Subcutaneous injection of benzene, 2 ml/kg daily is per formed for 21 days on male Wister rats. Cellular changes of the bone marrow are studied serially in the light and electron microscopic levels. As signs of cellular injury, swelling of the mitochondria, severe dilatation of the membrane system such as rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER), smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and Golgi complexes, expansion of outer nuclear membrane, and swelling of the specific granules with clear content are revealed. Existence of membrane free ribosomes even in the mature leukocytes is also seen, and which phenomenon is considered as the maturation dissociation. Severely desintegrated haematopoietic cells are observed mostly caught within the phagocytic reticular cells. The mechanism through which bone marrow are injured by benzene is discussed. Reticulo-endothelial structure of the bone marrow in normal and benzene intoxicated animals is also studied. Reticulo-endothelial cells of the bone marrow are classified in to three types, among which special attention is paid to the subsinusoidally lying reticular cells. This particular cells show lower phagocytic activity, and often transform into the fat cells.
The brown fat tissue which has been studied for a long time is well developed in hibernating animals. The present paper was undertaken to learn more about the embryological development and the histochemical patterns according to the developmental stages of the interscapular brown fat tissue. In addition, the white fat tissue was studied histochemically. The rat embryos of the Wister strain and 3-day young rat were used. The sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin for the histological examination and were stained with PAS, Feulgen reaction, methyl green pyronin, mercuric bromphenol blue, Sudan black B, spirit blue and Baker’s phospholipid staining for the histochemical purpose. The results are as follows: The embryonal spread of the interscapular brown fat anlage is much wider in range than what has been reported by other investigators. The anlage cells develop from the mesenchymal cell surrounding the specific blood vessels in the 17.5 mm-long embryo. They have several cytoplasmic processes and a characteristic nucleus. In the 18 mm-long embryo, the cell islets aggregate into a lobule and the cells begin to have small fat vacuoles. At the end of the intrauterine life, the anlage cells take on a plurivacuolar appearance. The anlage of the white fat cell is seen first in the cervical subcutaneous region of the 36 mm long embryo. However, it takes a different developmental process histologically and histochemically from that of the brown fat cells. In the histochemical studies, it is most conspicuous that the PAS and methyl green pyronin staining reactions decrease suddenly at the end of the intrauterine life. Moreover, the Feulgen reaction and Sudan black B staining reaction decrease slightly at the same time. Other staining reactions show no marked changes throughout the developmental process. These phenomena seem to suggest that the great alteration in the components of the chemical substances within the brown fat cells occurs at the end of the intrauterine life. For example, we can expect that the fat droplets can be derived from the polysaccharides.
3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole has been reported to inhibit the liver catalase and the kidney catalase but not the blood catalase, though even its median lethal dose has not been known still.
In the present study, the median lethal dose of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole in mice was found to be 5.47 g/kg by intraperitoneal administration and 5.54 g/ kg by subcutaneous administraiton.
Confirmation was made of the epipharyngeal inflammation in 38 patients complaining of dizziness, which was clearly differentiated from that of the rotatory character. The effect of local treatment of epipharyngitis suggested the relationship between epipharyngitis and syncopy, the treatment resulting in decrease of degree and lengthening of interval between successive attacks of dizziness in parallel with improvement of inflammation as well as of pain or bleeding on contact from the epipharynx.
12 cases of so-called Orthostatic Dysregulation which was apparently caused by inflammation of the nasopharynx were observed and treated. The effect of the local treatment for epipharyngitis suggested an intimate relationship between epipharyngitis and so called Orthostatic Dysregulation. The nasopharyngeal inflammatory condition evokes the attacks of Orthostatic Dysregulation and patients were completely cured by nasopharyngeal treatment. The manifest and latent epipharyngitis is considered to be a very important factor for the occurrence of Orthostatic Dysregulation.
