In order to compare histological differences between the condylar and epiphyseal cartilages, an organ culture system was employed. Materials from 36 neonatal rabbits were cultured for 7 days on three different, chemically defined media (Ham Fl2, Medium 199, and Eagle’s minimum essential medium) with the addition of various concentrations of ascorbic acid, fetal calf serum and NaHCO3.
The epiphyseal cartilage was maintained in situ histological and biochemical features better than the condylar cartilage on any of the medium used. The maximum sensitivity to Toluidine Blue staining of the cultured condylar cartilage was observed on Ham Fl2.
For both the condylar and epiphyseal cartilages, Ham Fl2 with the addition of 50 µg/ml ascorbic add and higher concentration of NaHCO3 was more effective on the maintenance of cell organization. However, effect of the addition of fetal calf serum to the medium was quite different between the condylar and epiphyseal cartilages, that is, the former showed better histological features without the addition, but the latter showed features similar to that in situ with 20% addition of fetal calf serum.
The neurons that project to the tooth pulp were examined by the HRP-retrograde transport technique, using 4 monkeys (3 Japanese monkeys and a crab-eating monkey) and 6 tree shrews.
The present investigation showed that a large number of sympathetic cervical ganglion neurons, small and medium in size, project to the molar teeth from the superior, middle and inferior ganglia and a small number of Gasserian gangilon neurons (small in size) to the molar teeth ipsilaterally.
Evaluation of a handwash can be made by various methods. The effect of handwashing and disinfectants was evaluated by scrubbing of the hands and forea1ms with soap and a brush before and after the application of a disinfectant, and by quantitatively determining the viable counts of microo1ganisms which fell off into the water in the basin. The disinfectants studied were 4% chlorhexidine detergent, 10% benzethonium chloride, and 7.5% povidone-iodine, as well as 70% and 90% ethanol and 50% isopropanol. Some other preparations were also examined. With chlorhexidine detergent, benzethonium, or povidone-iodine, no significant bacterial reduction was obtained by only a single 2-min brushing, but by two 3-min brushings, reduction of 87.8% to 94.5% was obtained. When a further treatment was tested in which the hands and forearms we1e thoroughly rubbed with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 90% ethanol or 0.5% benzethonium chloride in ethanol solution, which was taken on the palms, following the above 6-min brushing, significant bacterial reduction of 99% or more was obtained in a short pe1iod of time.
Small pinholes develop in surgical gloves during the course of surgical operation, a t the finger tip of the gloves in most cases. Experimental pinholes were made in gloves, and the degree of transfer of bacteria from the skin of the hand was examined. After brushing of the hands and forearms with an effective disinfectant, the bacterial count transferring from the hand was markedly small.
Guanosine 3' 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the plasma of normal persons and patients with lung or breast cancer and other kinds of neoplasma or other diseases was determined using radioimmunoassay. In comparison with normal persons, significant elevation occurred in the cGMP in the plasma of patients with various kinds of cancer or renal insufficiency.
The average cGMP values in the plasma of eight normal persons, 16 patients with lung cancer,16 patients with breast cancer, five patients with oesophagus cancer, three patients with liver cancer, three patients with stomach cancer, ten patients with renal insufficiency and two patients with myocardial infarction, were respectively 3.46, 9.05, 5.39, 5.42, 7.33, 11.66, 19.55, and 8.0 pmol per ml of plasma. There was no elevation in the cGMP in the plasma of the patients with other diseases studied.
Effect of diazepam on the somatosensory evoked responses (SER) following tooth pulp stimulation was investigated in Wistar albino rats. The SERs were recorded from the contralateral surface of the skull with a silver ball electrode and 200 responses were averaged with a medical computer. Generally, SERs were found to be composed of a sequence of four components named Pl (first positive wave), N1 (first negative wave), P2 (second positive wave), and N2 (second negative wave) in a 100 msec analysis time. Diazepam enhanced only the amplitude of the Pl component to about 500% of the control, while it suppressed other N I, P2, and N2 components to about 30, 40, and 20% of the control, respectively. The maximum suppressed effect appeared about 30 min after the diazepam injection and the effect was maintained for about 150 min. One possible explanation for the present result is that the activities of the synapses mostly in cortical layer IV evoked by tooth pulp stimulation may be enhanced but the activities of the cortical cells may be suppressed by diazepam injection.
Cerebral vascular lesions of 26 cases in systemic lupus erythematosus during a period from 1963 to 1978 were examined histologically and the following conclusions were made:
1. The prominent vascular changes of the brain were thrombosis, fibrinoid degeneration, endothelial swelling and proliferation, arteriolosclerosis, and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells.
