Nicotinamide attenuates neuronal cell death related to focal cerebral ischemic injury. This study investigated whether nicotinamide exerts a neuroprotective effect through the activation of Raf- mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-ERK and its downstream targets, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) or vehicle 2 hr after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brains were collected 24 hr after MCAO. In the present study, nicotinamide significantly reduces the volume of infarct regions and decreases the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in the cerebral cortex. Nicotinamide prevents injury-induced decrease in Raf-1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. As part of the downstream cascade, nicotinamide inhibits the injury-induced decrease in p90RSK and Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, nicotinamide prevents the injury-induced increase in cleaved caspase-3 levels. These findings suggest that nicotinamide protects neuronal cells against cerebral ischemic injury and that MEK-ERK-p90RSK cascade activation by nicotinamide contributes to these neuroprotective effects.
On-farm vaccination of chickens against Campylobacter jejuni is considered a potentially effective countermeasure to decrease campylobacteriosis via consumption of contaminated chicken meat, but is not yet available. In this study, 2 groups of Jidori chicks were immunized subcutaneously with a formalin-killed C. jejuni with 2 different adjuvants. Other chicks served as the unvaccinated control group. Both vaccines induced high levels of anti-Campylobacter IgG but did not decrease bacterial excretion in cecal droppings and bacterial load in the liver and spleen after oral challenge with 105 CFU of the homologous strain. Further study is needed to address the observed irrelevance and to develop a novel effective vaccine against C. jejuni.
The intergenic spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of mycoplasmas has been used for a genetic marker for identification of the species. Here we show the intergenic spacer regions of two hemotropic mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma haemofelis and ` Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (synonym: `C. M. haemobovis')' are also useful for classification of this particular group of mycoplasms. The spacer region of M. haemofelis and `C. M. haemobos' consisted of 209 and 210 base pairs, respectively, and both lacked the spacer tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a monophyletic relationship among hemoplasmas and M. fastidiosum. A hypothetical secondary structure predicted in the spacer regions tentatively assigned the boxA and boxB motifs peculiar to the members of the genus Mycoplasma. M. haemofelis and `C. M. haemobos' possessed a stem-loop structure in common, despite the presence of a palindromic nucleotide substitution in the stem region.
Earlier reports have shown that ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) can bind to and degrade COMP (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) in cartilage. However, the expression of ADAMTS-7 AND ADAMSTS-12 in both normal intervertebral discs and degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs) is still unknown and the changes that occur in the degenerating intervertebral disc remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and role of the ADAMTS in the degenerative process of the intervertebral disc. Rat caudal discs were loaded at 1.3 MPa in vivo with an external compression device. The discs were loaded for one week, and and the nuclei pulposi (NPs) were harvested to investigate cell apoptosis and expression of collagen II and aggrecan for confirmation of disc degeneration. The changes of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 and COMP were recorded during one week of loading. A second group of rats receiving no load were used as controls. After one week of loading, the NPs suffered degenerative changes as reflected by decreases in cell viability, collagen II, and aggrecan. Dramatic increases in expression of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 and COMP fragment were detected after 18 hr of loading; however, this was accompanied by a sharp decrease of COMP expression. These changes were not observed in the control group. The significant increase in COMP possibly suggests a favorable role of COMP in preventing loading and degeneration of matrix; however, this positive effect might be diminished by ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12, whose augmentation were dramatic during disc degeneration.
To explore the roles of the conserved YXXΦ-type motif in the erythroid-specific N-terminal stretch of anion exchanger 1 (AE1), cell surface expression and internalization of various mutants derived from murine erythroid AE1 tagged with an N-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein and an extracellular FLAG (EGFP-mAE1Flag) were explored in K562 and HEK293 cells. EGFP-mAE1Flag showed rapid internalization, in association with the internalizations of transferrin and the endogenous AE1 chaperone-like protein glycophorin A in K562 cells. Disruption of the conserved Y72VEL sequence markedly reduced the internalization and increased the relative abundance of cell-surface AE1, whereas substitution of the N-terminal region from bovine AE1 that lacks the relevant motif for the corresponding region had less of an effect on internalization. Deletion or substitution mutations of the Y7EDQL sequence in the bovine N-terminal stretch resulted in the decreased internalization of the AE1 proteins. Cell surface biotinylation and deglycosylation studies showed that approximately 30% of the cell-surface EGFP-mAE1Flag and several other mutants was sorted to the plasma membrane without N-glycan maturation in the Golgi apparatus. These findings indicate that the conserved YXXΦ sequence or a noncanonical YXXXΦ sequence in the N-terminal region facilitates the endocytic recycling of erythroid AE1 through a clathrin-mediated pathway.
Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure.
Medical records of dogs with colorectal polyps were retrospectively reviewed, and clinical presentation of inflammatory colorectal polyps in miniature dachshunds was evaluated. Of 33 dogs found to have colorectal polyps, miniature dachshunds were markedly over-represented with 16 dogs (48%), of which 12 (75%) were found to have inflammatory polyps. Multiple polyps localized between the rectum and the descending colon was the most common finding in miniature dachshunds with inflammatory polyps. Twenty dogs (80%) out of 25 miniature dachshunds with inflammatory colorectal polyps responded to immunosuppressive therapy using prednisolone and cyclosporine. The results of this study indicate that miniature dachshunds are predisposed to develop inflammatory colorectal multiple polyps, for which immunosuppressive therapy may be a treatment option.
A 2-year-old East Friesian sheep imported from Australia exhibited severe anemia after contagious pustular dermatitis in Hokkaido, Japan. Hemoplasma infection was confirmed in blood smears. Both Mycoplasma ovis and `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis' were detected by PCR and sequence analyses. In the epidemiological analysis, dual pathogens were detected in 6 of 12 (50.0%) sheep imported from Australia with the infected ewe at the same time, 1 of 5 (20.0%) sheep introduced from a domestic farm in Hokkaido, and in 1 of 16 (6.3%) sheep from an epidemiologically unrelated ranch. It is the first clinical case of sheep to confirm coinfection of these pathogens in Japan.
We investigated the seroprevalence rate of Torque teno sus virus types 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in the sera of 38 post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-suspected pigs and 43 porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-vaccinated normal pigs on 3 commercial pig farms in southern Japan by using nested polymerase chain reaction. High seroprevalence rate of TTSuVs was observed in both PMWS-suspected pigs (100%) and PCV2-vaccinated normal pigs (90.7%). The seroprevalence rate of TTSuV2 was significantly higher in the PMWS-suspected pigs than in PCV2-vaccinated normal pigs (97.4% versus 81.4%, P<0.05), whereas no such difference was observed for TTSuV1 between the 2 groups of pigs. In both pig groups, the seroprevalence rate of TTSuV2 was significantly higher than that of TTSuV1 (P<0.01-0.05). These results show that TTSuVs are highly seroprevalent in both PMWS-suspected pigs and PCV2-vaccinated normal pigs with TTSuV2 being more seroprevalent in the former than in the latter.
A 7-year-old, male, mixed breed dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Kitasato University because of anorexia, lameness and multiple cutaneous lesions. Observation of bone marrow plasmacytosis, osteolytic bone lesions, serum myeloma protein and cutaneous infiltration of myeloma cells led us to a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) with cutaneous involvement. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for the rearranged genes of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor demonstrated that the neoplastic cells found in skin lesions or bone marrow are of B-lymphocyte lineage and share a common original precursor cell. The dog was treated with UW-Madison protocol or melphalan/prednisone protocol and survived 175 days. This is rare case of anaplastic MM with cutaneous involvement in dog.
The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status in cattle with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). Twelve cattle diagnosed as MCF and 6 healthy cattle (controls) were used in the study. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D), calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were determined as 96.83 pg/ml, 30.0 ng/ml, 2.19 mmol/l, 1.57 mmol/l and 15.21 pg/ml in MCF group and 42.33 pg/ml, 37.0 ng/ml, 2.43 mmol/l, 1.96 mmol/l and 36.08 pg/ml in controls, respectively. Although serum 1,25-D level in the MCF group was increased (P<0.01), serum calcium (P<0.01) and PTH (P<0.05) levels were decreased compared to the controls. The results suggest that there might be an interaction between vitamin D status and MCF.
We established the WBN/Kob-Leprfa rat as a new congenic strain for the fa allele of the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Homozygous (fa/fa) WBN/Kob-Leprfa rats provide a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, although its onset is secondary to pancreatitis. In the present study, we compared histopathological observations of pancreatitis in each genotype of this rat, to examine its suitability as a model of pancreatitis. The histopathological findings of the pancreatitis revealed intense changes dependent on age, such as hemorrhage or hemosiderin deposition. The pancreatitis in homozygous (fa/fa) WBN/Kob-Leprfa rats were more severe than those of WBN/Kob rats.
The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa (SDT-fa/fa) rat, a model of obese type 2 diabetes, shows obesity, hyperglycaemia and low bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of parathyroid hormone (1-34) [PTH(1-34)] on BMD and glucose metabolism in the SDT-fa/fa rat. SDT-fa/fa rats showed obesity with hyperglycaemia and decreased serum osteocalcin levels and the tibial BMD. A 4-week treatment of PTH(1-34) (20 μg/kg/day) increased the serum osteocalcin levels and the tibial BMD, and decreased the serum glucose levels without changing the serum insulin levels. These findings indicate that PTH(1-34) improved not only BMD but also glucose metabolism in SDT-fa/fa rats. This study suggests that PTH(1-34) is a novel agent for the treatment of diabetic osteoporosis.
