The authors have newly devised a fluorescence cystoscope assembly. This fluorescence assembly is able to 1) confirm lesions in the bladder mucosa by fluorescence, 2) mark and cut the lesion with accuracy for histological survey. Moreover, this assembly is characterized by its exactness in cutting out the appropriate amount of specimen (bladder mucosa) and by its convenience in performing biopsy especially around the bladder neck.
Presence of peritrichal fimbriae in the 2 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the blood of two cases of sepsis was confirmed by electron microscopy and antigenicity of the fimbriae of these strains were studied. At the same time, comparison was made with reference to serological specificity of fimbrial antigens with fimbriated strains of several other species. Then the fimbriae of A. hydrophila were purified and subjected to amino acid analysis. From these results, the following conclusions were drawn. 1) Agglutination tests and agglutinin absorption tests were carried out using the antisera produced in the rabbits immunized by 2 strains of A. hydrophila and the antisera absorbed by given antigens. The tests revealed that Aeromonas has a thermostable antigen (O antigen) and thermolabile antigens. The latter consists of flagellar antigen and fimbrial antigen. Each of these 3 kinds of antigens has its own antigenic specificity. 2) Fimbrial antiserum was prepared by absorption of the O and H antibodies from the Aeromonas antiserum by a nonfimbriated variant of the same strain as employed in the production of the antiserum. Agglutination tests were conducted using such fimbrial antiserum and organisms of several strains of different species. It was shown that the Aeromonas fimbriae have species-specific antigenicity. 3) Fimbriae of strain YN of A. hydroρhila were purified and the degree of purity was examined by electron microscopy, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These examinations proved that the fimbrial preparation was fairly well purified. Then they were subjected to amino acid analysis. It was found that the content of glycine was the largest which was followed by alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and valine in this order. This indicated much difference from the amino acid composition of Escherichia coli.
A total of thirty-two autopsy cases of the so called splenic agenesis syndrome (or Ivemark’s syndrome) were collected and studied pathomorphologically. The splenic agenesis syndrome is composed of three main elements; namely, congenital splenic agenesis, characteristic anomalies of the cardiovascular system, and abdominal heterotaxy with right sidedness of the visceral organs. The cases were classified into three types according to severity of these anomalies; complete (having all these three components), incomplete (asplenia and one of the other two), and simple (only congenital absence of the spleen). Anomalous pulmonary venous return and abnormality of the efferent hepatic veins, both of which were occasionally seen associated in this syndrome, seem to give some influence on the survival period of patients. As for the secondary changes caused by these cardiovascular anomalies, mild hypoplasia of the media, fibrous thickening of the intima, and thrombus formation in the lumen due to stenosis or arteria of the pulmonary trunk were frequently found in the small pulmonary arteries. Various changes of the so-called morbus caeruleus were observed in the liver, kidney, etc. As a possible, compensatory reaction to congenital absence of the spleen, the lymph follicles were found appearing in the bone marrow about one year after birth. Infectious changes were observed, as the direct cause of death, in five cases, all of which were below one year of age.
The aim of lathyrogen therapy is, in short, to bring about the disappearance of the cross linkings of the collagen fibers and elastin in the sc1 erotic foci, thus increasing the amount of the soluble component. In the past three years, the author treated 10 cases of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) with N-aminoacetonitrile (PCPG-AAN), a newly developed lathyrogen, and obtained satisfactory therapeutic results in the majority of the cases. It seems that PCPG-AAN produces less side effects compared with the other lathyrogens and is effective against not only sclcroden,1a in PSS, but also against the visceral lesions. In addition, it was confirmed that PCPG-AAN can suppress the proliferation of the chick embryo fibroblasts on culture as well as of the mature collagen fibers.
A method is described whereby carboxyhemoglobin in the blood is rapidly and accurately determined by spectrophotometric analysis. The γ-wave ranging from 400 to 500 nm was used for the determination, and to increase the stability of the absorption value the isosbestic point was utilized. This method is simple; a heparinized whole blood sample, diluted to about 1:100 to 1:200, is placed in a cuvette and the absorbance is measured at the wavelengths of 413.2 nm, 421 nm and 431.3 nm against water as the zero reference standard. The absorbances of the standard solutions of 0% of CO-Hb and 100% of CO-Hb are also measured, and by these absorbance values the concentrations of CO-Hb are calculated. To make the procedure simpler, it is convenient to use a factor composed by personal and instrumental ones, which is obtained during the calibration by the spectrophotometer. Using this factor, the determinations of the absorbances of standard solutions of 0% and 100% of CO-Hb can be omitted.
