That aphthous stomatitis is etiologically closely related to the inflammatory process within the epipharynx, particularly in the chronic recur rent intermittent type, has long been suspected.
In 19 cases of this type of aphthae severe epipharyngitis was found in 15 cases. To these 15 cases the treatment was directed toward the epipharyngeal area alone; in 9 cases the aphthae abated without any further treament to the lesion itself.
Furthermore, in 7 of the latter 9 cases the oral lesion was completely cured without any further recurrence.
The results obtained at author’s laboratory in these several years with liver cirrhosis were reviewed from the standpoint of immunopathology, collating with the “markers” introduced by Mackay & Burnet together with their criterion of autoimmune diseases. It was clarified that, in liver cirrhosis, 1) elevated level of γ-globulin was noticeable in the plasma, 2) autoantibodies against the liver were demonstrable, frequently, 3) some immunoglobulin deposit was shown in the liver as well as in the kidney, 4) lympho and plasma cytic infiltration was marked in the liver, histologically, 5) corticosteroid was said effective, to some extent, 6) some other conditions which might be related with autoimmune process were found coexisting, not rarely. Thus, as far as these “markers” are concerned, the possibility is high that autoimmunization is more or less causing some influences on liver cirrhosis. However, it seems difficult to distinguish the lesion of strict autoimmunization from the one of general hypersensitivity in a wide sense. It is almost certain that some immune process is playing an important role in liver cirrhosis, but it should require further study to determine whether this can be called a real autoimmune disease or not.
This study comprises a total of 856 cases with suspicious clinical diagnosis of malignant tumors which were cytologically examined by us during the past 8 years. Of 856 cases, 184 were examined by the needle puncture and aspiration mostly on their non-ulcerated facial and oral lesions, before the treatments were given. In this paper, the results of the 184 cases are analysed and shown. The needle in this study is redesigned for new application with 15, 16 and 17 gauge of 4 to 7 cm in length, having a mandrin which is attached closely to the inner surface of the needle in order to avoid contamination of the tissue to be aspirated with surface epithelial cells. The needle has been used differently in each lesion according to its nature. Phase contrast microscopy (abbreviated to PCM) has been applied to observe the specimen, saving time and work untill getting the results, but for the better confirmation of the findings the Papanicolaou (abbreviated to Pap.) staining was additionally applied. If the material by aspiration was obtained more than needed, the surplus was used for the usual histological examination, and in such a case the surgical biopsy could be omitted. The findings of aspiration cytology have been confirmed through their clinical and histological examinations. Of 184 cases, 88 had the final histological diagnosis, 49 of which were malignant tumors and the remaining 39 were non-malignant lesions. Out of a total of 49 cases of malignant tumors, cytological examination yielded a positive diagnosis of cancer in 62.5% by PCM alone, and in 80.6% by the combination of PCM and Pap. staining. Out of 39 cases with non-malignant lesions, cytological examination yielded a false positive diagnosis in 11 cases, by PCM alone. Six cases of these 11 were diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma histologically. The tumor is believed to be not malignant but posseses a possible malignancy in nature. Then the cytological results of Class IV (suggestive of malignancy) of these cases give us a specific meaning that we can find the existence of the tumor and take a appropriate preparation for the following treatment.
The cytological and histological examination by aspiration is a time-saving method of confirming a diagnosis without surgical incision through normal tissue in our fields. The process by aspiration prevents a possible infection and dangerous fungating of the tumors.
Growth of the mandible of the Japanese children was investigated through amount of annual change of the mandibular length which was defined by J. E. Harris on lateral cephalometric roentgenograms. Obtaining peculiarity of growth of the mandible in Japanese, a comparative study was done on growth of the mandible between Japanese and American. The materials used in the present study were 523 sheets of cephalometric roentgenograms of children which covered a range of ages from 6 to 12 years. The mandibular length of the Japanese male sample, at each age, surpassed those of the Japanese female sample. The total growth increment from the ages of 6 to 12 years was 18.1 mm. in the Japanese male sample and 19.1 mm. in the female sample. The pronounced growth deceleration which was observed in the American sample as a preadolescent growth deceleration was irrecognizable in the Japanese sample. The similarity of the periodicity of the mandibular pattern which was elucidated between the male and female samples in the American, reported by J. E. Harris, was not observed in the Japanese. The present study should be expanded to a higher range of ages, in order to have more available informations for mandibular growth prediction.