, Doppler sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, for measurement of the systemic blood pressure level in 100 conscious, client-owned dogs in a clinical setting on 2 separate occasions. The mean systemic blood pressure values, measured by Doppler sphygmomanometry on 2 separate occasions, were 156 ± 38.2 mmHg and 150 ± 34.1 mmHg, respectively. Using oscillometry, the mean systolic blood pressure values were 138 ± 36.9 mm Hg and 133 ± 33.5 mm Hg on 2 separate occasions. There were significant differences between the systemic blood pressure readings for both methods on the same occasion (P<0.001). The coefficients of variance from 5 consecutive measurements in the same dog obtained by Doppler sphygmomanometry on the 2 separate occasions were 4.1 ± 3.2% and 3.1 ± 1.7%; that of the oscillometric method on the 2 separate occasions were 18.7 ± 11.3% and 17.2 ± 12.5%. The coefficients of variance of these 2 methods were statistically different on each occasion (P<0.001). Five consecutive systemic blood pressure readings were obtained for each dog within 6 min on both occasions using Doppler sphygmomanometry. More than 15 min was required to complete 5 consecutive systemic blood pressure readings by oscillometric sphygmomanometry for all dogs on each occasion. The results of this study indicate that Doppler sphygmomanometry provides more efficient and precise measurements of the systemic blood pressure level than oscillometric testing in conscious dogs in a clinical setting.
In order to determine whether hypertension would develop in dogs with chronic renal failure, we performed 7/8 renal ablation in 6 healthy dogs and compared pre- and post-ablation blood pressures determined by telemetry. One month after the renal ablation, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were significantly increased (p<0.05), creatinine clearance was decreased (p<0.05), and blood pressure was increased significantly (p<0.05). Simultaneously, plasma renin activity, angiotensin I and II, and aldosterone were elevated significantly (p<0.05) compared with the values obtained from 11 healthy dogs with intact renal function. The dogs with induced renal failure and hypertension were administered an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril hydrochloride, once daily for 2 weeks at 2 mg/kg body weight, and changes in blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system were determined. During the administration of benazepril hydrochloride, blood pressure, angiotensin II and aldosterone decreased significantly (p<0.05) and, upon discontinuation of administration, increased to the pre-administration levels (p<0.05). Plasma renin activity and angiotensin I showed no significant changes throughout the administration study. These results provide experimental evidence that hypertension develops in dogs with chronic renal failure through mechanisms involving the RAA system and demonstrate that benazepril hydrochloride improves renal hypertension in dogs.
To eradicate canine babesiosis in epidemic areas, mass-screening of the infection situation of Babesia gibsoni including occult infection is necessary. The development of cost-effective method for storage and transport of blood samples is required. A highly efficient DNA extraction procedure from dried blood spots (DBS) onto Whatman 3MM filter paper was developed for the diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection in dog by PCR. In 3 extraction methods, Chelex-based method in combination with saponin washing and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction (Saponin-PCI method) provided the best results. Sensitivity of the 4 previously described PCR methods for detection of B. gibsoni infection was also compared using serially diluted blood samples of B. gibsoni-infected dogs. The PCR method using Gib599F/Gib1270R primer pair provided the best performance. To evaluate the stability of DNA in DBS, DBS of B. gibsoni-infected dogs stored at room temperature for 2 months. The stability was superior to whole blood samples stored at -20°C for 2 months. This highly efficient DNA extraction method on DBS using Whatman 3MM filter paper has potential to be cost-effective and high performance tool for storage, and molecular diagnosis of clinical blood sample from dog. This procedure in combination with the PCR method using Gib599F/Gib1270R primer pair may greatly assist in diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection in dog populations that are geographically distant.
Haemosporidian parasites infection among wild birds inhabiting Minami-daito Island was studied. Blood films from 183 birds representing 4 species of 4 families were examined microscopically. Avian haemosporidian parasites were detected in 3 species with an overall prevalence of 59.6%. None of the 30 Daito scops owls (Otus scops interpositus) examined were infected. Either Haemoproteus sp. or Plasmodium sp. infection was found in 14 of 31 (45.2%) Borodino islands white-eyes (Zosterops japonicus daitoensis). Plasmodium spp. were found in 94 of 102 (92.2%) bull-headed shrikes (Lanius bucephalus) and 1 of 20 (5%) tree sparrows (Passer montanus).
