In order to study the development of the arch of the foot, the X-ray method was used. The distance between the X-ray tube and the subjects was kept at 150cm, and the lower border of the Malleolus fibulae was brought to focus. Films paralleled with the long axis of the foot, were put between both feet. As shown in Fig. 5, the lowest points of the inner Sesamoid of Metatarsus I and of Tuber calcanei, and the middle point of each lateral chasm between Metatarsus I and Cuneiforme I, Cuneiforme I and Naviculare, Naviculare and Talus, and Talus and Tibia are respectively indicated as A, B, L, N, C and R. The degree of the height of the arch is expressed by the percentage of the verticals passing through points L, N, C and R to AB. The smaller is the angle α which AC and BF make, the higher is the arch. The measurements are shown in Table 2.
The results obtained are as follows:
(1) Anatomical study of the embryos shows that the arch begins to manifest itself in about 20 weeks (Fig. 1).
(2) The arch becomes higher with the increase of age (Table 2).
(3) Those who have attained the same value with the adult (the value after Dr. YOKOKURA'S study as shown in Table 3, which was made on 50 Japanese in each sex) were observed after the subjects had reached about thirteen years of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the development of the arch is much faster than that of the other parts of the body.
(4) It remains to decide at what age the growth of the arch shows the highest speed. There are some indications that the arch develops rapidly till the age of seven.
(5) The deformation of the arch caused by high heels is explained by the fact that the Naviculare and the anterior point of the Talus are lifted to higher levels (Fig. 4). In general, the higher is the heel the higher becomes the arch (Table 4). It is most marked in the height of heels, 8, 9 and 10cm (Fig. 6).
(6) The most preferable height of the heels is 1-3cm from the view point of sole pressure, consumption of oxygen, electromyograph of the lower leg muscles and cyclogram of the gait.
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