The binding of curcumin to senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was examined in the aged brain of various animal species and a human patient with Alzheimer's disease (AD), together with its binding to neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Brain sections were immunostained with anti-amyloid β protein 1-42 (Aβ42) and anti-amyloid β protein 1-40 (Aβ40) antibodies. These sections were also stained with alkaline Congo red, periodic acid-methenamine silver (PAM), and curcumin (0.009% curcumin solution) with or without formic acid pretreatment. The sections from the AD brain were also immunostained for anti-paired helical filament-tau (PHF-tau), and were stained with Gallyas silver for NFTs. Some SPs in the AD, monkey, dog, bear, and amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse (APP Tg-mouse) brains contained congophilic materials, and were intensely positive for curcumin. In addition, curcumin labeled some diffuse SPs negative for Congo red in the AD, monkey, bear, and APP Tg-mouse brains. In all animals, CAA was intensely positive for both Congo red and curcumin. The specific curcumin staining activity was lost by formic acid pretreatment. In the AD brain, NFTs positive for PHF-tau and Gallyas silver were moderately stained with curcumin. These findings indicate that curcumin specifically binds to the aggregated Aβ molecules in various animals, and further to phosphorylated tau protein, probably according to its conformational nature.
A 15-month-old male beagle dog used in a toxicity study had a primary renal mesenchymal tumor. Macroscopically, the tumor was a gray-white mass which was found in the right kidney, and extended from the capsule to a position slightly compressing the medulla. Microscopically, most of the tumor cells showed a myxoid pattern, in which the matrix was positive for alcian blue staining. In the other parts of the tumor, a fascicular and wavy pattern was observed, and the matrix was full of collagen fibrils. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin and fibronectin, and negative for cytokeratin, desmin, á-smooth muscle actin, Von Willebrand factor, cyclooxigenase-2 and myelin basic protein. As a result, we diagnosed this case to be a renal mesenchymal tumor. Based on the microscopic findings, interstitial characteristics and immunohistochemical features, the present case was classified as a congenital mesoblastic tumor.
Macrophages are essential for controlling the majority of infections, and are mediators of natural immunity. During infection, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine and ATP released into the extracellular space by immunological stimuli have been shown to regulate various immune functions. More recently, it has been shown adenosine and ATP have a critical role on the physiological negative feedback mechanism for limitation and termination of tissue-specific and systemic inflammatory responses. It was useful and meaningful to gain information about interaction between LPS, which generates the inflammation, and adenosine and ATP, which terminate the inflammation. We evaluate effects of adenosine and ATP on the production of cytokines related to inflammation in canine macrophage cell line DH82 cells. Adenosine and ATP respectively increased the production of IL-10 without affecting the production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12 in DH82 cells. In addition, adenosine and ATP prevented the production of LPS-induced IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12 in DH82 cells. In contrast, adenosine and ATP potentiated LPS-induced IL-10 production in DH82 cells. Moreover, adenosine, but not ATP inhibited LPS-induced expression of TLR4 in DH82 cells. These results suggest that conditions related to increased adenosine and/or ATP may play an important role in the inflammatory reactions.
Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Under stress conditions, C. jejuni can enter a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We found that the C. jejuni was able to enter a VBNC state by prolonged incubation at 4°C. The standard isolation methods using pre-enrichment steps in Bolton broth or Preston broth could not detect the VBNC cells in spiked chicken meat. The transcription levels of virulence-associated genes (flaA, flaB, cadF, ciaB, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) were expressed in VBNC cells but in low levels. The VBNC cells retained the ability to invade Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In most cases, VBNC cells failed to resuscitate in Caco-2 cells, but in some experiments, they formed colonies after co-incubation with host cells. Collectively, C. jejuni enters into a VBNC state at 4°C and the VBNC C. jejuni remains virulent which may possibly lead to disease in humans. C. jejuni in VBNC state is a potential concern for food safety.
