As for the genus Lucilia, only one species, Lucilia papuensis Macquart, has been recorded by R. Senior-White et al. in Thailand. During our survey in Thailand in 1975, we found newly 3 more species belonging to the genus Lucilia. These are L. cuprina (Wiedemann), L. porphyrina (Walker) and L. sinensis Aubertin. The female of L. sinensis has never been reported. Therefore, the female genitalia of L. sinensis are illustrated in this paper and compared with those of L. papuensis. The male genitalia of L. sinensis and L. papuensis are also illustrated in this paper.
The protective effect of propranolol on ischemic myocardium was studied experimentally and clinically by electron microscope. In an animal experiment, ischemic changes were produced in the posterior papillary muscle of the rabbit following 3, 15, and 30 minutes of occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery. Propranolol (0.25 mg/kg) was injected into the left atrial cavity before occlusion of the artery. The posterior papillary muscle was excised and examined by electron microscope. In clinical experience, propranolol (20 µg/kg) was given intravenously to 6 patients who underwent open heart surgery. Transmural left ventricular myocardial biopsy was performed after the anoxic cardiac arrest and the material, particularly the subendocardium, was examined by electron microscope. It was shown that propranolol was effective, both in the experiment and in the clinical experience, in preserving ischemic myocardium. The possible mechanisms through which propranolol might act were considered to be (1) indirect effect of altered oxygen supply vs. demand, effected by reducing heart rate and reducing cardiac output due to the drug’s function as a beta blocker, (2) direct cellular effect, i.e., reducing myocardial substrate metabolism along with stabilization of cellular structure, and (3) increase collateral circulation to the subendocardium.
In order to evaluate the factors relating to prognosis, a clinico-pathological study was made in 27 patients with Wilms’ tumor. Among these 27 cases, 10 survived more than two years after nephrectomy, 16 died within four days up to two years, and one patient could not be followed up. The younger age group and earlier stage of the disease showed more favorable prognosis. The tumor size, location, and number of tumor nodules had no effect on prognosis. Both the lymphatic and capsular invasions were common in the fatal cases. No vascular invasion was seen in any patient that had preoperative radiotherapy. Among the 10 survivors, six patients had received preoperative irradiation, whose tumors revealed a mesoblastic pattern. Polycystic structures were found in two surviving cases. One survivor’s tumor contained prominent squamous epithelium. Another case showed predominance of undifferentiated spindle cells. The undifferentiated mesenchymal type with sarcomatous pattern would not always represent unfavorable prognosis. The tumor with mesoblastic pattern after radiotherapy and those with polycystic structure showed low-grade malignancy and maturation of stromal cells and tubules, respectively.
In order to study the normal and aged anatomical structure of the duct system of human pancreas, retrograde pancreatography was performed. Pancreas from 33 cadavers of non-pancreatic disease, aged from 0 to 81 years, was examined. Silicone rubber was injected through the canal of Wirsung, radiographs were taken, and microstereoscopic observation was done after clearing in methyl salicylate. The main duct tapered gradually toward the tail, branching off about 56 second term ducts at a regular interval. The eighth term branch became the centroacinar ductules in the peripheral region, and the fourth and fifth term branch did it in the proximal region. In aged cases, prominently over 60 years, the main duct became large in caliber and showed irregular dilatation and narrowing like beads. The second term ducts were visualized as irregular patterns. The figure of distortions like a corkscrew was also seen in smaller ductules of the aged cases over 50 years. The histological findings of these sites were not the pancreatitic lesions but only the increase of fibrous tissues and decrease of a cellular component in the ductal wall itself.
The microvasculature of human myocardium was examined stereoscopically after the injection of Silicone rubber. Material were 40 normal hearts, three of infants, one of child, and 36 of adults, ranging in age from 27 to 79 years. Three types of arteries, subepicardial, branching, and straight type arteries, were confirmed. The microvascular pattern of left ventricular free wall, the posterior wall of the left ventricle, interventricular septum, right ventricular free wall, papillary muscles, trabeculae carneae, infant heart, and aged heart were also examined. The present study revealed that the inner one-third zone was supplied by the terminal branches of both branching and straight type arteries. In infant heart, the inner zone was wider than that of the adult. In the aged cases, reduction in filling with patchy deficit often appeared in this inner zone. The finding of the aged change was probably caused by the characteristic microvascular pattern, and this suggested that the same anatomical mechanism might commit myocardial infarction.
The endogenous production of carbon monoxide (Vco) in thirty-three diabetic rats induced by alloxan and in fifteen normal rats was measured by serial determinations of the expired carbon monoxide and of the increase of carbon monoxide in the blood during rebreathing in a closed system. Vco (mean ± S.E., µl/250g/hr) in the group of alloxanized rats 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and over 144 hours after the alloxan injection was 6.2 ± 2.9, 8.4 ± 2.1, 9.2 ± 1.8, 10.7 ± 3.5, 16.4 ± 2.0 and 16.5 ± 2.2, respectively, whereas it was 5.9 ± 0.4 for the control. This indicates that the alloxanized group maintaining a high blood sugar level for over 120 hours has a three-fold higher Vco than the control.