Up to this time many reports have been received in regard to rheumatism, but we have no established theory about the etiology. Then, as a matter of course, the treatment of rheumatic diseases has depended upon only the symptomatic treatment such as various steroid compounds and antibiotics. Horiguti et al. observed the epipharyngitis in detail, and reported that this kind of inflammation had a close relationship with various symptoms throughout the body, as well as otorhinolaryngological symptoms. Then, research has been carried out in regard to rheumatic diseases, and it has been found, too, that there is a mutual relationship between the treatment of epipharyngitis and the improvement of rheumatic symptoms.
The Friend virus disease, characterized by enlarged spleen and appearance of abnormal cells in peripheral blood stream, is easily establishable by injecting Friend virus intraperitoneally to experimental mice dd. In this experiment, 80 percent of the dd mice suffered from Friend virus disease died within 100 days. As to the irradiation effects in the process of this disease, several ways of whole body irradiation were employed and enlargement of spleen, mortality and histological findings were observed. Single and fractionated irradiation were used. The single irradiation of 500 r, 300 r and 200 r, the fractionated irradiation of 500 r total dose (500 r in 5 and 10 days) and 300 r total dose (300 r in 3 and 6 days) were performed. The influences to the mortality were almost negligible except in the single 200 r irradiation group. The suppressive effects on splenomegalia however, were quite remarkable in all irradiated cases especially with the single 500 r irradiation group. The histological findings were compared and discussed.
Histological studies of the cropsac under some experimental conditions revealed that diffuse cytoplasmic sudanophilia of the epithelial cells could be proposed as another characteristic response of the cropsac for prolactin. Prolactin can be said to have at least two factors for epithelium-proliferating and fat mobilizing actions, which are important for production of crop milk. In mine these factors are ont stable and particularly the fat mobilizing factor can be easily inactivated and modified in quality. It is one of the reasons why urinary excretion of prolactin is supposed to be doubtful. The substance in urine with partial activity may be rather called prolactin-like substance. Its existence could be proved by the systemic assay. The local assay is often disturbed by inflammatory reaction and far from satisfactory, and yet it can be used for determining prolactin-like substance in mine. As a result of recovery experiment approximately 1/30 to 1/40 of given prolactin can be excreted in urine. In lactating women generally 20 to 30 i.u. of prolactin-like substance per day can be determined in urine. Therefore, it is of considerable interest to note that 600 to 1200 i.u. of prolactin might be released out of anterior pituitary in 24 hours during lactation period.
To examine the possibility of introducing roentgenographic cephalometrics into the field of primatology, eighteen roentgenograms of dry skulls of female adult irus monkeys from Malaya were investigated. The landmarks used in the present study were selected mainly from those which had been used for the measurement of dry skull in primatology and some points were added from those which had been used in the field of orthodontics to analyse the pattern of human dentofacial complex. Using these landmarks, measurements were attempted on eight lines, ten angles and an area. The ranges of the variation in every items of this study were not quite small, but that seemed to be due to the lack of enough size of sample and the presence of wide range of size within a single group. Except several items, the values of relative error of the other items distributed in a range from 1.89 to 6.78. These values were not entirely large. From the concept of confidential intervals, the enough size of sample to keep the relative errors under 3% was calculated as 77.
So it was suggested that roentgenographic cephalometrics is also valuable and useful in this field, if the enough numbers of materials are obtained.
In order to compare the size and pattern of craniofacial complex among irus monkeys from different habitats to each other, roentgenographic cephalometric measurement on seven items for linear measurement and ten items for angular measurement were carried out on dry skulls of eighty-six irus monkeys from Malaya, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. In the groups from Malaya and the Philippines, the mean values of linear measurement are larger in male than in female, and differences are especially significant in the distances between the gonion and infradentale, posterior nasal spine and prosthion, and nasion and incision. In the angular measurement, the difference between sexes is significant in the mandibular plane angle, occlusal plane angle, lower central incisor to occlusal plane angle, lower central incisor to mandibular plane angle and Frankfort horizontal plane to sella-nasion angle. In male, the Philippine group is larger than the Malayan in the size of cranium, but there is no significant difference in pattern. In female, the Malayan group is the smallest in these four groups and the size of the cranium of the Thailander and Vietnamese, as well as the pattern of craniofacial complex, are most similar to each other.