Fowl glioma-inducing virus (FGV), which belongs to subgroup A of avian leukosis virus (ALV), is tumorigenic in the nervous system. In a zoological garden in Japan, approximately 40% of chickens, including Japanese fowls, were infected with FGV. Because this zoological garden plays a role as a major supplier of Japanese fowl for other zoological gardens, FGV infection is suspected to have spread among ornamental chickens. In this study, the prevalence of the disease was examined in a total of 129 chickens in three other zoological gardens by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription nested PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty-six to 56 percent of the fowls in each of the examined gardens were positive by nested PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 3' untranslated region, including the specific sequence of FGV, of the 14 isolated ALVs showed high sequence identity and a close relationship with FGV. In addition, the env gene of the isolates frequently showed mutations and deletions of nucleotides. These results suggest that FGV is prevalent among ornamental chickens kept in zoological gardens in Japan.
Sarcomatous proliferation of spindle cells was present in the mammary gland and many metastatic sites in a 10-year-old female domestic cat with tubulopapillary carcinoma in the mammary gland. Transition from neoplastic tubular structures to spindle cells in the primary site and fascicular proliferation of the spindle cells with or without coexistance of tubulopapillary carcinoma in the primary and metastatic sites were observed. Most of spindle cells were positive for cytokeratin CAM5.2 as well as the normal luminal epithelium but not the myoepithelium. From these results, this case was diagnosed as tubulopapillary carcinoma with spindle cell metaplasia and it was clarified that neoplastic luminal epithelial cells can transform to sarcomatous appearence.
We report a case of mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) in a 32-week-old heterozygous sphingosine 1-phosphate-2 (S1P2) receptor deficient female mouse. A white solid mass replacing the left kidney was observed at the left retroperitoneal wall. Histologically, the tumor mass consisted of dimorphic cellular components of epithelial and stromal cells. Epithelial cells formed various sized irregular-shaped tubular structures resembling renal tubules surrounded by stromal cells. Immunohistochemically, epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin, while stromal cells showed positive immunoreactivity with α-smooth muscle actin as well as vimentin. Based on the morphological and immunohistochemical findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a MESTK.
A piglet developed respiratory distress followed by difficulty in standing and unsteady gait. The lesions were characterized by polioencephalomyelitis with the predominant distribution in the brain stem, as well as lymphocyte depletion and histiocyte infiltration with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the lymphoid tissues throughout the body and interstitial pneumonia. Porcine teschovirus (PTV) antigens were found in the former lesions and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in the latter two lesions. PTV genes were detected from the diencephalon. The results suggest that the piglet was concurrently affected with polioencephalomyelitis due to PTV and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with PCV2. They also suggest that the immunosuppressive condition developing in PMWS may have facilitated the infection of the brain with PTV.
A 5 years old female ferret with an abdominal palpable mass confirmed at echo-graphic examination died during an explorative laparotomy. A single lymph-node-like nodule was found adjacent to the intestinal loops. The round mass well circumscribed, solid and white, histologically, at low magnification, appeared encapsulated and built up by a population of atypical spindle cells arranged in interwoven fascicles. The cells had high anisocytosis degree, moderate mitotic activity and prominent nucleoli. A central area of necrosis was present. To characterise the tumour immunohistochemically cytokeratin, vimentin, S-100, melan-A, vWF, desmin, actin and α-actin were applied. Neoplastic cells resulted positive to vimentin, actin and α-actin. Based on the histological and immunohistological pattern a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made.