Electron microscopic study of the endothelium of the bacterial valvular endocarditis, induced by the single intravenous inoculation of Streptococcus faecalis in the chicken, revealed cellular changes ranging from the relatively early changes consisting of marked increase of pinocytotic vesicles, much more population of free ribosomes, cystic dilatation, shrinkage and collapse of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, predominant lysosomes, phagocytosis, edematous cytoplasm, pseudopodia multiplication and microvilli deformation of cytoplasmic processes, alienation of the intercellular junctions, and estrangement of basement membrane from the endothelial cells, to the final high alterations consisting of cytoplasn1ic lysis, desquamation, and vegetative formation on the endothelial cells of the mitral valve. These various lesions occurred at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hr, and 2, 5, 7, and 10 days after bacterial inoculation. The changes varied in different locations on the valve. Most of them were found frequently on the auricular surface at the line of closure. The bacterial vegetation developed on the valves of 7 of the 8 chickens from 7 to 10 days after inoculation. The present study has suggested that both bacteria-active and bacteria-passive endothelial cells are present in the valvular endocardium by the selective sensitivity to bacterial injury.
The insoluble collagen fraction (ICF) prepared from bovine nasal cartilage was chemically modified with acetic anhydride, glyoxal or glycine methyl ester in the presence of water-soluble carbodiimide. Chondroitinsulfate C (ChS-C), cartilage proteoglycan (PPL of Schubert s preparation), RNA, albumin r-globulin, or cytochrome c was applied to ICF- or modified ICF-column at pH 3.40 (at pH 7.30 for cytochrome c), and the column was eluted by the pH gradient elution (pH 3.40-7.30) followed by linear NaCl gradient elution (0-1.0 M) at pH 7.30. When smaller amounts of ChS-C were applied to ICF-column at pH 3.40, ChS-C was eluted only by NaCl gradient elution at pH 7.30. With the increasing doses of ChS-C applied to ICF-column, the NaCl-eluted peak of ChS-C was increased to reach the maximum, and then the ChS-C peaks eluted in weakly acidic range began to appear. The elution patterns of biopolymers from ICF- and modified CF-columns appeared to be associated with the nature and number of dissociable acidic and basic groups distributed on the surface of respective species of those macromolecules. Three polar (acidic, neutral, and basic) regions on the ICF fibrils, assumed from uneven distribution of acidic and basic amino acid residues of collagen polypeptide chains10> are proposed for reasonable interpretation of the elution patterns of the biopolymers possessing different pI values from the columns of ICF and modified ICFs, which display pH-dependent bifunctional ion exchanger property.
It was proposed that the human tooth mobility should be analysed elastically on eight new conditions, and the tooth mobility of the human mandibular first premolars were analysed elastically on five conditions which really contain the experimental values of load-displacement on the human tooth. The upper and lower bounds are decided according to the distribution of the elastically analysed values on the above five conditions, and the upper and lower bounds of the values on the five conditions are assumed as the requisite conditions of the human tooth being dynamically equivalent to the simulate tooth models. Attempts were made to make a three dimensional simulate tooth which is dynamically equivalent to the human tooth, but four times large as the human tooth. It was proved that the model D-NO. 2 satisfied the above above conditions of the human tooth.
The histopathology of labial salivary glands of 20 patients with Sjögren’s syndrome was examined and compared with other clinical findings. All patients were women and their age ranged from 28 to 73. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes, and frequently rheumatoid arthritis. Sialography of the parotid gland was undertaken on 19 patients and showed characteristic sialectasis in 13 cases. Schirmer’s test and Rose-Bengal staining were all positive. Waaler-Rose and latex fixation tests were used for the demonstration of rheumatoid factor and 15 cases were assumed to have rheumatoid arthritis. The biopsy from labial salivary glands showed a variety of histopathologic appearances. The primary changes appeared to be periductal infiltration of lymphoid cells and dilatation of the ducts. As the lymphocytic infiltration increased in the glandular tissue, the secretary cells were beginning to disappear and the ducts became more prominent. Finally, the characteristic histopathological features of Sjögren’s syndrome, germinal center and epimyoepithelial island, were found in 6 cases. Results of examination on these cases suggested that the histopathology of the labial salivary glands would be a valuable diagnostic aid, if the results are considered with other clinical manifestations.
A selective staining method for keratohyalin granules was examined and reported. This method includes treatment with metal salts and then staining with unoxidized Hematoxylin. Various kinds of metal salts were compared for their specificity and stainability of the granules. The treatment with cobalt salts was considered to be the most satisfactory.
The cleavage lines of the skin have been variously called Langer’s lines, cleavage lines, and Dupuytren’s lines. These names indicate the fact that when an attempt is made to open a round hole in the skin, instead of a round hole a split occurs like the crevasses in a snow field or a glacier. With the conviction that such lines could be found also in the oral mucosa, the mucosa of the palate, cheeks, and floor of the mouth were examined in Japanese cadavers, using the same methods as are used for similar experiments on the skin. Using an awl round in cross section and conical at the tip, the mucosa was pierced and the piercings were stained with black ink. As a result, cleavage lines appeared in the same way as in the skin and these were named provisionally “Mucosal cleavage lines”.