2. From clinic-pathological viewpoints, thrombosis seemed to play an important role in the development of neurological signs. In five cases, characteristic granular or homogeneous thrombi were observed in the small blood vessels including venule. Infarct without proved vascular obstruction but probably due to thrombosis was seen in four cases. The true character of the granular thrombi was not determined, either electronmicroscopically or immunohistochemically. These suggested the presence of a tendency for in situ formation of thrombus.
3. Fibrinoid degeneration seen in four cases mainly affected arterile of less than 50 µm in diameter in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem. This change of arteriole did not play a significant role in neurological signs.
4. Endothelial swelling and proliferation of the small blood vessels were prominent in the cases with thrombosis and fibrinoid degeneration.
5. Perivascular infiltration of the inflammatory cells was observed in about one-half of the cases but its significance was not clear.
Human gastric cancer was transplanted into the peritoneum of nude mice, and the progress of invasion and growth of cancer were investigated. Serial transplantations succeeded in 4 strains of human gastric cancer and one strain of canine gastric cancer induced by N-thyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG). The five strains grew subcutaneously in nude mice, and both single strain and mixed strain were transplanted into the mouse peritoneal cavity by a surgical procedure.
In the single strain, cancer cells demonstrated mucosal and / or submucosal invasion in the gastrointestinal tract. In the mucosal layer, cancer permeation into the lymphatic duct was verified.
In the histological examination, each strain of the mixed ones grew back to back with no interferance, showing front formation. The human strain and canine strain co-existed in the mouse. A human strain of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma showed hematogenous metastasis to the liver.
This is the first report that the invasion as one of biological characteristics of the primary human gastric cancer was clearly demonstrated, and also, another important biological characteristics i.e., the hematogenous liver metastasis was manifested in the mixed strain.
The incorporation pattern of the rabbit albumin labelled with Lissamine Rhodamine B200 or 125I into the rabbit dentine and the enamel matrices was studied by fluorescence microscopy and / or autoradiography. The fluorescence of the fluorochrome-labelled albumin was observed in the dentine at 6 hours and 3 clays. Autoradiographic silver grains were observed over the predentine at 1 hour after the injection. They were found over the dentine matrix adjacent to the predentine dentine junction at 6 hours. The silver grain band was concentrated over the internal dentine matrix at 3 days. However, an appreciable amount of the fluorescence could not be seen in the enamel at any time after the injection. Also, no significant differences in the number of autoradiographic silver grains were found over the enamel matrix between the experimental groups and the background at any time after the injection. These results suggested that albumin was incorporated into the developing dentine matrix but not into the developing enamel matrix.
The hypertrophic duct epithelium of the pancreas, including the pyloric gland metaplasia, mucous cell hypertrophy and ductal papillary hyperplasia were studied clinico-pathologically and histochemically to examine their precancerous char acter.
A total of 180 surgical and autopsy specimens (90 pancreata with cancer and 90 pancreata without cancer) were analysed.
The overall incidence of these three types of hypertrophic epithelium in the pancreas cancer was much higher than that in the pancreas without cancer. These hypertrophic lesions appeared most frequently in the interlobular duct.
The histochemical study revealed the presence of a new type of glycoprotein in these hypertrophic duct epithelia, however, this substance was not detected in the cancer cells nor in the normal epithelium. This suggests that these hypertrophic lesions may not be the precursors of cancer but rather the coexistent lesions of pancreas cancer.
Flies from different geographical parts of Thailand were collected to study their medical importance as well as to make a zoogeographical study. After examination, 48 species of 19 genera, Kanomyia, Hosarcophaga, Blaesoxipha, Bercaea, Boettcherisca, Fengia, Lioproctia, Parasarcophaga, Phallosphaera, Rosellea, Sarcorohdendorfia, Sarcosolomonia, Sinonipponia, Pierretia, Thyrsocnema, Phytosarcophaga, Harpagophalla, Seniorwhitea, and Leucomyia belonging to Sarcophagidae were identified and those are reported in this paper. This study is based on the specimens available in the authors’ collection.
Ca++-dependent bacterial agglutinin was isolated from the human parotid saliva by gel filtration on Sepharose 2B. The agglutinin appeared in the void volume fractions. Treatment of this agglutinin with EDTA resulted in the loss of its ability to agglutinate the bacteria. Standardized solutions of the agglutinin were tested for the agglutinating activity against 18 strains of oral indigenous bacteria. It was found that the agglutinin exhibited varying degrees of activity to all the test strains and the activity was generally higher than that of secretory IgA. It was also found that the receptor sites of the Ca++-dependent agglutinin for Str. sanguis and Str. mitis were identical whereas SIgA contained a number of available binding sites, for different bacterial species.