Although the LCD industry is a model industry in which both the Japanese government and Japanese companies envisaged the creation of economic value through technological innovation, the market share of Japanese manufacturers in this industry declined. The decline can be attributed to the entry of manufacturers from Korea and Taiwan. Japanese manufacturers, who had always been innovators in this industry, found themselves in such a predicament because they did not proactively invest in fourth-generation equipment. These investment decisions were critical because the target market was expected to expand and there was little technological uncertainty. In addition to these circumstances, Japanese manufacturers had created the TFT–LCD industry and accumulated losses as a result of development processes.