The isoenzymic properties of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were investigated and compared with those in other cells, such as human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and human periodontal ligament cells (PDLs), and with those of three species of periodontopathic bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 (P. gingivalis), Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 (P. intermedia), and Capnocytophaga sputigena ATCC33123 (C. sputigena). The biochemical properties of the isoenzymes were analyzed by the following methods: enzyme assays, inhibition pattern using three chemical inhibitors, 4 to 20% gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, thermostability, immunological specificity, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment. The inhibition experiment showed that ALP of the PMNs and PDLs possessed almost the same enzymatic properties of tissue-nonspecific ALP (bone/liver/kidney; TNSALP), and the ALP of the three species of periodontopathic bacteria possessed specific properties that were different from those of TNSALP, intestinal, or placental ALP. The ALP of the GCF was only slightly susceptible to levamisole (1 mM), L-phenylalanine (20 rnM), and SDS (1%). An electrophoresis thermostability test demonstrated that the enzyme activity of the GCF was separated into one or two bands. The main heat-labile slow band contained the phosphatidylinositol (Pl)-moiety-anchored ALP and possessed immunological specificity against anti-bone type ALP. The minor fast band was heat stable and showed mobility similar to that in P. gingivalis. These results indicated that the ALP of the GCF consisted of several ALP isoenzyme types whose possible origins are considered to be derived from phosphatidylinositol (Pl) anchored ALP and periodontopathic bacterial ALP. The quantitative isoenzyme analysis of ALP in GCF may elucidate the mechanism of the disease activity of periodontitis.
To characterize adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to establish their histopathological differences, morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses, namely, cellularity, thickness of cell cord, and Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) were done on surgically obtained hepatic lesions from patients with positive serum antibody against HCV. The hepatic lesions analyzed include chronic active hepatitis (CAH) (11 specimens), regenerative nodules of liver cirrhosis (LC) (29), AH (11), small HCC Edmondson’s Grade I (GI) (19), GII (26), and GIII (14)
The results showed that AH has relatively high cellularity, and significantly greater thickness of Cell cord than LC; whereas, HCC GI has significantly higher cellularity and Ki-67 LI than AH. From the data of these markers, and from the absence of conspicuous structural atypism, AH is considered to be in a different category from HCC GI. The premalignant potential of AH is supported only by its high incidence of coexistence adjacent to HCC GI or GII (6/11). Most lesions of HCC seem to develop from the liver tissue having a background of CAH or LC without passing through AH. Focal fatty changes are frequently observed within lesions of both AH and HCC GI (5/11, 8/19). When non fatty regions of AH and HCC GI are compared, with respect to their markers, particularly Ki-67 LI, as well as the structural atypism, such as microacinus formation and pseudoglandular structure, and invasive growth into the surrounding liver parenchyma, HCC GI can be diagnosed as an early or well-differentiated malignant lesion.