As compared with the human cranium, the facial pattern of irus monkeys is characterized by a strong inclination of the cranial base, small values of the gonial angle and foreward inclination of anterior teeth.
1) From the rabbits injected 45Ca and 32P, various parts of mandible and diaphysis of femur were obtained and the contents of water and organic matters and radioactivties in every bone sample were determined. The diaphysis of femur contained about 10% of water and 26% of organic matters. The alveolar septa contained about 23% of water and 37% of organic matters, and the other parts of mandible contained 11-16% of water and 25-30% of organic matters. The radioactivities of bone reached a maximum at approximately 6 hours after the injection of isotopes and distributed in alveolar septa about twice higher than in the other parts of mandible and diaphysis of femur. The disappearance curves for radioactivities from various parts of bones could be expressed as a series of two exponentials and the curves were almost parallel in each sample. 2) After the administration of 45Ca and 32P the femur, mandible and vertebra were obtained and they were powdered and fractionated by Manly-Hodge’S floatation method. The heavier fractions contained less organic matters but the specific gravities of these fractions were not proportional to organic contents. The specific activities of 1.9-2.0 fraction from mandible and femur were about 10 times higher than those of 2.1-2.2 fraction and 3-4 times higher than those of 2.0-2.l fraction. On the other hand the specific activities of each fraction from vertebra showed less activities than those fraction obtained from femur and mandible, and the specific activities in 1.9-2.0 fraction obtained from vertebra were about twice higher than those of 2.0-2.l fraction. The disappearance curves for radioactivities from each fraction were almost parallel. 3) The fractionated bone powders were extracted by ethylene diamine to remove the organic matters and each extracted bone Sample was used for X-ray diffraction studies. From the data of X-ray diffraction and low angle X-ray scattering, it seemed that the size of crystal in every bone fraction was in order of the specific gravity 2.1-2.2, 2.0-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 fraction according to largeness and in the same specific gravity fraction the size of crystal was in order of the femur, mandible and vertebra.
The tissue fluid flowing into 129 human gingival pockets of upper anterior teeth in 15 minutes was collected on strips of alter paper. The tissue fluid from each pocket was weighed and the ninhydrin positive substance or free amino acids contained in it was estimated. These results were compared with clinical and histological findings. The weights of tissue fluid and the amounts of ninhydrin positive substance from all clinically healthy gingival pockets were found to be almost the same. There was a correlation between the tissue fluid weight and the amount of the ninhydrin positive substance in every type of periodontal disease. The amount of ninhydrin positive substance tended to increase with the progress of this disease. In many cases the amount of the ninhydrin positive substance increased where inflammatory cell infiltration and degeneration in subepithelial tissue and/ or cell infiltration and roughness in pocket epithelium were recognized. The small amount of free amino acids per mg of tissue fluid was recognized in the case of gingivitis. The amount increased sharply in the case of slight periodontitis, but in the case of severe periodontitis, decreased slightly on the contrary of increase in the total ninhydrin positive substance.
The increasing effects for oral lactobacilli by the application of dental and gingival splint were observed. The mean increase ratios of oral lactobacilli estimated on ten subjects by the application of dental and gingival splint for 3 hours were 1.487±0.5267 and 1.273±0.3354, respectively. These values were closely resembling to the spontaneous ratio in the case of no splint application (1.43), and there were no significant differences among them. These results indicated that the growth of oral lactobacilli could not be stimulated only by the anaerobic condition under dental splint and that the exsudate appeared from mucous membrane under gingival splint could not favor the growth of lactobacilli. From these observations, it was concluded that the factors flowed out from gingival crevice were the most important growth stimulating agent for lactobacilli under the dentogingival splint used in the experiment of Onishi et al.