Three non-γ2 and one conventional amalgams were compared for their structure and hardness. The Ag-Cu dispersants hardened the amalgam by generating hard Cu-Sn halos and diminishing the γ2 phase. The Ag-Sn-Cu-In single composition alloy produced the hardest amalgam by its high hardness and the Cu-Sn reaction phase scattered as minute granules.
Simulation of the human tooth, periodontal membrane, and mandibular bone was attempted basing on the anatomical form and dimension, and the experimental data of each component were examined by the two-dimensional finite element method. Following problems were investigated: (1) Which of two factors, elastic modulus or Poisson’s rate, in periodontal membrane played an important role for supporting the tooth, and (2) Characteristics of tooth and alveolar bone displacement, and stress distribution in periodontal membrane and mandibular bone were investigated under a definite condition. It is clarified that Poisson’s ratio plays a much important role than the elastic modulus and this method is more suitable for simulating the model equivalent to human body and for examining the internal stress and it’s displacement than the strain gauge and photoelastic method.
Scanning electron microscopy of the fissure enamel surfaces of newly erupted permanent teeth and old sound teeth long-standing against caries demonstrated two distinct features; prismatic enamel and prismless enamel. Prismatic enamel was commonly found on the walls of fissures of newly erupted teeth and rarely found on the bases of fissures of old teeth. Prismless enamel was usually found on both sides of fissures of old teeth. Various types of calcified contents were almost confined on the prismless enamel surfaces of the occlusal orifice of fissures of old teeth, while organic materials and bacterial contents were found on the prismatic enamel surfaces of newly erupted teeth.
For the purpose of investigating many of the cells in the bone resorption area incident to experimental tooth movement and characterizing the role of these cells for the periodontal tissue resorption at the ultrastructural level, orthodontic force was applied to 24 male rats. Orthodontic elastics were inserted into the interproximal space of the upper first and second molars. The mesial side of the interradicular septum of the second molar was observed. The electron microscopic findings were as follows: 1. Cell cohorts were found in the undermining bone resorption area. They were mainly composed of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, undifferentiated cells, macrophages and several kinds of osteoclasts. 2. Four different kinds of osteoclasts could be recognized from the morphological features: a) small osteoclasts situated apart from the bone surface, b) large osteoclasts rich in rough ER, c) classic large osteoclasts and d) degenerating osteoclasts. 3. Two different types of undifferentiated cells were observed in these area. One was a spindle-shaped bright cell rich in rough ER and the other was a round-shaped dark cell with numerous mitochondria and free ribosomes. 4. Macrophages showing phagocytosis were also found in the bone resorption area.
In order to carry out the proper prosthetic treatment, it is necessary to select the method of treatment on the basis of accurate information concerning the prognosis of the prosthetic appliance. The oral structures are particularly proved to change when partial dentures are being used because the structures of the partial dentures are quite complex and they are easily broken. Therefore, in an attempt to analyze the changes that occur in the oral structures and partial dentures after insertion of the partial dentures, we conducted 3 series of follow-up examinations. The author sent out questionnaires and also conducted follow-up examinations of the patients. A summary of the major findings is as follows: 1) The percentage of those patients who came for their follow-up examinations, using metal based dentures, rose sharply over time. There were only 11.99% of the patients using the metal based dentures at the time the first study was conducted, but this rose to 58.13% at the time of the second study and 73.73% at the time of the third stud. 2) The proportion of the patients who had anterior partial dentures declined over time from 9.36% at the time of the first study to 8.74% at the time of the second study and finally to 5.61% at the time of the third study. 3) The proportion of the partial dentures that had fractured was 23.15% at the time of the first study and 16.37% at the time of the second study and 16.67% at the time of the third study. 4) There was a striking difference in the fracture frequency of the acrylic resin based partial dentures dentures and that of the metal based partial dentures. The denture bases of the acrylic resin-based partial dentures fractured about four times as often as those of the metal based partial dentures. 5) In all three studies it was found that about 60% of the caries occurring on the abutment tooth occurred on the edentulous proximal side. 6) Changes in the mucous membrane, such as inflammation or development of ulcers, had occurred in 48.86% of the cases at the time of the first study. This proportion declined to approximately 47% at the time of the second study and finally to 43% at the time of the third study. 7) In examining the changes in the mobility of the abutment teeth, it was found that in all three studies approximately 20 to 30% of the abutment teeth demonstrated in creased mobility, and about 10 to 20% showed decreased mobility while 55 to 65% showed no change.