We report the first case of a primary subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma that originated in the hind leg of a hamster and metastasized to the bone marrow, lung and diaphragm. A 10-month-old female Syrian golden hamster was presented with a large, firm, white subcutaneous mass in the right hind leg. The tumor invaded into the bone marrow and small nodules were also present in the lung and diaphragm; however, no tumor masses were found in the visceral organs. Histologically, the tumors were spindle cell sarcomas, composed of densely packed pleomorphic spindle cells with oval to elongate nuclei and moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin, but negative for α-sarcomeric actin and S-100. Thus, the diagnosis was primary leiomyosarcoma of the hind leg with metastasis to the bone marrow, lung and diaphragm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous primary subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the hind leg with distant metastasis in laboratory animals.
A menigioma with polygonal granular cell proliferation in an 11-year and 8-month-old male Chihuahua is described. The tumor was observed under the dura matter of the right cerebrum. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of solid growth foci of small- or large- sized polygonal cells, with pale-stained nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and fine granular to foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some of the proliferating cells contained variable amounts of cytoplasmic PAS-positive granules. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contained vesicular structures with a few small round-shaped bodies in the cytoplasm. We diagnosed the case as canine meningioma with granular cell appearance.
We isolated Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative agent of rat-bite fever in humans, from the salivary gland of a pet rat postmortem. The isolate was a Gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacillus, which produced acid from glucose and showed enzymatic activities for eight items in the API ZYM system. The results were consistent with those of the reference strain, ATCC 14647T, except for acid production from dextrin. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA (1,440 bp) and gyrB genes (514 bp) of the isolate revealed similarities of 100% and 99.8%, respectively, to those of S. moniliformis in GenBank. Therefore, the isolate was identified as S. moniliformis. These results suggested the potential risk of rat-bite fever arising from pet rats in Japan.
Thrombosis is a potential complication of hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) in dogs. An 8-year-old male Beagle diagnosed with pituitary-dependent HAC had complicated with thrombosis in the caudal vena cava and abdominal aorta, which was treated by hypophysectomy and antithrombotic therapy. After hypophysectomy, hypercortisolemia disappeared and the general condition was also significantly improved. Ultrasonography after hypophysectomy revealed that the thrombus remained in the abdominal aorta, but the thrombus in the caudal vena cava had disappeared. However 692 days after the hypophysectomy, the dog had an acute onset of dyspnea and died. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of thrombi in the abdominal aorta and the pulmonary artery. Observations from this case show that HAC dogs must be attention to thrombosis.
Magnetic resonance (MR) was conducted for an 8-year-old, intact male Spitz with sneezing, serous discharge and epistaxis from the left nasal cavity. MR imaging showed a nasal cavity-occupied mass of iso-intensity on T1WI , high-intensity on T2WI and markedly enhanced on contrast-enhanced T1WI at parts of rostal to medial ocular angle in the left cavity. After Surgery and intraoperative radiation, the mass was diagnosed intranasal hemangiosarcoma by histopathology. Although the dog showed the finding, which suggested recurrence after the treatment ending, about 30 months later, it maintained good conditions without evidence of metastasis.
Perosomus elumbis is an occasionally found congenital anomaly of unknown etiology and is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. A 2-day-old female Holstein calf presented nearly normal forelimbs but flexure and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. The vertebrae and pelvic malformations and agenesis were radiographed and then necropsied. Mild ankylosis of the hindlimbs, absence of cauda equina, left scoliosis in state of fusion of T11 and T12 and complete fusion of L4 and L5, narrowed pelvic canal and misshapen ilium were confirmed. However, abnormal development or agenesis was not observed in the urogenital and intestinal system in this calf.
We compared the growth kinetics of neuropathogenic and nonneuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) strains in mouse cerebral cortex cells and investigated the relevance of the D/N amino acid change at position 752 of ORF30 in Japanese isolates. Neuropathogenic electropherotype P strains 01c1 and 89c25 exhibited similar growth kinetics to nonneuropathogenic P strain 90c16 in cultured neurons; however, the growth ability of type B strain 97c7 was lower than those of the other strains tested. The amino acid encoded at 752 of ORF30 in 01c1 was asparagic acid; asparagine was encoded in the other EHV-1 strains isolated from Japanese horses. The D/N752 difference in ORF30 may not be related to replication ability in neurons.