The resistant levels of the 4 strains of the housefly collected in Borneo to six insecticides, namely DDT, Chrysron, DDVP, Baytex, Sumithion and Diazinon, were examined. It was found that most housefly population in Borneo showed a higher susceptibility than that of the Takatsuki strain of Japan, especially to DDT.
A key to the common Calliphorid flies of Peninsular Malaysia is presented. Illustrations of the genitalia of some rare species, list of new localities, altitudes and other ecological data are also presented. The following species were recorded for the first time from Peninsular Malaysia; Catapicephala sinica, C. kurahashii, Taninanina javanica, Hemipyrellia tagaliana, Lucilia sinensis, Blaesoxipha kasterni, Boettcherisca javanica, Parasarcophaga misera, P. orchidea, P. albicephs, Sarcosolomonia crinita, Thyrsocnema bornensis, Sarcorohdenorfia αntilope and Lioproctia pattoni.
The effect of various plasma expanders on blood coagulation was studied using the thromboelastography (TEG). Solutions of 5, 10, 20, and 50% concentration of each expander (6% low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (6% Hespander®)*2, 3% dextran-40, 6% high molecular‘ weight hydroxyethyl starch (6 HES®)*3, and 6% dextran-70) or solvent (lactated Ringer solution and normal saline))) in blood were prepared and their coagulability was examined by TEG.
In the low molecular weight plasma expanders (6% Hespander⑮ and 3% dextran 40), in general, the coagulability decreased when the concentration was increased. In the high molecular weight plasma expanders (6 HES® and 6% dextran-70), the coagulability increased slightly at low and high concentrations and the coagulability was reduced. As a conclusion, at clinically used concentrations of less than 20% in blood, changes in the TEG of the plasma expanders are minimum and have no clinical significance.
The effect of cardiac output on pulmonary shunt was studied in living lungs of human patients and dogs which had alveoli and blood vessels, and also in artificial lung (bubble-type oxygenator) which, had no such structural factors. In spite of such a structural difference, quite similar results were observed in both living and artificial lungs, and this suggests that some common factors other than the change in blood vessels result in the change in pulmonary shunt. It was observed that pulmonary shunt increased as the saturation of mixed venous blood became higher. It was clarified that the oxygen receiving capacity of blood decreased as the oxygen saturation became higher, i.e., the amount of reduced hemoglobin became less. The reduction in oxygen-receiving capacity of blood results in the leduction in oxygen-transfer efficiency from alveoli to blood and hence pulmonary shunt increases, and this can be regarded as a kind of shunt-like effect. It can be concluded that the change in pulmonary shunt by cardiac output is not due to the change in the lung function but is caused by the change in the oxygen-receiving capacity of the mixed venous blood.
Immunological properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin reaction were investigated by animal and clinical experiments.
In the guinea pigs an intradermal dose of PHA-P produced erythema and induration with a maximal response at 24 hours after the injection. Histologically it was characterized by peri vascular infiltration of lymphoid cells in the dermis and subcutis, being similar to that of tuberculin (PPD) skin reaction. PHA skin reaction, however, showed some difference from that of PPD in the initial cellular response in that the former was composed of small mononuclear cells and granulocytes with rapid development and the latter was composed of large mononuclear cells (macrophages) and granulocytes with slow development.
Intradermal injection of 1:1000 dilution of PHA-P produced a similar erythema in man. In 39 of 59 patients with connective tissue diseases, the results of the in vivo (skin test) and in vitro (lymphocyte transformation) response to PHA correlated well. In the 59 patients, the incidence of the positive rate of the PHA tests (55.9%) was significantly higher than that of the DNCB test (33.9%) and of the PPD test (23.7 %).
These observations suggest that the PHA skin test has properties of delayed hypersensitivity and is highly sensitive and that it may be a useful measure of cell-mediated immunity.