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolates with four different antimicrobial resistance patterns obtained from a beef cattle farm were characterized to determine their clonality. Macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA revealed that these four isolates are closely related to each other and can be classified as a newly emerged pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type among cattle: cluster VII. Three of the four isolates showed resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and this resistance was mediated by AmpC β-lactamase encoded by the blaCMY-2 gene in a 190-kbp IncA/C plasmid. Results of restriction analysis and IncA/C backbone PCR suggest that the three 190-kbp plasmids are identical and that a 70-kbp IncA/C plasmid of the ESC-susceptible isolate is derived from the 190-kbp plasmid by a deletion event. Three isolates harboured a virulence-resistance plasmid (165 or 180 kbp), and restriction analysis revealed that these plasmids were identical or closely related to each other. These results suggest that the four S. Typhimurium cluster VII isolates originate from a common ancestor that probably invaded the farm prior to the salmonellosis outbreak. Antimicrobial resistance patterns may not necessarily reflect the relationships of the isolates.
Campylobacter was isolated from retail meat samples collected during the fiscal year 2009 in Japan. The higher percentages of contamination of chicken products were observed from June (39.3%) to November (83.3%). However, the highest number of human campylobacteriosis cases was reported in June in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report. The chicken isolates with distinct clusters IVb and I, based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene, were predominantly obtained during the periods between April and November 2009 and between February and March 2010, respectively. Extensive monitoring of Campylobacter contamination in chickens produced in various places is needed to analyse the seasonal variations between contamination of the meat products and the number of human cases with campylobacteriosis.
A total of 360 samples including fresh fecal droppings, neck skins, and swab samples was collected from 24 broiler flocks and processed by 12 modern processing plants in 6 states in Malaysia. Ninety samples from 10 traditional wet markets located in the same states as modern processing plants were also collected. Microbiological isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006 (E). The overall rate of contamination for Campylobacter in modern processing plants and in traditional wet markets was 61.1% (220/360) and 85.6% (77/90), respectively. Campylobacter jejuni was detected as the majority with approximately 70% for both facilities. In the modern processing plants, the contamination rate for Campylobacter gradually declined from 80.6% before the inside-outside washing to 62.5% after inside-outside washing and to 38.9% after the post chilling step. The contamination rate for Campylobacter from processed chicken neck skin in traditional wet markets (93.3%) was significantly (P<0.01) higher than in modern processing plants (38.9%).
To evaluate the effect of cooled and chlorinated chill water for Campylobacter and coliforms at a middle-size processing plant which was considered to be difficult for eliminate pathogenic bacteria on carcasses, following three conditions were examined; keeping temperature at < 20, < 10 and < 10°C, and chlorine concentration at < 50, < 50 and 50 to 70 ppm during processing in experiment 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Fifteen prechill and 15 postchill carcasses were examined in each experiment. In lower temperature of experiment 2, decreasing rate (%) of coliforms was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in experiment 1. In higher chlorination of experiment 3, no Campylobacter was detected from all postchill carcasses.
MicroRNA-145 (miRNA-145; miR-145) is aberrantly expressed in most of human cancers and plays a significant role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In the current study, we focused on how miR-145 plays a role in canine and human malignant melanomas. MiR-145 was significantly downregulated in canine malignant melanoma tissues and canine melanoma cell lines, as well as human melanoma cell lines tested. The ectopic expression of miR-145 showed a significant growth inhibition in both canine and human melanoma cells tested, and the effect was achieved partly by suppressing c-MYC in canine melanoma LMeC and in human melanoma A2058 and Mewo cells. At the same time, a suppressive tendency on cell migration in canine melanoma KMeC cells and significant suppression of cell migration in human melanoma A2058 cells by suppressing FASCIN1 were also found. These findings suggest that miR-145 acts as a tumor suppressor in both canine and human malignant melanomas.
We found a case of salivary mucocele that originated in the minor salivary gland (palatine gland) of the soft palate in a dog. At first admission, the soft palate swelled remarkably. Computed tomography (CT) revealed cystic radiolucency inside a large quantity of liquid in the soft palate, and most of the airway was occupied. Marsupialization was performed, but since a recurrence was observed one month later, the salivary mucocele was removed. There has been no report of salivary mucocele arising from the minor salivary gland of the soft palate in dogs. To our knowledge, this case is the first. Complete removal, including minor salivary glands surrounding the lesion, is necessary for treatment of salivary mucocele in dogs.
A simple method of lymphography of the thoracic duct was investigated. Using three female beagles, contrast media were administered rectally, vaginally and into the perianal tissue. The administration sites were gently massaged, and imaging was carried out at constant intervals using computed tomography and radiograph. Moreover, Indian ink was administered into the rectum mucous membrane in dogs for proof of this method of lymphography, and the lymph drainage routes were observed. The investigation showed that clear computed tomography and radiographic contrast images of the thoracic duct were obtained by subcutaneous and submucosa injection of angiography contrast medium and 3D processing of these images revealed the three-dimensional positions and course of the thoracic duct and cisterna chyli.